To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Individuals with mental disorders, on average, die prematurely, have higher levels of physical comorbidities and may experience accelerated ageing. In individuals with lifetime depression and healthy controls, we examined associations between age and multiple physiological measures.
The UK Biobank study recruited >500,000 participants, aged 37–73 years, between 2006–2010. Generalised additive models were used to examine associations between age and grip strength, cardiovascular function, body composition, lung function and bone mineral density. Analyses were conducted separately in males and females with depression compared to healthy controls.
Analytical samples included up to 342,393 adults (mean age = 55.87 years; 52.61% females). We found statistically significant differences between individuals with depression and healthy controls for most physiological measures, with standardised mean differences between -0.145 and 0.156. There was some evidence that age-related changes in body composition, cardiovascular function, lung function and heel bone mineral density followed different trajectories in individuals with depression. These differences did not uniformly narrow or widen with age. For example, BMI in female cases was 1.1 kg/m2 higher at age 40 and this difference narrowed to 0.4 kg/m2 at age 70. In males, systolic blood pressure was 1 mmHg lower in cases at age 45 and this difference widened to 2.5 mmHg at age 65.
Individuals with depression differed from healthy controls across a broad range of physiological measures. Differences in ageing trajectories differed by sex and were not uniform across physiological measures, with evidence of both age-related narrowing and widening of case-control differences.
Individuals with bipolar disorder have reduced life expectancy and may experience accelerated biological ageing. In individuals with lifetime bipolar disorder and healthy controls, we examined differences in age-related changes in physiology.
The UK Biobank study recruited >500,000 participants, aged 37–73 years, between 2006–2010. Generalised additive models were used to examine associations between age and grip strength, cardiovascular function, body composition, lung function and bone mineral density. Analyses were conducted separately in males and females with bipolar disorder compared to healthy controls.
Analytical samples included up to 272,462 adults (mean age = 56.04 years, SD = 8.15; 49.51% females). We found statistically significant differences between bipolar disorder cases and controls for grip strength, blood pressure, pulse rate and body composition, with standardised mean differences of up to -0.238 (95% CI -0.282 to -0.193). There was limited evidence of differences in lung function, heel bone mineral density or arterial stiffness. Case-control differences were most evident for age-related changes in cardiovascular function (in both sexes) and body composition (in females). These differences did not uniformly narrow or widen with age and differed by sex. For example, the difference in systolic blood pressure between male cases and controls was -1.3 mmHg at age 50 and widened to -4.7 mmHg at age 65. Diastolic blood pressure in female cases was 1.2 mmHg higher at age 40 and -1.2 mmHg lower at age 65.
Differences in ageing trajectories between bipolar disorder cases and healthy controls were most evident for cardiovascular and body composition measures and differed by sex.
People with bipolar disorder (BPD) are more likely to die prematurely, which is partly attributed to comorbid cardiometabolic traits. Previous studies report cardiometabolic abnormalities in BPD, but their shared aetiology remains poorly understood. This study examined the phenotypic associations and shared genetic aetiology between BPD and various cardiometabolic traits.
In a subset of the UK Biobank sample (N = 61 508) we investigated phenotypic associations between BPD (ncases = 4186) and cardiometabolic traits, represented by biomarkers, anthropometric traits and cardiometabolic diseases. To determine shared genetic aetiology in European ancestry, polygenic risk scores (PRS) and genetic correlations were calculated between BPD and cardiometabolic traits.
Several traits were significantly associated with increased risk for BPD, namely low total cholesterol, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high triglycerides, high glycated haemoglobin, low systolic blood pressure, high body mass index, high waist-to-hip ratio; and stroke, coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes diagnosis. BPD was associated with higher polygenic risk for triglycerides, waist-to-hip ratio, coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes. Shared genetic aetiology persisted for coronary artery disease, when correcting PRS associations for cardiometabolic base phenotypes. Associations were not replicated using genetic correlations.
This large study identified increased phenotypic cardiometabolic abnormalities in BPD participants. It is found that the comorbidity of coronary artery disease may be based on shared genetic aetiology. These results motivate hypothesis-driven research to consider individual cardiometabolic traits rather than a composite metabolic syndrome when attempting to disentangle driving mechanisms of cardiometabolic abnormalities in BPD.
Many appellate courts and regulatory commissions simultaneously produce case dispositions and rules rationalizing the dispositions. We explore the properties of the American practice for doing this. We show that the median judge is pivotal over case dispositions, although she and others may not vote sincerely. Strategic dispositional voting is more likely when the case location is extreme, resulting in majority coalitions that give the appearance of less polarization on the court than is the case. The equilibrium policy created in the majority opinion generically does not coincide with the ideal policy of the median judge in either the dispositional majority or the bench as a whole. Rather, opinions approach a weighted center of the dispositional majority but often reflect the preferences of the opinion author. We discuss some empirical implications of the American practice for jointly producing case dispositions and rules.
