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Rabies is endemic in Bangladesh. To identify risk factors, a case-control study was conducted based on hospital-reported rabid animal bite (RAB) cases in domestic ruminants, 2009 − 2018. RAB cases (n = 449) and three controls per case were selected. Dogs (87.8%) and jackals (12.2%) were most often identified as biting animals. In the final multivariable model, the risk of being a RAB case was significantly higher in cattle aged >0.5–2 years (odds ratio (OR) 2.89; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.56–5.37), >2–5 years (OR 3.63; 95% CI: 1.97–6.67) and >5 years (OR 6.42; 95% CI: 3.39–12.17) compared to those aged <0.5 years. Crossbred cattle were at higher risk of being a RAB case (OR 5.48; 95% CI: 3.56–8.42) than indigenous. Similarly, female cattle were more likely to be a RAB case (OR 1.26; 95% CI: 1.15–2.29) than males. Cattle in rural areas (OR 39.48; 95% CI: 6.14–254.00) were at a much higher risk of being RAB cases than those in urban areas. Female, crossbred and older cattle, especially in rural areas should either be managed indoors during the dog breeding season (September and October) or vaccinated. A national rabies elimination program should prioritise rural dogs for mass vaccination. Jackals should also be immunised using oral bait vaccines. Prevention of rabies in rural dogs and jackals would also reduce rabies incidence in humans.
Healthcare workers (HCWs) not fulfilling the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case definition underwent severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) screening. Risk of exposure, adherence to personal protective equipment (PPE), and symptoms were assessed. In total, 2,000 HCWs were screened: 5.5% were positive for SARS-CoV-2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). There were no differences in PPE use between SARS-CoV-2–positive and –negative HCWs (adherence, >90%). Nursing and kitchen staff were independently associated with positive SARS-CoV-2 results.
To verify the main advantages and drawbacks of mechanical suturing for pharyngeal closure after total laryngectomy versus a manual suturing technique.
A retrospective review was carried out of 126 total laryngectomies performed between 2008 and 2018. Manual closure was performed in 80 cases (63.5 per cent) and mechanical suturing was performed in 46 cases (36.5 per cent).
Mechanical suturing was used significantly more frequently in patients with: glottic tumours (p = 0.008), less local tumour extension (p = 0.017) and less pre-operative morbidity (p = 0.014). There were no significant differences in the incidence of pharyngocutaneous fistula between the manual suture group (16.3 per cent) and the mechanical suture group (13.0 per cent) (p = 0.628). None of the patients treated with mechanical suturing had positive surgical margins. Cancer-specific survival for the mechanical suture group was higher than that for the manual suture group (p = 0.009).
Mechanical suturing of the pharynx after total laryngectomy is an oncologically safe technique if used in suitable cases.
Oxidative stress suposses an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants molecules. Negative and positive family environment have been related with worse and better outcomes respectively in schizophrenic patients.
Our objetive is to determine antioxidant defense in healthy controls and unaffected relatives of early onset psychosis patients and to asses its relationship with familiar environment.
We included 82 healthy controls (HC) and 14 healthy controls with second degree family history of psychosis (HCWFHP), aged between 9 to 17.
Total antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation test were determined in plasma and antioxidant enzime activities and glutathione levels were determined in erytrocytes.
We used the Global Assesment Functioning scale (GAF) and the Family Environment Scale (FES). The FES is made up of ten subscales: cohesion, expressiveness, conflict, independence, achievement, intellectual-cultural, social, moral, organization and control.
The analyses showed a significant decrease in total antioxidant level in HCWFHP compared with the HC (U Mann Withney = 281.00, p=0.009, effect size= -0.78).
HC and HCWFHP did not differ in the GAF scale, nevertheless the scores of HCWFHP were significantly higher in cohesion and intellectual-cultural dimensions of the FES (p=0.007, p=0.025).
Adjusting by this two FES dimensions, antioxidant status remained significantly different between groups: OR= 10.86, p=0.009.
Although we cannot induce causative relations, we can state that family environment is not playing a role in inducing oxidative stress in these subjects. It could be hypothesized that families with affected relatives protect themselves with positive envionmental factors such as cohesion and intellectual-cultural activities.
