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Prescription Patterns Among Spanish Inpatients with Schizophrenia
R Oberguggenberger1,2, N Ruiz 1, M Ortega1, C Roset1, Y Rendal1, J Salva1, Lago E1, P Herbera1
1. Hospital Son Espases, Palma de Mallorca, Spain
2. Hospital Psiquiátrico. Palma de Mallorca, Spain
Polypharmacy in patients with schizophrenia is frequent in the short term and long term treatment. Prevalence of up to 50% of polypharmacy has been shown in some clinical settings. There is scare evidence of the prevalence of polypharmacy in inpatient settings.
The goal of this retrospective study is to assess the prescription patterns of patients with schizophrenia in a Spanish inpatient setting.
Records of all admissions between 2010 until 2012 in the adult ward of a public heatlh service in Palma de Mallorca will be analysed in this study.
The results will show current prescription patterns of patients with schizophrenia in a Spanish inpatient setting.
Psychiatric patients tend to have severe metabolic alterations of multifactorial causes, lifestyle, diet, drug use and psychopharmacological treatment, especially antipsychotic drugs which act as risk factors for cardiovascular disease, strokes, infections and complications of diseases basal negatively influencing its evolution and prognosis.
Rating the profile lipid and the prevalence of obesity in patients registered as disorder mental severe in treatment with antipsychotics.
A descriptive study was performed taking as variables to take into account levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, weight and size.
Of the 28 patients included in the study 7 refused to perform the corresponding measurements. Of the 21 remaining, 3 showed values higher than 150 mg/dl triglycerides and cholesterol figures higher than 200 mg/dl. Other 3 patients presented hypercholesterolemia without alteration of triglycerides and 2 hypertriglyceridemia without elevation of the cholesterol. Concerning the IMC, found that 7 patients presented overweight (BMI > 25 and < 30) and 5 patients obesity (BMI > 30). Of the 8 patients with lipid disorders, 2 had prescribed treatment with risperidone (oral or injectable) more quetiapine, 2 oral risperidone as monotherapy, risperidone1 more amisulpride, 1 quetiapine more aripiprazole, quetiapine 1 in monotherapyand 1 injection invega more oxcarbamacepina.
We found lipid alterations in a 38.1% of patients and a BMI greater than 25 in a 57.14% of 21 patients who agreed to the study. The most prescribed antipsychoticamong these patients were risperidone (5 patients) followed closely by quetiapine (4 patients).
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The Learning Services Management System of the Network for the Education of Astronomy in the School (IAU-NASE) has been developed following the guidelines of the ISO 29990: 2013 Standard, which understands on the “Learning services for non-formal education and training’’, and which aims to improve quality of learning services and facilitate comparison on worldwide basis.
Due to its unique 400-year duration, the sunspot number is a central reference for understanding the long-term evolution of solar activity and its influence on the Earth environment and climate. Here, we outline current data recovery work. For the sunspot number, we find historical evidence of a disruption in the source observers occurring in 1947–48. For the sunpot group number, recent data confirm the clear southern predominance of sunspots during the Maunder Minimum, while the umbra-penumbra ratio is similar to other epochs. For the Dalton minimum, newly recovered historical observations confirm a higher activity level than in a true Grand Minimum.
Using Python 3, astropy and astrometry.net, we have developed a pipeline to obtain photometric light curves of asteroids automatically queried by the SkyBoT database from sequential FITS images. The pipeline provides: pre-reduction of data, astrometry, standard differential photometry and light curves by auto-selecting multiple comparison stars (maximum user-defined) from NOMAD catalog via VizieR. The code is an open source, free and hosted on GitHub with the GNU GPL v3 license.
There is a growing evidence that our Sun was born in a rich cluster that also contained massive stars. Therefore, the study of high-mass star-forming regions is key to understand our chemical heritage. In fact, molecules found in comets, in other pristine Solar System bodies and in protoplanetary disks, are enriched in 15N, because they show a lower 14N/15N ratio (100-150) with respect to the value representative of the Proto-Solar Nebula (PSN, 441 ± 6), but the reasons of this enrichment cannot be explained by current chemical models. Moreover, the 14N/15N ratio is important because from it we can learn more about the stellar nucleosynthesis processes that produces both the elements. In this sense observations of star-forming regions are useful to constrain Galactic chemical evolution (GCE) models.
