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The co-existence of under- and overweight at population level around the globe is well documented. However, this has yet to be explored using suitable statistical techniques in the context of Bangladesh. This study aimed to examine the prevalence and risk factors for being underweight and overweight or obese compared with normal weight in ever-married non-pregnant women aged 15–49 years in Bangladesh using data from the most recent Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 2014. Multilevel multinomial logistic regression (MLMLR) and quantile regression models were fitted to examine the associations of socioeconomic and individual-, household- and community-level factors on the nutritional status of women as measured by BMI. Overall, the prevalences of underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese women were 19%, 58%, 19% and 4%, respectively, in 2014. The MLMLR analysis revealed that women of young age, widowed/divorced/separated, having a larger family size and children aged ≤5 years in the household, currently amenorrhoeic and members of non-government organizations were at significantly increased risk of being underweight; those of older age, having higher parity, more educated, frequently watched TV and non-poor were more likely to be overweight or obese relative to normal BMI. Women from more affluent communities and urban areas were more likely to be overweight or obese relative to normal BMI than their counterparts from less-affluent and rural communities. Women’s nutritional status was found to be heterogeneous across the regions of the country. The findings indicate that, along with individual-level factors, community-level characteristics are also important in explaining women’s BMI in Bangladesh. The issue of under- and overweight or obesity among women in Bangladesh requires the immediate adoption of a public health policy for its mitigation. When developing intervention programmes, important determinants and uniform development of regions should be taken into consideration to combat the dual burden of under- and overweight among women in Bangladesh.
This study examined the effects of zinc chloride (ZnCl2) and sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) supplementation in maturation medium on in vitro maturation (IVM) rate, oxidative biomarkers and gene expression in buffalo oocytes. Ovaries from a slaughterhouse were aspirated and good quality cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) with at least four layers of compact cumulus cells and evenly granulated dark ooplasm were selected. COCs were randomly allocated during IVM (22 h) to one of four treatment groups: (1) control maturation medium (basic medium), or basic medium supplemented with (2) ZnCl2 (1.5 µg/ml), (3) Na2SeO3 (5 µg/l), or (4) ZnCl2 + Na2SeO3 (1.5 µg/ml + 5 µg/l, respectively). Oocytes were denuded after 22 h of IVM in the first four replicates. Specimens were fixed and stained to evaluate the stage of nuclear maturation. The spent medium was collected for biochemical assays of total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide concentrations. A second four replicates were used for COCs for RNA extraction. The expression levels of antioxidant (SOD1, GPX4, CAT and PRDX1), antiapoptotic (BCL2 and BCL-XL) and proapoptotic (BAX and BID) genes were measured. Supplementation with ZnCl2 and Na2SeO3 during IVM increased the ratio of oocytes reaching metaphase II at 22 h, increased TAC and decreased MDA and H2O2 concentrations in the maturation medium (P < 0.05). Moreover, beneficial effects were associated with complementary changes in expression patterns of antioxidative, antiapoptotic and proapoptotic genes, suggesting lower oxidative stress and apoptosis. Supplementation medium with zinc chloride and sodium selenite improves the maturation rate, reduces oxidative stress and increases expression levels of antioxidative and antiapoptotic genes.
Trichinellosis is a zoonotic disease that endangers human health and can lead to death. Restricted absorption and poor results of conventional therapies demand new effective natural remedies to treat both enteral and parenteral trichinellosis. This study assessed the antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory effects of Citrus limon and Capsicum frutescens on murine trichinellosis and compared them with those of albendazole and prednisolone, which are conventionally used to treat trichinellosis. Overall, 50 Swiss albino male mice were divided into five groups, with ten mice in each group: negative control, positive control, albendazole combined with prednisolone, C. limon, and C. frutescens. Mice were sacrificed 7 and 35 days after infection, for intestinal and muscular phase analyses. Drug efficacies were parasitologically, biochemically, histopathologically and ultrastructurally assessed. Our results demonstrated the efficacy of C. frutescens and C. limon extracts as antiparasitic agents, showing a substantial decrease in adult and larval counts. Moreover, both extracts had the ability to decrease serum tumour necrosis factor-α levels during the intestinal and muscular phases. In addition to the improved histopathological changes in the small intestine and muscles, the destructive effects on adults and larvae were ultrastructurally evident on transmission electron microscopy. In conclusion, C. frutescens and C. limon extracts are promising remedies for the treatment of experimental trichinellosis, particularly, the C. frutescens extract.