Startle reflex (SR) is a defensive response to sudden, intense stimuli. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) refers to the ability of innocuous sensory events to reduce SR. PPI has been described as an operational measure of sensorimotor gating that is reduced in several neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, but there is no extensive experience in addictions and alcoholism. The objective of this study was to examine the existence of impairments on SR and PPI in abstinent alcoholic males.
Subjects were 40 abstinent alcoholic males, aged 18 to 65 years (mean age 44.73), who had met DSM-IV criteria for Alcohol Dependence, being abstinent for more than a month at the moment they were tested. Participants underwent testing for PPI. Subjects were then compared with 35 equal controls.
Magnitudes of the SR were lower in abstinent alcoholic males when compared with controls. This differences were significant (p< 0,05) in trials with prepulse presented 30, 60 or 120 msec before the onset of startle stimulus. There was a significant less percentage of PPI when prepulse was presented 30 msec before the startle stimulus (p< 0,05).
Abstinent alcoholic males exhibit a decrease in the startle response magnitude and in the PPI of the SR. These data suggest that sensory information processing mechanisms could be damaged in abstinent alcoholic patients. The fact that these findings are common to other psychiatric disorders, could indicate the existence of a common vulnerability marker, and could explain the important comorbidity between alcoholism and other mental illness.
Impulsivity has been considered as a risk factor for alcohol dependence. Recent research is focusing on paradigms of the startle response (SR), specifically prepulse inhibition (PPI) and startle habituation (SH), as vulnerability markers for alcoholism. It has been demonstrated impairments in the PPI and the SH in offspring of alcoholics. It has also been shown, using personality questionnaires, that faster habituation may be associated with tendency toward impulsivity and behavioral disinhibition. Our goal is to study the correlation between impulsivity laboratory measures and the SR paradigms, in order to see if they could share a common base as endophenotypes for alcoholism.
The subjects were 40 abstinent alcoholic males, aged 18 to 65 years (mean age 44.73) and who had met DSM-IV criteria for Alcohol Dependence, being abstinent for more than a month at the moment they were tested. Participants underwent testing for PPI and habituation of the acoustic startle response. Impulsivity was assessed with three different laboratory measures: Continuous Performance Test (CPT), Stop-Signal Task and Differential Reinforcement for Low-Rate Responding (DRL6). Analyses were performed using SPSS v.10.0.
We found a significant positive correlation between CPT-tasks and SH (p< 0,01), and Stop-Signal Task-tasks and SH (p< 0,05), but not with DRL6-tasks. No significant correlation was demonstrated between impulsivity measures and PPI.
Our findings suggest the existence of a common base between impulsivity and SH as vulnerability markers for alcohol dependence. Further studies are needed to assess if both could share a common genetic origin.
Patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder appear to have more difficulties with smoking cessation than the general population. Moreover, gender and unsuccessful smoking cessation are associated with depression and negative emotional experience. Less attention has been given to the association of cigarette smoking in women and the use of other substances.
To determine the influence of gender and substance abuse on smoking cessation in a long-term follow up after a first psychotic episode.
Patients were evaluated at years 1, 3, and 5 obtaining information about functional outcome, positive and negative symptoms and substance use. At 8th year, functional outcome and use of substance were recorded. Patients were classified in two groups: those who stopped smoking during follow-up, and those who did not stop.
At baseline, rates of tobacco smoking were high with no differences between genders. Difficulty with smoking cessation was associated with female (p = 0.017) and typical antipsychotics (p = 0.032). Those who used alcohol continuously were less likely to stop smoking (p = 0.050) controlling for typical antipsychotics. The interaction with gender was not significant. Continuous cannabis use was not associated with smoking cessation, but women who use cannabis continuously were less able to stop smoking than men (adjusted p = 0.036).
Women are less prone to quit smoking than men during long-term follow-up after the development of psychosis. Different treatments should be considered for men and women in relation to tobacco dependence in patients with psychotic disorder. Treatment for women smokers should probably be more supportive and intensive.
Musical hallucinations are a rare phenomenon in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical spectrum of musical hallucinations.