The present study aimed to assess the effect of different types of breakfast cereal (BC) on portion size and the nutritional implications of potential under or overserving.
A cross-sectional analysis was performed using one BC from the seven established BC manufacturing methods (flaking (F), gun puffed (GP), oven puffed (OP), extruded gun puffed (EGP), shredded wholegrain (SW), biscuit formed (BF) and granola). Participants were asked to pour cereal as if they were serving themselves (freepour). Difference between the freepour and recommended serving size (RSS) was calculated (DFR). The Friedman test followed by Dunn’s multiple comparison test was used to test for a significant differences between cereal categories.
City of Chester, North West of the UK.
Adults (n 169; n 110 female, 32 (sd 18) years).
Freepour values were greater than RSS for all categories of BC. Median values for denser cereals such as SW, granola and oats were significantly (P < 0·001) greater than all other categories with granola having the highest median freepour value of 95 g. Median (and range of) DFR weight values for granola were significantly higher than other BC (50·0 g (−24·0 to 267·0 g), P < 0·001). BC with the lowest median DFR were F1 (7·0 g (−20 to 63·0 g)), GP (6·0 g (−26·0 to 69·0 g)), EGP (6·0 g (−26·0 to 56·0 g)), OP (5·0 g (−27·0 to 53·0 g)) and BF (0·0 g (−28·2 to 56·4 g)).
The degree of overserving may be related to the type of BC with denser cereals more readily overserved. Encouraging manufacturers to reformulate cereals and improving their nutritional properties may have benefit in reducing excess energy intake.
Debate about the nature of climate and the magnitude of ecological change across Australia during the last glacial maximum (LGM; 26.5–19 ka) persists despite considerable research into the late Pleistocene. This is partly due to a lack of detailed paleoenvironmental records and reliable chronological frameworks. Geochemical and geochronological analyses of a 60 ka sedimentary record from Brown Lake, subtropical Queensland, are presented and considered in the context of climate-controlled environmental change. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of dune crests adjacent to prominent wetlands across North Stradbroke Island (Minjerribah) returned a mean age of 119.9 ± 10.6 ka; indicating relative dune stability soon after formation in Marine Isotope Stage 5. Synthesis of wetland sediment geochemistry across the island was used to identify dust accumulation and applied as an aridification proxy over the last glacial-interglacial cycle. A positive trend of dust deposition from ca. 50 ka was found with highest influx occurring leading into the LGM. Complexities of comparing sedimentary records and the need for robust age models are highlighted with local variation influencing the accumulation of exogenic material. An inter-site comparison suggests enhanced moisture stress regionally during the last glaciation and throughout the LGM, returning to a more positive moisture balance ca. 8 ka.
Geomorphic mapping, landform and sediment analysis, and cosmogenic 10Be and 36Cl ages from erratics, moraine boulders, and glacially polished bedrock help define the timing of the Wisconsinan glaciations in the Chugach Mountains of south-central Alaska. The maximum extent of glaciation in the Chugach Mountains during the last glacial period (marine isotope stages [MIS] 5d through 2) occurred at ~50 ka during MIS 3. In the Williwaw Lakes valley and Thompson Pass areas of the Chugach Mountains, moraines date to ~26.7 ± 2.4, 25.4 ± 2.4, 18.8 ± 1.6, 19.3 ± 1.7, and 17.3 ± 1.5 ka, representing times of glacial retreat. These data suggest that glaciers retreated later in the Chugach Mountain than in other regions of Alaska. Reconstructed equilibrium-line altitude depressions range from 400 to 430 m for late Wisconsinan glacial advances in the Chugach Mountains, representing a possible temperature depression of 2.1–2.3°C. These reconstructed temperature depressions suggest that climate was warmer in this part of Alaska than in many other regions throughout Alaska and elsewhere in the world during the global last glacial maximum.
The UK Biobank contains data with varying degrees of reliability and completeness for assessing depression. A third of participants completed a Mental Health Questionnaire (MHQ) containing the gold-standard Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) criteria for assessing mental health disorders.
To investigate whether multiple observations of depression from sources other than the MHQ can enhance the validity of major depressive disorder (MDD).
