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Fertilizer nitrogen (N) management in any region following standard general recommendations discount the fact that crop response to N varies between sites and seasons. To devise field-specific N management in wheat at jointing stage (Feekes 6 growth stage) using atLeaf meter and leaf colour chart (LCC), eight field experiments were conducted in three wheat seasons during 2017–2020 in the West Delta of Egypt. In the first two seasons, four experiments consisted of treatments with a range of fertilizer N application levels from 0 to 320 kg N ha−1. Monitoring atLeaf and LCC measurements at Feekes 6 growth stage in plots with different yield potentials allowed formulation of different criteria to apply field-specific and crop need-based fertilizer N doses. In the four experiments conducted in the third season in 2019/20, different field-specific N management strategies formulated in 2017/18 and 2018/19 wheat seasons were evaluated. In the atLeaf-based fertilizer N management experiment, prescriptive application of 40 kg N ha−1 at 10 days after seeding (DAS) and 60 kg N ha−1 at 30 DAS followed by application of an adjustable dose at Feekes 6 stage computed by multiplying the difference of atLeaf measurements of the test plot and the N-sufficient plot with 42.25 (as derived from the functional model developed in this study), resulted in grain yield similar or higher to that obtained by following the standard treatment. The LCC-based strategy to apply field-specific fertilizer N at Feekes 6 stage consisted of applying 150, 100 or 0 kg N ha−1 based on LCC shade equal to or less than 4, between 4 and 5 or equal to or more than 5, respectively. Both atLeaf- and LCC-based fertilizer N management strategies not only recorded the highest grain yield levels but also resulted in higher use efficiency with 57–60 kg N ha−1 in average less fertilizer use than the standard treatment.
An understanding of the current state of mental health services in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) from a clinical perspective is an important step in advising government and stakeholders on addressing the mental health needs of the fast-growing population. We conducted a retrospective study of data on all patients admitted to a regional psychiatric in-patient unit between June 2012 and May 2015. More Emiratis (UAE nationals) were admitted compared with expatriates. Emiratis were diagnosed more frequently with substance use disorders and expatriates with stress-related conditions. Psychotic and bipolar disorders were the most common causes for admission and had the longest in-patient stays; advancing age was associated with longer duration of in-patient stay.
A variety of machines are currently being used for mechanical excavation in mining and civil industries. A series of research works have been conducted at McGill University in the past decade to study the effects of microwave (MW) irradiation on rock mechanical properties. The idea is to enhance the excavation performance by improving the rate of penetration and decreasing the wear rate on the cutting tools. These two effects would eventually translate into economic benefits for mine operators. The effectiveness of MW on weakening rocks is proven, however the most efficient method to employ MW in mines is still under investigation. This article presents some experimental results on the effects of cooling- rate on rock strength. Brazilian Tensile Strength (BTS) of microwave treated samples were compared in natural air-cooled and water rapid-cooled conditions.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is widely and effectively used to treat psychiatric disorders. When electrodes are placed on both sides of the head on temporal bones it is unclear whether ECT affect on hearing system because hearing system situated in temporal lobe. Whereas these electrodes are placed on temporal bone and hearing system in TEMPORAL LOBE this study was designed.
We studied the effects of electroconvulsive shock on hearing system. Audiometric tests were performed in 15 adult patients with major depression under treatment with ECT before and 24h after ECT.
Hearing was decreased at 24 hours after ECT about 5 db. Right ear was affected more and the most changes were observed at 8000 khz.
It appears that electroconvulsive shock has early effects on hearing system. Further studies should be performed with more cases and Delayed effects should be investigated.