We analysed demographic and clinical features of cases published in English, Italian, French or Spanish between 1991 and 2006 registered in MEDLINE, including three of our own cases. The cases were separated into four groups according to their main diagnoses (hearing impairment; psychiatric disorder; neurological disorder; toxic or metabolic disorder).
115 patients with musical hallucinations were included, of which 63.5% were female. The mean age was 57,25 years. Main diagnoses were: psychiatric disorder (46.1%; schizophrenia 30.4%), neurological disorder (21,7%), hearing impairment (17,4%), toxic or metabolic disorder (12.2%) and 2.6% other diagnoses.
61.7% patients presented simple diagnoses while 36.5% presented two or more diagnoses. 2.1% of patients didn't receive any diagnoses. 35.7% of patients and 60.9% of non psychiatric patients presented hearing impairment.
Both instrumental and vocal were the more frequent musical hallucinations and most of the patients had insight about the abnormality of their perceptions. Another kind of hallucinations was present in 40.9% of patients, auditory hallucinations being the most common. Also, 38,3% of the global sample had abnormalities in brain structural image (MRI, CT).
Musical hallucinations are a heterogeneous phenomenon in clinical practice. published cases describe them as more common in women and in psychiatric and neurological patients. Hearing impairment seem to be an important risk factor in the development of musical hallucinations.
Chronic consumption of cocaine can induce transient psychotic symptoms, expressed as paranoia or hallucinations. This is typically prevented by abstinence. The term Cocaine-Induced Psychosis (CIP) has been used to describe this syndrome. Impulsivity has been hypothesised are likked with CIP.
This study examined the relationship between CIP and substance consumption variables and impulsivity disorders including ADHD (Axis I) and Borderline personality disorders (BPD) (Axis II), and attempted to evaluated their link as a risk factors for CIP.
Trained psychiatrists systematically conducted a structured interview in which the conclusions from the psychotic symptoms were summarized. We used the CADDID to evaluate Adult ADHD, SCID II for axis II disorders, and the Barrat Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11).
We evaluated 163 (34,16 yo, 85,80% men) cocaine-dependent patients, according to DSM-IV criteria.
We found statistically significant association between CIP and Early age at onset of cocaine addiction (p = 0,04), cocaine use per day 6 months before starting treatment (p = 0,03), Barrat cognitive impulsivity subscale (p < 0,004), and Adult ADHD (p < 0,041). No relationship between BPD and CIP was found.
We confirm previous findings that Impulsivity disorders as ADHD or high impulsivity trails are liked to CIP. Coinciding with our previous findings, relationship between early age of onset cocaine dependence or high amounts of cocaine use and CIP was found. CIP are related with impulsivity disorders spectrum.
Comorbidity has been defined as the coexistence of somatic and psychiatric diseases with diferent physiopatology in the same person, and it can appear simultaneously to the schizophrenia or during the patient's lifetime. There are two types of comorbidity: episodical or taking place during the lifetime of the patient. We can diffferenciate between comorbidity itself (in cluster, dependent or associated) to the so-called pseudo-comorbidity. Besides, comorbidity has been classified as a co-syndrome and it is considered a prognosis indicator of this disease, which can determine an increase in the rates related to relapses, worse response to treatment, less capacity to cope with social situations, and suicide in patients suffering from schizophrenia.
177 schizophrenic patients were assessed for affective symptoms and suicide behaviour. 24.3% were suffered for depression. 35% had a previous record of autolytic attempts. The rate of suicide history were higher among depressed schizophrenics (50%) than non-depressed schizophrenics (20%) (p<0,05).
We point out the clinic importance of suicide in schizophrenic patients suffering from depression. Moreover, the study shows the necessity to carry out longitudinal studies to recognize indicators of depression in advance and establish the diagnosis of depression, and, also, to acknowledge the importance of the gender factor in the depression of schizophrenic patients.
Auditory and musical hallucinations have been reported in patients as an adverse effect of the use of opioids. Hearing loss, old age, and female gender are considered risk factors in the development of musical hallucinations. The aim of this report is to describe a case of a patient with auditory and musical hallucinations and to discuss the role of an opioid –tramadol- in the origin of those.