The role of the magnetic fields in the formation and quenching of stars with different mass is unknown. We studied the energy balance and the star formation efficiency in a sample of molecular clouds in the central kpc region of NGC 1097, known to be highly magnetized. Combining the full polarization VLA/radio continuum observations with the HST/Hα, Paα and the SMA/CO lines observations, we separated the thermal and non-thermal synchrotron emission and compared the magnetic, turbulent, and thermal pressures. Most of the molecular clouds are magnetically supported against gravitational collapse needed to form cores of massive stars. The massive star formation efficiency of the clouds also drops with the magnetic field strength, while it is uncorrelated with turbulence (Tabatabaei et al. 2018). The inefficiency of the massive star formation and the low-mass stellar population in the center of NGC 1097 can be explained in the following steps: I) Magnetic fields supporting the molecular clouds prevent the collapse of gas to densities needed to form massive stars. II) These clouds can then be fragmented into smaller pieces due to e.g., stellar feedback, non-linear perturbations and instabilities leading to local, small-scale diffusion of the magnetic fields. III) Self-gravity overcomes and the smaller clouds seed the cores of the low-mass stars.
With their sizes larger than 0.7 Mpc, Giant Radio Galaxies (GRGs) are the largest individual objects in the Universe. To date, the reason why they reach such enormous extensions is still unclear. One of the proposed scenarios suggests that they are the result of multiple episodes of jet activity. Cross-correlating the INTEGRAL+Swift AGN population with radio catalogues (NVSS, FIRST, SUMSS), we found that 22% of the sources are GRG (a factor four higher than those selected from radio catalogues). Remarkably, all of the sources in the sample show signs of restarting radio activity. The X-ray properties are consistent with this scenario, the sources being in a high-accretion, high-luminosity state with respect to the previous activity responsible for the radio lobes.
We consider several tracers of magnetic activity that separate cycle-dependent contributions to the background solar magnetic field from those that are independent of the cycle. The main message is that background fields include two relative separate populations. The background fields with a strength up to 100 Mx cm−2 are very poorly correlated with the sunspot numbers and vary little with the phase of the cycle. In contrast, stronger magnetic fields demonstrate pronounced cyclic behaviour. Small-scale solar magnetic fields demonstrate features of fractal intermittent behaviour, which requires quantification. We investigate how the observational estimate of the solar magnetic flux density B depends on resolution D in order to obtain the scaling In BD = −k In D + a in a reasonably wide range. The quantity k demonstrates cyclic variations typical of a solar activity cycle. k depends on the magnetic flux density, i.e. the ratio of the magnetic flux to the area over which the flux is calculated, at a given instant. The quantity a demonstrates some cyclic variation, but it is much weaker than in the case of k. The scaling is typical of fractal structures. The results obtained trace small-scale action in the solar convective zone and its coexistence with the conventional large-scale solar dynamo based on differential rotation and mirror-asymmetric convection. Here we discuss the message for solar dynamo studies hidden in the above results.
Magnetic fields play a significant role during star formation processes, hindering the fragmentation and the collapse of the parental cloud, and affecting the accretion mechanisms and feedback phenomena. However, several questions still need to be addressed to clarify the importance of magnetic fields at the onset of high-mass star formation, such as how strong they are and at what evolutionary stage and spatial scales their action becomes relevant. Furthermore, the magnetic field parameters are still poorly constrained especially at small scales, i.e. few astronomical units from the central object, where the accretion disc and the base of the outflow are located. Thus we need to probe magnetic fields at different scales, at different evolutionary steps and possibly with different tracers. We show that the magnetic field morphology around high-mass protostars can be successfully traced at different scales by observing maser and dust polarised emission. A confirmation that they are effective tools is indeed provided by our recent results from 6.7 GHz MERLIN observations of the massive protostar IRAS 18089-1732, where we find that the small-scale magnetic field probed by methanol masers is consistent with the large-scale magnetic field probed by dust (Dall’Olio et al. 2017 A&A 607, A111). Moreover we present results obtained from our ALMA Band 7 polarisation observations of G9.62+0.20, which is a massive star-forming region with a sequence of cores at different evolutionary stages (Dall’Olio et al. submitted to A&A). In this region we resolve several protostellar cores embedded in a bright and dusty filamentary structure. The magnetic field morphology and strength in different cores is related to the evolutionary sequence of the star formation process which is occurring across the filament.