The objectives of this paper are to: (1) identify contextual factors such as policy that impacted the implementation of community-based primary health care (CBPHC) innovations among 12 Canadian research teams and (2) describe strategies used by the teams to address contextual factors influencing implementation of CBPHC innovations. In primary care settings, consideration of contextual factors when implementing change has been recognized as critically important to success. However, contextual factors are rarely recorded, analyzed or considered when implementing change. The lack of consideration of contextual factors has negative implications not only for successfully implementing primary health care (PHC) innovations, but also for their sustainability and scalability. For this evaluation, data collection was conducted using self-administered questionnaires and follow-up telephone interviews with team representatives. We used a combination of directed and conventional content analysis approaches to analyze the questionnaire and interview data. Representatives from all 12 teams completed the questionnaire and 11 teams participated in the interviews; 40 individuals participated in this evaluation. Four themes representing contextual factors that impacted the implementation of CBPHC innovations were identified: (I) diversity of jurisdictions (II) complexity of interactions and collaborations (III) policy, and (IV) the multifaceted nature of PHC. The teams used six strategies to address these contextual factors including: (1) conduct an environmental scan at the beginning (2) maintaining engagement among partners and stakeholders by encouraging open and inclusive communication; (3) contextualizing the innovation for different settings; (4) anticipating and addressing changes, delays, and the need for additional resources; (5) fostering a culture of research and innovation among partners and stakeholders; and (6) ensuring information about the innovation is widely available. Implementing CBPHC innovations across jurisdictions is complex and involves navigating through multiple contextual factors. Awareness of the dynamic nature of context should be considered when implementing innovations.
To describe the process by which the 12 community-based primary health care (CBPHC) research teams worked together and fostered cross-jurisdictional collaboration, including collection of common indicators with the goal of using the same measures and data sources.
A pan-Canadian mechanism for common measurement of the impact of primary care innovations across Canada is lacking. The Canadian Institutes for Health Research and its partners funded 12 teams to conduct research and collaborate on development of a set of commonly collected indicators.
A working group representing the 12 teams was established. They undertook an iterative process to consider existing primary care indicators identified from the literature and by stakeholders. Indicators were agreed upon with the intention of addressing three objectives across the 12 teams: (1) describing the impact of improving access to CBPHC; (2) examining the impact of alternative models of chronic disease prevention and management in CBPHC; and (3) describing the structures and context that influence the implementation, delivery, cost, and potential for scale-up of CBPHC innovations.
Nineteen common indicators within the core dimensions of primary care were identified: access, comprehensiveness, coordination, effectiveness, and equity. We also agreed to collect data on health care costs and utilization within each team. Data sources include surveys, health administrative data, interviews, focus groups, and case studies. Collaboration across these teams sets the foundation for a unique opportunity for new knowledge generation, over and above any knowledge developed by any one team. Keys to success are each team’s willingness to engage and commitment to working across teams, funding to support this collaboration, and distributed leadership across the working group. Reaching consensus on collection of common indicators is challenging but achievable.
Cold spray is a novel and promising technology to obtain surface coating. Notwithstanding the several technological advantages with respect to other processes, its diffusion is somewhat limited because of the limited knowledge on the mechanical properties of the cold sprayed materials and in particular, the fatigue behavior. Moreover, the existing data concerning fatigue behavior of coated specimens are controversial and different material system shows different behaviors. The aim of this study is to distinguish the involved parameters and their effect on fatigue behavior of cold sprayed systems. A critical discussion on four important parameters i.e. interface quality, material properties, deposition parameters and residual stress is given. The influential parameters are consolidated in one formula, which can predict the fatigue limit of cold spray system as a function of residual stress, coating hardness and stress gradient in the specimen.
A matrix A over a field F is said to be an AJT matrix if there exists a vector x over F such that both x and Ax have no zero component. The Alon–Jaeger–Tarsi (AJT) conjecture states that if F is a finite field, with |F|≥4, and A is an element of GL n (F) , then A is an AJT matrix. In this paper we prove that every nonzero matrix over a field F, with |F|≥3 , is similar to an AJT matrix. Let AJTn (q) denote the set of n×n, invertible, AJT matrices over a field with q elements. It is shown that the following are equivalent for q≥3 : (i) AJTn (q)=GL n (q) ; (ii) every 2n×n matrix of the form (A∣B)t has a nowhere-zero vector in its image, where A,B are n×n, invertible, upper and lower triangular matrices, respectively; and (iii) AJTn (q) forms a semigroup.
The harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) is one of the common small cetaceans of European waters. This discreet and undemonstrative species is strongly represented throughout the cold waters of the northern hemisphere, and is the most abundant cetacean in the North Sea. In the last few years, some observations and studies indicate a shift of harbour porpoise distribution in European waters, from northern regions of the North Sea to the southern North Sea, English Channel and Celtic Sea. This shift may include a comeback around the coasts of France. Harbour porpoises inhabit shelf-waters and are often observed in shallow waters, conditions offered for instance by the coasts of Brittany in north-western France. We used opportunistic sightings, aerial survey and a ten-year strandings database to study the presence of harbour porpoises along the coasts of Brittany. Opportunistic sightings made by non-specialists did not confirm a strong presence of harbour porpoises along the Brittany coasts, most probably because of the undemonstrative behaviour of this cetacean. However, aerial survey and stranding analysis indicate that harbour porpoises have become natural inhabitants of the Brittany coasts once more: 68.6% of cetacean school sightings made during a 1578 km aerial survey of the Brittany coasts concerned harbour porpoises, with an encounter rate of 1.5 individuals per 100 km that peaked to 5.8 per 100 km to the top of the shallow waters of the south-western Western English Channel. The number of harbour porpoise strandings increased each year from 1997 to 2007, making a total of 135 along the coasts of Brittany. Other cetaceans did not show such an increase during the same period. Strandings of harbour porpoises were also characterized by an apparent increase as a proportion in relation to all the cetacean strandings during the months of September to January, by a marked impact of by-catch during winter, and by an almost total absence of stranded calves. The comeback of the harbour porpoise along Brittany coasts is clearly confirmed by our data, and a stable population seems to be established again along the coasts of Brittany. This tends to confirm the shift of the distribution of the species in certain European waters. Long term monitoring, diet and genetic studies are now planned for a better understanding of this shift, and for the effective implementation of a conservation plan.
In this paper, a new SPICE-compatible circuit model for
low voltage, low on-resistance power FLYMOSFETs is presented for the first
time. In this new structure, the improvement of the on-resistance has been
obtained by inserting floating islands in the lowly doped layer. Our
modelling is based on device physics, analytical study and on experimental
characterization. The inter-electrode capacitances are modelled accurately
as nonlinear functions, and good agreement between simulation and
measurements is found.
ZnO, a well-known piezoelectric material, is used to develop micro-scale Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) delay line sensor. In this work, SAW delay line Devices are fabricated employing ZnO films that are deposited by RF sputtering technique. Films are characterized prior to device fabrication by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) for film crystalline quality, UV-visible transmission spectroscopy for optical characteristics, and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) for surface morphology. Interdigital electrodes producing surface acoustic waves in the hundreds of MHz are developed by photolithography and metalization techniques. SAW delay line device testing, measurement and characteristics on RF sputtered ZnO films are presented and compared.
Trois microalgues, Synechocystis (Picocyanobactérie), Chlorella et Micractinium (Chlorophyta) se développant dans le lagunage naturel, ont été mises en culture en milieu axénique et ensemencées dans des microcosmes d'eau usée filtrée, stérilisée ou non. Ceci dans le but d'évaluer les voies d'élimination de NH4, apporté par cette eau usée. L'assimilation algale, la nitrification et le stripping de NH3, se sont révélées les principales voies d'élimination de l'ammonium dans le milieu non stérilisé. Par ailleurs, dans le milieu stérilisé, seuls l'assimilation algale et le stripping sont présents. Les bactéries hétérotrophes aérobies semblent ne pas intervenir dans cette élimination.