An 80 years old woman experiencing auditory hallucinations was referred to our hospital from an emergency room. The patient had bilateral mild hearing loss and was receiving tramadol 112.5 mg/daily during the last year for cervical pain. In the last ten months, she had been gradually noticing the voice of her dead husband coming from under her pillow, as well as intermittently hearing popular songs being played inside her head. The patient had good insight on both types of abnormal perceptions, which were reported as increasingly unpleasant through time.
Tramadol was discontinued and pimocide (range 1-4 mg/day) and loracepam (2.5 mg/day) were introduced, achieving the improvement of the hallucinations and the anxiety associated with them.
The outcome of this case supports the hypotheses that Opioids could induce musical hallucinations. Hearing impairment, old age, and gender could be underlying risk factors on the development of musical hallucinations.
Psychiatric illnesses have a high prevalence in the general population. Psychiatric illnesses affect the way other medical processes develop: age of onset, distribution by gender, type an evolution, and the training of the psychiatrists in caring for them.
To describe the characteristics and the medical problems of patients who have been consulted by an Internal Medicine Liaison Unit while hospitalized in the Psychiatric Unit of a third level hospital. Comparison of the general profile of these patients and their consultations with that done to patients hospitalizad in the rest of the hospital.
Descriptive retrospective study from September 2007 to May 2010. Use of a centralized database created with of all the administrative and clinical details regarding the consultation. A p ≤ 0.05 has statistical significance.
648 patients were identified (40,7% men). Mean age 52.4 years. Mean stay 3 days. 34,4% were solved in one visit. Mortality rate 0,3%. 94,1% of discharges were due to recovery, the rest were transfered to another service.
Distribution by major diagnostic groups: infectious 16,2%, cardiorespiratory 15,4%, mental illness 12,9%, metabolic 10,4%, tumoral 8,5%, digestive 8,2%, not defined 8,2%, hematologic 5%, others 15,2%.
The psychiatric patient is clearly younger and the female gender is slightly higher (59,3%) than in the control group. In this group the infectious and cardiorespiratoty illnesses predominate. The percentage of psychiatric consultations (34,1%; 648) over our global (1906) is impressive since the number of psychiatric inpatients is not proportional to this number.
Chronic consumption of cocaine can induce transient psychotic symptoms, expressed as paranoia or hallucinations. The term cocaine induced psychosis (CIP) has been used to describe this syndrome. Cocaine Induce Psichotic Disorder (CIPD) have been used to describe a full psychotic state. CIP and CIPD prevalences are not well described.
To evaluate risk factors for CIPD, in cocaine-dependents according to DSM-IV criteria.
We evaluated 150 patients (mean age 34 y.o, 81.8% men) of which 143 were included, using The PRISM (Psychiatric Research for Substance and Mental Disorders) interview. Exclusion criteria were: psychotic disorder or bipolar type I disorder, intoxication at interview, severe somatic disease at interview and language barrier. We compared three groups: group I: without any psychotic symptoms (33,33%); group II: with any psychotic symptoms (28,57%) and group III: with CIPD (38,77%).
Differences were found in Patients of Group III in the Age at onset of addiction p < .0001*, past history of imprisonment p < 0,01, Alcohol Use disorders p = .006, Cannabis use disorders P < .0001* and Hallucinogens use disorders p < 0,001.All remaining after Bonferroni corrections.
CIPD is common in this population (approximately 40%). Risk factor for suffering CIPD were described, in Cocaine-dependents. Finally, professionals who work with cocaine-dependents patients should incorporate these considerations into an integral approach.
Two common approaches to identify subgroups of patients with bipolar disorder are clustering methodology (mixture analysis) based on the age of onset, and a birth cohort analysis. This study investigates if a birth cohort effect will influence the results of clustering on the age of onset, using a large, international database.
The database includes 4037 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder, previously collected at 36 collection sites in 23 countries. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to adjust the data for country median age, and in some models, birth cohort. Model-based clustering (mixture analysis) was then performed on the age of onset data using the residuals. Clinical variables in subgroups were compared.