In participants who did not complete the MHQ, we calculated the number of other depression measures endorsed, for example from hospital episode statistics and interview data. We compared cases defined this way with CIDI-defined cases for several estimates: the variance explained by polygenic risk scores (PRS), area under the curve attributable to PRS, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)-based heritability and genetic correlations with summary statistics from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium MDD genome-wide association study.
The strength of the genetic contribution increased with the number of measures endorsed. For example, SNP-based heritability increased from 7% in participants who endorsed only one measure of depression, to 21% in those who endorsed four or five measures of depression. The strength of the genetic contribution to cases defined by at least two measures approximated that for CIDI-defined cases. Most genetic correlations between UK Biobank and the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium MDD study exceeded 0.7, but there was variability between pairwise comparisons.
Multiple measures of depression can serve as a reliable approximation for case status where the CIDI measure is not available, indicating sample size can be optimised using the entire suite of UK Biobank data.
To determine whether age, gender and marital status are associated with prognosis for adults with depression who sought treatment in primary care.
Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and Cochrane Central were searched from inception to 1st December 2020 for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of adults seeking treatment for depression from their general practitioners, that used the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule so that there was uniformity in the measurement of clinical prognostic factors, and that reported on age, gender and marital status. Individual participant data were gathered from all nine eligible RCTs (N = 4864). Two-stage random-effects meta-analyses were conducted to ascertain the independent association between: (i) age, (ii) gender and (iii) marital status, and depressive symptoms at 3–4, 6–8,<Vinod: Please carry out the deletion of serial commas throughout the article> and 9–12 months post-baseline and remission at 3–4 months. Risk of bias was evaluated using QUIPS and quality was assessed using GRADE. PROSPERO registration: CRD42019129512. Pre-registered protocol https://osf.io/e5zup/.
There was no evidence of an association between age and prognosis before or after adjusting for depressive ‘disorder characteristics’ that are associated with prognosis (symptom severity, durations of depression and anxiety, comorbid panic disorderand a history of antidepressant treatment). Difference in mean depressive symptom score at 3–4 months post-baseline per-5-year increase in age = 0(95% CI: −0.02 to 0.02). There was no evidence for a difference in prognoses for men and women at 3–4 months or 9–12 months post-baseline, but men had worse prognoses at 6–8 months (percentage difference in depressive symptoms for men compared to women: 15.08% (95% CI: 4.82 to 26.35)). However, this was largely driven by a single study that contributed data at 6–8 months and not the other time points. Further, there was little evidence for an association after adjusting for depressive ‘disorder characteristics’ and employment status (12.23% (−1.69 to 28.12)). Participants that were either single (percentage difference in depressive symptoms for single participants: 9.25% (95% CI: 2.78 to 16.13) or no longer married (8.02% (95% CI: 1.31 to 15.18)) had worse prognoses than those that were married, even after adjusting for depressive ‘disorder characteristics’ and all available confounders.
Clinicians and researchers will continue to routinely record age and gender, but despite their importance for incidence and prevalence of depression, they appear to offer little information regarding prognosis. Patients that are single or no longer married may be expected to have slightly worse prognoses than those that are married. Ensuring this is recorded routinely alongside depressive ‘disorder characteristics’ in clinic may be important.
The first demonstration of laser action in ruby was made in 1960 by T. H. Maiman of Hughes Research Laboratories, USA. Many laboratories worldwide began the search for lasers using different materials, operating at different wavelengths. In the UK, academia, industry and the central laboratories took up the challenge from the earliest days to develop these systems for a broad range of applications. This historical review looks at the contribution the UK has made to the advancement of the technology, the development of systems and components and their exploitation over the last 60 years.
The Rapid ASKAP Continuum Survey (RACS) is the first large-area survey to be conducted with the full 36-antenna Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. RACS will provide a shallow model of the ASKAP sky that will aid the calibration of future deep ASKAP surveys. RACS will cover the whole sky visible from the ASKAP site in Western Australia and will cover the full ASKAP band of 700–1800 MHz. The RACS images are generally deeper than the existing NRAO VLA Sky Survey and Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey radio surveys and have better spatial resolution. All RACS survey products will be public, including radio images (with
15 arcsec resolution) and catalogues of about three million source components with spectral index and polarisation information. In this paper, we present a description of the RACS survey and the first data release of 903 images covering the sky south of declination
made over a 288-MHz band centred at 887.5 MHz.