This research aimed to examine the effects of thyme, celery and salinomycin on ovarian sex hormones, reproductive traits and antioxidant status during the estrous cycle. Seventy-five mature Barki ewes aged 2–3 years with an average weight of 40 ± 1.5 kg were assigned randomly into five groups (15 head/group). Group 1 was kept as the control; groups 2 and 3 received 20 g/head/day thyme (T) and celery (C) as dried herbs, respectively. Group 4 (T×C) received 10 g thyme + 10 g celery/head/day, and group 5 was treated with salinomycin 1 g/head/day. Blood samples were collected during follicular and luteal phases of the estrous cycle. Thyme and celery and the mixture of T×C increased (P < 0.01) estradiol-17β (E2) during the follicular phase of the estrous cycle, while only the celery group showed a marked (P < 0.001) increase in progesterone (P4) during the luteal phase compared with the control. Salinomycin supplementation decreased (P < 0.05) E2 concentrations during the follicular and luteal phases of the estrous cycle. Supplementation with thyme and celery enhanced (P < 0.001) antioxidant capacity in the luteal phase compared with the follicular stage. The salinomycin group showed increased (P < 0.01) levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels compared with the control group throughout luteal phase. For the interaction between estrous phases and treatments, thyme, celery, and T×C supplementation revealed an increase (P < 0.05) in superoxide dismutase (SOD), GSH, and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) levels compared with the control group during the follicular and luteal phases. Thyme and celery supplementation improved the number of services per conception and fertilization from 1st and 2nd inseminations, respectively. In conclusion, the applied treatment had significant effects on reproductive performance and antioxidant status in ewes throughout the estrous cycle.
In this work, the scattering characteristics of 3D-printed samples are being investigated by using a single-polarized and a cross-polarized radar system. The 3D-printed technology participates in a wide range of applications nowadays. The idea of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has been utilized to investigate the reflected electromagnetic energy from the 3D-printed samples by setting each of the radar systems in a fixed position and the mounting sample on an x-y positioning table which has been used to achieve rectangular-scan mode for SAR. The data have been ported and processed by the matched filter approach. For better image interpretation, the data have been further processed by the median filter in order to reduce noise level while preserving the main image details. Afterwards, the data have been further investigated for determining and classifying any possible defects. This process has been accomplished by deploying the unsupervised learning concept to cluster the SAR responses into two groups, compromising the defected positions responses and the non-defected responses. The obtained results of both radar sensors have been compared and evaluated using different quality assessment factors. Moreover, unsupervised learning techniques have been investigated and the obtained results show a high degree of efficiency in clustering the SAR responses.
Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidea Jack (FD) is a well-known plant used in Malay folklore medicine to lower blood glucose in diabetic patients. For further research of the antihyperglycemic mechanisms, the protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B)-inhibitory effect of FD was analysed both in vitro and in vivo. To optimise a method for FD extraction, water, 50, 70, 80, 90 and 95 % ethanol extracts were prepared and determined for their total phenolic and triterpene contents, and PTP1B-inhibition capacity. Among the tested extracts, 70 % ethanol FD extract showed a significant PTP1B inhibition (92·0 % inhibition at 200 µg/ml) and high phenolic and triterpene contents. A bioassay-guided fractionation of the 70 % ethanol extract led to the isolation of a new triterpene (3β,11β-dihydroxyolean-12-en-23-oic acid; F3) along with six known compounds. In vivo, 4 weeks’ administration of 70 % ethanol FD extract (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/d) to streptozotocin–nicotinamide-induced type 2 diabetic rats reversed the abnormal changes of blood glucose, insulin, total Hb, GLUT2, lipid profile, and oxidative stress in liver and pancreas. Moreover, FD reduced the mRNA expression of the key gluconeogenic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose 6-phosphatase) and restored insulin receptor and GLUT2 encoding gene (Slc2a2) expression. In addition, FD significantly down-regulated the hepatic PTP1B gene expression. These results revealed that FD could potentially improve insulin sensitivity, suppress hepatic glucose output and enhance glucose uptake in type 2 diabetes mellitus through down-regulation of PTP1B. Together, our findings give scientific evidence for the traditional use of FD as an antidiabetic agent.