There was a strong birth cohort effect. Without adjusting for the birth cohort, three subgroups were found by clustering. After adjusting for the birth cohort or when considering only those born after 1959, two subgroups were found. With results of either two or three subgroups, the youngest subgroup was more likely to have a family history of mood disorders and a first episode with depressed polarity. However, without adjusting for birth cohort (three subgroups), family history and polarity of the first episode could not be distinguished between the middle and oldest subgroups.
These results using international data confirm prior findings using single country data, that there are subgroups of bipolar I disorder based on the age of onset, and that there is a birth cohort effect. Including the birth cohort adjustment altered the number and characteristics of subgroups detected when clustering by age of onset. Further investigation is needed to determine if combining both approaches will identify subgroups that are more useful for research.
Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder which involves chronic or recurrent psychosis and it is commonly associated with impairment in social and occupational functioning. Antipsychotic medications are a first-line treatment, however, most patients experience disabling impairment even after benefiting from antipsychotics, including positive and negative symptoms, cognitive deficits, poor social functioning and episodes of acute symptomatic relapse.
Systematic literature review in UpToDate and Pubmed.
To identify the most relevant intervention areas of systematic rehabilitation in schizophrenia.
45 years old schizophrenic male who admitted in a Medium Stay Psychiatry Unit with severe behavioural impairment and psychotic symptoms. At least 10 hospitalizations and pronounced disability in basic life skills despite optimal treatment. Poor insight and compliance, frequent relapses, co-morbid substance abuse and difficult family support. Clozapine was added to his treatment with improvement in psychotic symptoms. A multidisciplinary intervention was also done and he was discharged home with important improvement in social skills, better insight and familiar functioning
Despite following an adequate antipsychotic treatment, including Clozapine as the main medication in resistant schizophrenia, it is often partially effective with severe impairments in social and occupational functioning. Family-based interventions, cognitive behavioural therapy and social skills training, added to this medication seem to be essential in the systematic treatment of schizoprenia. It includes a multidisciplinary team and a specific length of time but it is based on the patient's status. Despite evidence of their efectiveness, the availability of these interventions varies widely, as does the availability of clinicians to provide them.
Cocaine dependence disorder has been widely described. However, differences due to gender remain unknown.
To compare clinical gender differences in a large sample of cocaine-dependent patients.
We performed a cross-sectional, observational study in 902 patients (35.47 yo, 21.3% women) with a cocaine dependence according DSM-IV criteria, seeking treatment during 2005 to 2013. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were collected The SCID-I, SCID–II, BIS and a structured interview about cocaine-induced psychosis were performed. Simple descriptive statistics were carried out for demographic and clinical data. Bivariate analysis was made to compare the main variables by sex using SPSSvs18.0.
No differences in age of dependence onset, other clinical variables or cocaine-induced psychosis were detected. However, less cocaine used in the last month (2.12 vs 3.37g) (p < 0.009), more impulsivity (67.2 vs 63.03) (p < 0.040), and more sedative dependence (21.2% % vs 8.3%)(p< 0.00) were detected in women than in men. Affective disorders lifetime were the most prevalent (57,4%) in women. More comorbidity with anxiety disorders (p< 0.025) eating disorders (p< 0.000) and personality disorders (p< 0.039) were detected in women than in men.
Sedative dependence and anxiety disorders should be investigated in cocaine-dependent women in order to treat these conditions. Surprisingly high impulsivity level was detected and could moderate cocaine consumption. However, no difference have been found previously in studies about gender differences in cocaine-dependent patients, so this finding should be confirm in new studies.
A psichiatric emergency is a situation where disorders of thought, mood or behavior are so disruptive that require immediate assistance.
To analyze clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, predictors of hospitalization, and poli-attendance in patients attended in a reference area psychiatric emergency service.
All assistances from 01.12.2011 to 31.01.12 were recorded in a database. Patient poly-attendance was defined by two or more assistances during the study period. Logistic regression analysis was performed to find out hospitalization and poli-attendance predictors.