This chapter address the rise of research performance measurement as an instrument of governance designed to steer the higher education sector in a specific direction. Performance measurement is always a political decision and it is about both accountability and control. Performance measurement is directed at many different entities, it serves multiple purposes, and it represents a variety of goals and values. In order to focus on the level of convergence between nations in the use of performance measurement of research in higher education institutions, this chapter examines the range of stated purposes behind the decision to measure performance. The chapter address research performance measurement in Australia, Canada, and the UK, and focuses on assessing convergence in ‘talk’ about performance measurement by senior administrators. It seeks to uncover how performance measurement is labelled and represented in these countries, and to examine the level of similarity across these nations. Hence, performance measurement is an example of a governance instrument which is utilized to shed light on how the higher education sector is being steered in various locations.
During the worst year of the Great Irish Famine, ‘Black ’47’, tens of thousands of people fled across the Irish Sea from Ireland to Britain, desperately escaping the starvation and disease plaguing their country. These refugees, crowding unavoidably into the most insalubrious accommodation British towns and cities had to offer, were soon blamed for deadly outbreaks of epidemic typhus which emerged across the country during the first half of 1847. Indeed, they were accused of transporting the pestilence, then raging in Ireland, over with them. Typhus mortality rates in Ireland and Britain soared, and so closely connected with the disease were the Irish in Britain that it was widely referred to as ‘Irish fever’. Much of what we know about this epidemic is based on a handful of studies focusing almost exclusively on major cities along the British west-coast. Moreover, there has been little attempt to understand the legacy of the episode on the Irish in Britain. Taking a national perspective, this article argues that the ‘Irish fever’ epidemic of 1847 spread far beyond the western port of entry, and that the epidemic, by entrenching the association of the Irish with deadly disease, contributed significantly to the difficulties Britain's Irish population faced in the 1850s.
Recent advances in gene editing technology promise much for medical advances and human well-being. However, in parallel domains, there have been objections to the use of such biotechnologies. Moreover, the psychological factors that govern the willingness to use gene editing technology have been underexplored to date. In this registered report, we sought to test whether pathogen disgust sensitivity is linked with opposition to gene editing. U.K.-based adult participants (N = 347) were recruited to this study. Gene editing attitudes reflected two largely distinct latent factors concerning enhancing human traits and treating medical disorders. In contrast to prediction, pathogen disgust sensitivity was related to greater support for gene editing in both of these domains. This result suggests that gene editing, at least in the current study, is not viewed as pathogenic, or that the perceived benefits of gene editing outweigh any perceived pathogen risk.
Let G be a finite group, and let cs(G) be the set of conjugacy class sizes of G. Recalling that an element g of G is called a vanishing element if there exists an irreducible character of G taking the value 0 on g, we consider one particular subset of cs(G), namely, the set vcs(G) whose elements are the conjugacy class sizes of the vanishing elements of G. Motivated by the results inBianchi et al. (2020, J. Group Theory, 23, 79–83), we describe the class of the finite groups G such that vcs(G) consists of a single element under the assumption that G is supersolvable or G has a normal Sylow 2-subgroup (in particular, groups of odd order are covered). As a particular case, we also get a characterization of finite groups having a single vanishing conjugacy class size which is either a prime power or square-free.
This chapter aims to establish a lower limit to the possible extent of horizontal specialization in the economy of classical Athens; in other words, the minimum plausible number of specialized jobs to do with production, exchange, and services. This exercise shows that even with a mindset sceptical to the idea of specialization, there cannot realistically have been fewer than 162 specialized full-time occupations in classical Attica. This demonstrates the complexity and dynamism of the classical Athenian economy.
Historically, psychology has been characterized by a dichotomy between branches that focus on human nature and those that focus on individual differences. Initial “grand theories” of personality, such as those advanced by Freud, Maslow and others, were interested in universal psychological features. For Freud, the emphasis was on sexual and aggressive “instincts” and a universal sequence of psychosexual stages. For Maslow, the focus was on a hierarchy of universal psychological needs, from immediate physiological demands to “self-actualization.” Historically, personality psychology has been the primary branch that has aspired to such broad conceptualizations of human nature.
CHD remains one of the leading causes of mortality of children in the United States. There is limited research about the experience of parents from the diagnosis of their child with CHD through the death of their child. A prior study has shown that adults with heart failure go through a series of four transitions: 1) learning the diagnosis, 2) reframing the new normal, 3) taking control of the illness, and 4) understanding death is inevitable. In our qualitative study, we performed semi-structured interviews with parents who have a child die of CHD to determine whether the four transitions in adults apply to parents of children with CHD. We found that these four transitions were present in the parents we interviewed and that there were two novel transitions, one that proceeded the first Jones et al transition (“Prenatal diagnosis”) and one that occurred after the final Jones et al transition (“Adjustment after death”). It is our hope that identification of these six transitions will help better support families of children with CHD.