Use of antibiotics as feed additives has been reduced to avoid the hazard of drug residues, and consequently, the search for alternative natural additives has developed. Thus, the aim was to evaluate the influence of royal jelly (RJ) supplementation on milk composition, blood biochemical and antioxidant parameters of lactating ewes. Thirty-six Ossimi ewes were divided randomly into two groups (18 animals each). For a period of 4 weeks, the control group (CON) was fed a basal diet only, while the other group was fed the basal diet and supplemented with a single bolus of RJ (1000 mg/head). The RJ-supplemented ewes produced significantly higher milk protein, fat and total solids than the CON group. The RJ group had a significantly higher red blood cell count, haemoglobin content, haematocrit value and total leucocyte counts, but lower neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio when compared with the control treatment. The RJ group showed significantly higher concentrations of total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione in the serum compared with the control treatment. In conclusion, RJ supplements can improve the nutritive value of milk fat and the serum antioxidant activities in lactating ewes.
In this paper, a type of parallel robot with three translational degrees of freedom is studied. Inverse and forward kinematic equations are extracted for position and velocity analyses. The dynamic model is derived by Lagrange’s approach and the principle of virtual work and related computational algorithms implementing inverse and forward dynamics are presented. Furthermore, some numerical simulations are performed using the kinematic and dynamic models in which the results show good agreement with expected qualitative behavior of the mechanism. Comparisons with the results of work-energy and impulse-momentum methods quantitatively verify the validity of the derived equations of motion. Also, a relative computational effectiveness is observed in implementation of virtual work model via the simulations.
This work aims to compare the dosimetric performance of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), a relatively available technique in developing countries, to intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in the treatment of different stages of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
Materials and Methods
According to the diagnostic stages, 40 NPC patients were divided into two equal groups. Three planning techniques such as 3D-CRT, seven-field IMRT (7F-IMRT) and nine-field IMRT (9F-IMRT) were compared. Dose prescriptions of 70 and 66 Gy were delivered in 35 fractions to gross planning target volume (PTV1) and bilateral retropharyngeal carcinoma (PTV2), respectively.
Stage I dose data for almost all of the three investigated planning techniques obey the international recommendations. The dose delivered to PTV1 and PTV2 for 3D-CRT and 7F-IMRT are statistically similar, whereas 9F-IMRT is significantly better than 3D-CRT. For organs at risk (OARs), the delivered dose is significantly better for 9F-IMRT compared with the other two techniques, whereas 7F-IMRT is significantly better than 3D-CRT.
3D-CRT is an acceptable alternative treatment technique for stage I NPC patients in developing countries suffering from the lack of advanced radiotherapy treatment techniques. 3D-CRT and 7F-IMRT have comparable performance in PTVs, while 9F-IMRT is superior in PTVs and OARs.
Maintenance plays a critical role in reducing operating cost and maximizing reliability of a complex engineering system. This paper proposes a novel maintenance-focused, system-level design framework that attempts to capture the interactions between maintenance strategies and system-level design parameters overlooked in current modeling approaches. The goal of this maintenance-focused approach is to help designers better understand the interconnectedness of system architecture, choice of maintenance strategy, and uncertainties in a design. Application of the proposed design framework is demonstrated through a case example of a power plant condenser system. Results show that using an integrated approach can reveal the many nonobvious interactions between subsystems, and produce system designs that have lower life-cycle cost compared to traditional sequential design approaches.
Background: Coronary artery lesions in Kawasaki disease invasively assessed by coronary angiography. Evaluation of myocardial perfusion by single-photon emission computed tomography may identify the haemodynamic significance of coronary lesions. Objective: To evaluate diagnostic accuracy of dipyridamole stress technetium-99 m tetrofosmin, single-photon emission computed tomography as a possible alternative to invasive coronary angiography for detection and follow-up of myocardial ischaemia in patients with Kawasaki disease, and pre- and post-coronary bypass grafting. Patients and methods: Coronary angiography and single-photon emission computed tomography were performed on 21 patients who were classified into three groups – group I (stenosis), group II (giant aneurysms), and group III (small aneurysms). Of the 21 patients, 16 (groups I and II) patients with myocardial perfusion defects, who underwent coronary bypass grafting, were followed up with single-photon emission computed tomography. Result: In group I, all patients had significant coronary stenosis and 100% of them had perfusion defects in the anterior and septal walls. In group II, all patients had giant aneurysms and 83% of them had inferior and inferolateral perfusion defects. In group III, all patients had small aneurysms and 100% of them had normal perfusion. Pre-coronary bypass grafting myocardial ischaemic defects disappeared in all patients after surgery. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of single-photon emission computed tomography were 94, 100, and 95%, respectively. Conclusion: Technetium-99 m tetrofosmin single-photon emission computed tomography can be applied as an accurate non-invasive diagnostic technique for detecting myocardial perfusion defects with coronary artery lesions, and to show improved or even normalised perfusion of the myocardium in patients after surgical revascularisation.