N = 219. 50.68% male, 49.32% female; 86.75% between 20-64 years. 45.62% finished primary studies. 80.82% owned social support network. 80.73% unemployed. 71.89% voluntary assistances. 58.97% already tracked by mental health, 24.66% first contact. Reason care: anxiety (24.20%), behavioral disorders (22.57%), suicide (20.55%) and psychosis (12.79%). Final diagnoses: psychosis (24.20%), anxiety (15.48%), depression (10.05%), drugs abuse (9.13%), personality disorders (17.35%), mental retardation (8.22%), social issues (16.89%).26.94% were poly-attendance, assisted by: organic mental disorder (OR= 21,10, IC95%), personality disorders (OR=4,313, IC95%), mental retardation (OR=5,545, IC95%), social issues (OR=2,94, IC95%). 24.20% of the patients hospitalized. Factors associated to risk: age range 15-20 (OR 12.10, IC95%); psychosis (OR = 51.03, IC 95%), depression (OR = 14.61, IC95%), bipolar disorder (OR=20,38, IC 95%).
Minor diseases, social issues or stables axis II disorders accomplished most attendances. Hospitalitation was associated with severe mental illness and lower age.Poly-attendance is not associated with axis I patology, but it is with axis II and IV disorders.
The relationship between neurocognitive course and clinical and functional outcomes in psychosis is not well known, especially in the long term.
The aim of the study was to examine the clinical and neuropsychological course of first psychotic episode patients at 5 follow-up years and analyze the relationship between cognitive performance and clinical and functional outcome.
The five follow-up years was conducted with 26 (58%) of patients recruited who met inclusion criteria and provided informed consent to participate. Psychotic symptoms were measured by Positive and Negative Symptom Scale, manic and depressive symptoms by Young Mania Rating Scale and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale respectively, and psychosocial functioning by Functioning Assessment Short Test. We used repeated measures analysis, Kruskal Wallis and linear regression models (SPSS 18.0).
Patients experienced symptomatic improvement in the follow up except in negative psychotic symptoms (F = .149; p < .862). There was also improvement in most cognitive domains: executive functions (F = 9,368; p = .006), logic memory (F = 12.091; p = .002), attention (F = 4,967; p = .035) and abstract reasoning (F = 14.816; p = .001), except in working memory (F = .337; p = .567) and processing speed (F = 2.463; p = .130). in linear regression analysis working memory was significantly related with psychotic negative symptoms (B = −4.722; p = .035) and with the psychosocial functioning (B = −5.396; p = .053).
There was improvement in most cognitive domains and a symptomatic and functional recovery in first psychotic episode patients in the long term. Working memory impairment was associated with negative psychotic symptoms and functional outcomes, so effective therapeutic interventions could improve outcome of patients.
Substance-dependent patients(SDP) have more personality disorders(PD) than general population; and they present more frequent and severe levels of depression and anxiety.
To study cluster C personality disorders in SDP.
We included a clinical sample of 822(621 males) SDP according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria seeking treatment in the Outpatient Drug Clinic Vall d’Hebron in Barcelona, Spain.
The assessment process consisted of three interview sessions conducted by trained psychiatrists and psychologists using SCID I and II, BDI, STAI-R/S. Exclusion criteria were:intoxication at baseline examination, severe somatic disease at baseline examination and low language proficiency.
39.2% of the sample presented at least one PD and 9.55% presented a cluster C PD. Of them the found prevalence were Avoidant(44.9%), Dependt(11.5%), Obssessive-compulsive(37.2%), comorbidity (6.4%). The addiction prevalences that Cluster C PD patients show were: dependent of alcohol 9.4%, benzodiazepines 18.5%, opioids 6.1%, cocaine 9.7 and cannabis 12.3%.
70.5% of the PD cluster C group were men, however differences according to the cluster C PD were found, being higher the proportion of men in Obsessive-compulsive PD (85.7%) and fewer in Dependent PD patients (33.7%)(χ2 =12.19, p = .007).
Cluster C PD patients presented more depressive symptoms and showed higher scores in anxiety-trait than patient with Cluster A or B PD, being this difference statistically significant.
There is a high rate of cluster C personality disorders among addicted patients. Higher levels of anxiety depression are detected in these patients. Clinicians should be check systematically this symptoms and traits in addicted patients.