Studies of the presence of magnetic fields in Herbig Ae/Be stars are extremely important because they enable us to improve our insight into how the magnetic fields of these stars are generated and how they interact with their environment, including their impact on the planet formation process and the planet-disk interaction. We report new detections of weak mean longitudinal magnetic fields in the close Herbig Ae double-lined spectroscopic binary AK Sco and in the presumed spectroscopic Herbig Ae binary HD 95881 (Järvinen et al. 2018) based on observations obtained with HARPSpol attached to ESO’s 3.6 m telescope. Such studies are important because only very few close spectroscopic binaries with orbital periods below 20 d are known among Herbig Ae stars. Our detections favour the conclusion that the previously suggested low incidence (5-10%) of magnetic Herbig Ae stars can be explained by the weakness of these fields and the limited accuracy of the published measurements. The search for magnetic fields and the determination of their geometries in close binary systems will play an important role for understanding the mechanisms that are responsible for the magnetic field generation.
It has been recognized that non-ideal MHD effects (Ohmic diffusion, Hall effect, ambipolar diffusion) play crucial roles for the circumstellar disk formation and evolution. Ohmic and ambipolar diffusion decouple the gas and the magnetic field, and significantly reduces the magnetic torque in the disk, which enables the formation of the circumstellar disk (e.g., Tsukamoto et al. 2015b). They set an upper limit to the magnetic field strength of ∼ 0.1 G around the disk (Masson et al. 2016). The Hall effect notably changes the magnetic torques in the envelope around the disk, and strengthens or weakens the magnetic braking depending on the relative orientation of magnetic field and angular momentum. This suggests that the bimodal evolution of the disk size possibly occurs in the early disk evolutionary phase (Tsukamoto et al. 2015a, Tsukamoto et al. 2017). Hall effect and ambipolar diffusion imprint the possibly observable characteristic velocity structures in the envelope of Class 0/I YSOs. Hall effect forms a counter-rotating envelope around the disk. Our simulations show that counter rotating envelope has the size of 100–1000 au and a recent observation actually infers such a structure (Takakuwaet al. 2018). Ambipolar diffusion causes the significant ion-neutral drift in the envelopes. Our simulations show that the drift velocity of ion could become 100-1000 ms–1.
Ambipolar diffusion can cause a velocity drift between ions and neutrals. This is one of the non-ideal MHD effects proposed to enable the formation of large Keplerian disks with sizes of tens of au (Zhao et al. 2018). To observationally study ambipolar diffusion in collapsing protostellar envelopes, we analyzed the ALMA H13CO+ (3–2) and C18O (2–1) data of the protostar B335, which is a candidate source with efficient magnetic braking (Yen et al. 2015). We constructed kinematical models to fit the velocity structures observed in H13CO+ and C18O. With our kinematical models, the infalling velocities in H13CO+ and C18O are both measured to be 0.85 ± 0.2 km s−1 at a radius of 100 au, suggesting that the velocity drift between the ionized and neutral gas is at most 0.3 km s−1 at a radius of 100 au in B335. The Hall parameter for H13CO+ is estimated to be ≫1 on a 100 au scale in B335, so that H13CO+ is expected to be attached to the magnetic field. Our non-detection or upper limit of the velocity drift between the ionized and neutral gas could suggest that the magnetic field remains rather well coupled to the bulk neutral material on a 100 au scale in B335, and that any significant field-matter decoupling, if present, likely occurs only on a smaller scale, leading to an accumulation of magnetic flux and thus efficient magnetic braking in the inner envelope in B335.
The role of the magnetic field during protostellar collapse is still poorly constrained from an observational point of view, and only few constraints exist that shed light on the magnetic braking efficiency during the main accretion phase. I presented our ALMA polarimetric observations of the thermal dust continuum emission at 1.3 mm, towards the B335 Class 0 protostar (Maury et al. 2018a). Linearly polarized dust emission is detected at all scales probed by our observations (50 to 1000 au). The magnetic field structure has a very ordered topology in the inner envelope, with a transition from a large-scale poloidal magnetic field, in the outflow direction, to strongly pinched in the equatorial direction. We compared our data to a family of magnetized protostellar collapse models. We show that only models with an initial core mass-to-flux ratio μ∼5-6 are able to reproduce the observed properties of B335, especially the upper-limits on its disk size, its large-scale envelope rotation β and the pronounced magnetic field lines pinching observed in our ALMA data. In these MHD models, the magnetic field is dynamically relevant to regulate the typical outcome of protostellar collapse, suggesting a magnetically-regulated disk formation scenarios is at work in B335.
Thousands of new asteroids are discovered every year and the rate of discovery is by far larger than the determination rate of their physical properties. In 2015 a group of researchers and students of several Mexican institutions have established an observational program to study asteroids photometrically. The program, named Mexican Asteroid Photometry Campaign, is aiming to derive rotation periods of asteroids based on optical photometric observations. Since then four campaigns have been carried out. The results obtained throughout these campaigns, as well as future work, are presented.