To compare the outcome among patients with invasive bladder cancer treated with cystectomy alone with outcome among those treated with combined-modality treatment in a randomised phase III trial.
Patients and methods
Patients with histologically confirmed invasive non-metastatic bladder cancer T2-3, N0 and M0 were randomly assigned to two arms: Arm 1: of which all patients underwent radical cystectomy (RC) alone; and Arm 2, of which all patients were subjected to maximal transurethral resection of bladder tumour, followed 2 weeks later by combined chemoradiotherapy. The whole pelvis received 46 Gy in 23 fractions over 4·5 weeks. Chemotherapy was administered concomitantly with radiotherapy with: cisplatin 70 mg/m2 q. 3 weeks and Gemcitabine 300 mg/m2 D 1, 8 and 15 q. 3 weeks for two cycles. Patients who had complete response were shifted to phase II treatment: 20 Gy/10 fractions/2 weeks to the bladder. Patients with residual tumour underwent RC.
Of the 80 patients assigned Arm 2, a visibly completed transurethral resection of the bladder tumour was possible in 48 patients (60%). Phase I of combined chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) was accomplished in 74 patients. Post-induction urologic evaluation revealed no evidence of disease in 62 patients (83·8%) and residual disease in 12 patients (16·2%). Phase II of CCRT was completed in 58 of the 62 patients. The median follow-up for all patients is 27 months (range: 4–49). The 3-year overall survival (OS) for the combined-modality group and for the surgery group were 61 and 63%, respectively (p = 0·425), whereas the disease-specific survival (DSS) for each group was 69 and 73%, respectively (p = 0·714). The 3-year OS with bladder preservation for Arm 2 patients was 50%.
Multivariate analysis for the whole series showed that tumour stage and performance status (PS) were the only factors independently associated with DSS, although PS was the only factor independently associated with OS. In addition, residual disease after transurethral resection of the bladder tumour in Arm 2 patients was independently associated with both DSS and OS.
Acute toxicity was moderate and most of the late toxicities were grade 2 with no grade 4 toxicity and no treatment-related deaths, none required cystectomy for bladder contraction.
This study demonstrates that trimodality bladder-preserving approach represents a valid alternative for suitable patients. The OS and DSS rates of patients treated with trimodality bladder-preserving protocol are comparable to the results reported on patients treated with immediate radical cystectomy.
This study examines the trends and determinants of child marriage among women aged 20–49 in Bangladesh. Data were extracted from the last six nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys conducted during 1993–2011. Simple cross-tabulation and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were adopted. According to the survey conducted in 2011, more than 75% of marriages can be categorized as child marriages. This is a decline of 10 percentage points in the prevalence of child marriage compared with the survey conducted in 1993–1994. Despite some improvements in education and other socioeconomic indicators, Bangladeshi society still faces the relentless practice of early marriage. The mean age at first marriage has increased by only 1.4 years over the last one and half decades, from 14.3 years in 1993–1994 to 15.7 years in 2011. Although the situation on risk of child marriage has improved over time, the pace is sluggish. Both the year-of-birth and year-of-marriage cohorts of women suggest that the likelihood of marrying as a child has decreased significantly in recent years. The risk of child marriage was significantly higher when husbands had no formal education or little education, and when the wives were unemployed or unskilled workers. Muslim women living in rural areas have a greater risk of child marriage. Women's education level was the single most significant negative determinant of child marriage. Thus, the variables identified as important determinants of child marriage are: education of women and their husbands, and women's occupation, place of residence and religion. Programmes to help and motivate girls to stay in school will not only reduce early marriage but will also support overall societal development. The rigid enforcement of the legal minimum age at first marriage could be critical in decreasing child marriage.