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Researchers, clinicians and patients are increasingly using real-time monitoring methods to understand and predict suicidal thoughts and behaviours. These methods involve frequently assessing suicidal thoughts, but it is not known whether asking about suicide repeatedly is iatrogenic. We tested two questions about this approach: (a) does repeatedly assessing suicidal thinking over short periods of time increase suicidal thinking, and (b) is more frequent assessment of suicidal thinking associated with more severe suicidal thinking? In a real-time monitoring study (n = 101 participants, n = 12 793 surveys), we found no evidence to support the notion that repeated assessment of suicidal thoughts is iatrogenic.
Gaining knowledge of tidewater glacier (TWG) margin evolution, solid ice flux and their responses to climate over large spatio-temporal scales provides valuable context for the projection of future Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) change. Although studies of sector-wide responses of TWGs exist, studies at an ice-sheet-wide scale have only just become feasible. Here, we present a dataset of 224 annual TWG margins for 1984–2017 (n = 3801), showing that averaged over regional scales, normalised terminus change is linear. Regionally linear retreat trends were identified across most sectors of the GrIS starting in the mid-1990s, although in contrast to previous studies, the northeastern sector is shown to have experienced sustained retreat since the mid-1980s. Through cointegration analyses, individual glaciers are shown to have differing sensitivities to potential climate drivers, though on a sector-wide scale the northwest and southeast are shown to be especially sensitive to annual sea surface temperature and June–July–August air temperature, respectively. Although 92% of the analysed glaciers experience retreat across the GrIS, observed increases in absolute flux for the entire ice sheet can be explained by changes in just 11 of these TWGs.
To evaluate the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection in patients presenting with epistaxis to a tertiary otolaryngology unit.
A prospective study was conducted of 40 consecutive patients presenting with epistaxis referred to our tertiary otolaryngology unit. A group of 40 age-matched controls were also included. All patients underwent real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. Symptoms of fever, cough and anosmia were noted in the study group.
The mean age was 66.5 ± 22.4 years in the study group. There were 22 males (55 per cent) and 18 females (45 per cent). The mean age in the control group was 66.3 ± 22.4 years (p = 0.935). There were six positive cases for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (15 per cent) in the epistaxis group and one case (2.5 per cent) in the control group. The difference was statistically significant (p = 0.05).
Epistaxis may represent a presenting symptom of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection. This may serve as a useful additional criterion for screening patients.
Le trouble déficit de l’attention/hyperactivité (TDA/H) est un trouble neurodéveloppemental qui se caractérise par une triade de symptômes : inattention, hyperactivité et impulsivité. C’est un trouble hautement comorbide : jusqu’à 90 % des cas  seraient associés à un trouble oppositionnel, un trouble anxieux… Les enfants atteints de TDA/H expérimentent plus de difficultés au niveau social, ce qui a amené certains auteurs à étudier les compétences prosociales de cette population. Parmi celles-ci, la capacité à décoder les émotions à partir des expressions du visage est essentielle pour interagir. La plupart des études qui ont investigué la Reconnaissance des Emotions Faciales (REF) chez les enfants atteints de TDA/H ont conclu à un déficit général par rapport aux enfants sans TDA/H (pour revue, ). Néanmoins, la méthodologie et l’hétérogénéité clinique des populations limitent les conclusions. Cette étude se propose d’investiguer la REF de 40 enfants atteints de TDA/H et 40 enfants sans TDA/H entre 7 et 11 ans et l’influence des dimensions cliniques comorbides au TDA/H (opposition, anxiété et labilité émotionnelle). Le design de la tâche de REF a été créé à partir des conclusions de l’étude de Yuill et Lyon  pour limiter les erreurs dues notamment à l’impulsivité. Les résultats montrent que les enfants atteints de TDA/H ont un déficit de REF par rapport aux enfants sans TDA/H. Ils ont plus de difficultés à reconnaître la tristesse, le dégoût et la joie. Les dimensions comorbides n’interviennent pas dans ce déficit. En conclusion, les difficultés de REF semblent être une caractéristique clinique du TDA/H et ainsi elles peuvent entrer en compte dans le retentissement social du trouble.
Ragged schools provided a free education to impoverished children in the mid-nineteenth century. Inspired by religious fervour and presided over by Lord Shaftesbury, that figurehead of evangelical Anglicans, the schools taught the most destitute to read and write, as well as about the God who loved them. By 1870 the London schools alone recorded an average attendance of 32,231 children. The missionary aspect of the classroom shaped the recommended character of the teacher. Teachers were to be benevolent, while corporal punishment was discouraged. Teaching advice demonstrates that the classroom could prove difficult terrain and suggests that the respect of scholars was hard-won and highly valued. With children attending freely, it was necessary that they desired to return. The children were consumers whom teachers sought to please; their responses determined the success or failure of lessons. This article responds to recent scholarship that interprets the teachers as imposed and powerful agents. By focusing on advice given to teachers, it highlights both how the children were perceived and the impact evangelical theology had upon ideas regarding the teacher's character. Largely overlooked by church historians, the ragged school movement embodies the profound impact of evangelical Christians on popular education in the nineteenth century.
Freshwater mussels are declining rapidly worldwide. Propagation has the potential to restore numbers of these remarkable organisms, preventing extinction of rare species and maintaining the many benefits that they bring to aquatic ecosystems. Written by practitioners with firsthand experience of propagation programs, this practical book is a thorough guide to the subject, taking readers through the process from start to finish. The latest propagation and culture techniques are explored as readers follow freshwater mussels through their amazing and complex life cycle. Topics covered include the basics of building a culture facility, collecting and maintaining brood stock, collecting host species, infesting host species with larval mussels, collecting and culturing juvenile mussels, releasing juveniles to the wild, and post-release monitoring. This will be valuable reading for any biologist interested in the conservation of freshwater mussel populations.
The work to be described was planned as the first stage of an investigation of the effects of streamwise vortices on base pressure. An axi-symmetric blunt-based body was used, consisting of a cylindrical portion with a semiellipsoidal nose. The intention was to mount strakes or semi-delta wings at incidence on the sides of the body to produce vortices and to measure the effects of these on the base pressure. The base of the body was fitted with 37 pressure tappings so that local variations of base pressure could be explored. It was found that for the body at zero incidence and yaw, without any strakes or wings, there was great difficulty in obtaining an axi-symmetric distribution of pressure on the base.