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In current English, the term ‘narrative’ covers a lot of conceptual ground – from an overarching position on some big issue, to all kinds of storytelling, to a general attention to language or metaphor. This chapter argues for narrowing our conception of ‘narrative’ to add value to scholarship in the history and philosophy of science (HPS). This narrower Narrative Science Approach treats narrative as a distinct and complex discursive form, subject to careful technical theorizing in its own right. By using analytical categories from narrative theory, we can identify in rigorous detail how scientific narratives are put together, what might distinguish them from other narrative forms, and the questions they raise for HPS and narrative enquiry. Similarly, when scientists use narrative ways of reasoning, tools from cognitive narratology enable us to reconstruct their imaginative activity. As a reciprocal movement, our Narrative Science Approach promises to enrich narrative studies.
Narrative Science examines the use of narrative in scientific research over the last two centuries. It brings together an international group of scholars who have engaged in intense collaboration to find and develop crucial cases of narrative in science. Motivated and coordinated by the Narrative Science project, funded by the European Research Council, this volume offers integrated and insightful essays examining cases that run the gamut from geology to psychology, chemistry, physics, botany, mathematics, epidemiology, and biological engineering. Taking in shipwrecks, human evolution, military intelligence, and mass extinctions, this landmark study revises our understanding of what science is, and the roles of narrative in scientists' work. This title is also available as Open Access.
Despite the fact that 95% of all <5 years of age children with developmental disabilities including Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) live in low- and middle-income countries (LAMI), to date there is an information gap in LAMI studies including Republic of Georgia.
To estimate the prevalence and describe the clinical characteristics of ASDs among the third-grade school students using a total population approach.
The target population (N=27,336) included all 3rd grade students of schools of five main cities of Georgia. The study was conducted in four steps: phase I screening, sampling of screen positive students, phase II confirmative diagnostic assessment, and best-estimate diagnosis. Parents and teachers completed two screening questionnaires in phase I: 27-item Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ) and 25-item Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). In phase II, screen-positive children were evaluated using standardized diagnostic assessments.
Overall, 16,654 students (82%) were assessed by either parent and/or teacher. Students whose ASSQ and/or SDQ scores were in the top 10th percentile were considered as screened positive for diagnostic assessment (N=1976). Of 300 students completed diagnostic assessment 53 were diagnosed ASD. Crude prevalence of ASDs was estimated to be 4.5%. 75% of cases of ASD were first diagnosed. Efforts are currently underway to compute adjusted prevalence, which will be available for the Conference presentation.
The prevalence data of ASD is important to assess the burden of the disorder and facilitate better understanding of specifics of the disorder in different part of the world.
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) can accompany emotional symptoms as well as physical reactions. The assessment and real-time measurement of SAD is difficult in real-world.
This study aims to predict the severity of specific anxiety states and virtual reality (VR) sickness in SAD patients by a machine learning model based on only quantitative measuring of autonomic physiologic signals during VR therapy sessions.
In total, 32 individuals with SAD symptoms were enrolled in VR participatory sessions. We assessed patients’ specific anxiety symptoms through Internalized Shame Scale (ISS) and Post-Event Rumination Scale (PERS), and VR sickness through Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ). Specific anxiety symptoms and VR sickness were divided into severe and non-severe states based on the total score of each scale by K-means clustering. Logistic regression, Random Forest, Naïve Bayes classifier, and Support Vector Machine were used based on the physiological signal data to predict the severity group in subdomains of ISS, PERS, and SSQ.
Prediction performance (F1 score) for the severity of the ISS mistake anxiety subdomain was higher than other scales with 0.8421. For VR sickness, prediction performance for the severity of the physical subdomain was higher than the non-physical subdomain with 0.7692.
The study findings present that mistake anxiety and physical sickness could be predicted more accurately by only autonomic physiological signals, suggesting these features are probably associated with autonomic responses. Based on the present study results, we could provide the evidence for predicting the severity of specific anxiety or VR adverse effects only based on in-situ physiological signals.
It is critical to provide not only mental health services but also welfare services that meet the socioeconomic needs of people suffering from mental illnesses in order for them to recover. Case managers in the public sector who provide socioeconomic support to the low-income class, in particular, play critical roles in early detection of untreated mentally ill people, linking them to the mental health system, and providing various supports for their community integration. Positive working relationships are required to fulfill these roles.
This study aims to analyze the effects of human rights sensitivity of case managers on the working relationships with the persons with mental illness mediated by empathy.
We evaluated overall human rights sensitivity, level of empathy(cognitive, affective, behavioral aspects) and working relationships with the mentally ill of 291 public sector case managers(Mean age = 40.52, SD=7.96, female 78.2%, male 21.8%).
In research model analysis, the goodness-of-fit was evaluated to verify the effect of overall human rights sensitivity on the working relationships with the persons with mental illness mediated by empathy. Most of indices showed sufficient goodness-of-fit. In other words, the higher overall human rights sensitivity is, the higher the level of empathy is, and this has a positive effect on the working relationships with persons with mental illness.
To form positive working relationships with people suffering from mental illnesses, public sector case managers must be educated to increase their empathy by improving their overall human rights sensitivity.
Sensorimotor gating is experimentally operationalized by the prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response (SR). Previous studies suggest high test-retest reliability of PPI and potential correlation with working memory (WM). Here, we aimed to validate and extend the test-retest reliability of PPI in healthy humans and its correlation with WM performance.
We applied an acoustic startle PPI paradigm with four different prepulse intensities (64, 68, 72 and 76 dB) and two different WM tasks [n-back, change detection task (CDT)] in a group of 26 healthy adults (final sample size n = 23). To assess test-retest reliability, we performed all tests on two separate days ~27 days (range: 21–32 days) apart.
We were able to confirm high test-retest reliability of the PPI with a mean intraclass correlation (ICC) of > 0.80 and significant positive correlation of PPI with n-back but not with CDT performance. Detailed analysis showed that PPI across all prepulse intensities significantly correlated with both the 2-back and 0-back conditions, suggesting regulation by cross-conditional processes (e.g. attention). However, when removing the 0-back component from the 2-back data, we found a specific and significant correlation with WM for the 76-dB PPI condition.
With the present study, we were able to confirm the high test-retest reliability of the PPI in humans and could validate and expand on its correlation with WM performance.