To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The European Psychiatric Association (EPA), the main association in the field of mental health in Europe, has long been supporting the development of early career psychiatrists. The EPA Early Career Psychiatrists Committee (ECPC) and its core task forces promote research activities among young psychiatrists, contribute to their professional development through organising courses and other educational events, prepare online educational materials and publications, and actively collaborate with other organisations. The EPA ECPC is always open to fostering cooperation on new professional, educational or research initiatives with early career psychiatrists from different countries.
Severe mental disorders as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia often co-occur with chronic medical illnesses, especially cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of physical health problems in hospitalized patients and to determine the sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with physical comorbidity.
The medical records of all inpatients followed up between September 2007 and September 2009 were reviewed retrospectively.
144 patients were evaluted of which 59 (%41) had schizophrenia, 31(%21.5) had bipolar disorder and 54 (%37.5) had other disorders. 43 (%29.9) patients had at least one medical illness, hypertension being the most common (%30) followed by thyroid disorders (%16) and diabetes mellitus (%11). Diabetes Mellitus was detected only in bipolar patients (p=0.005). Females were affected more than males regarding physical comorbidity (p=0.009). Patients with physical comorbidity were older (42.9 vs 35.54 yrs) and had a longer duration of illness (16.2 vs 10.0 yrs). Their hemoglobin levels were lower, blood glucose, urea, thyroid stimulating hormone levels were higher than the patients with no physical illness and the differences were all statistically significant (p=0.05). There was no difference regarding length of hospital stay, drug compliance, previous neuroleptic use, family history for medical and mental illness.
Conclusions: Although it is generally accepted that many physical conditions have been associated with serious mental disorders, the exact nature of the relationship between them is still unclear. Further research is required to identify medical comorbidity risk factors in order to improve the physical health of these patients.
The contribution of childhood trauma and dissociation to the unknown pathophysiology of fibromyalgia has been the subject of considerable debate.
To assess and compare the relationship of childhood trauma and somatoform dissociation between patients with fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis both of which are characterized by chronic pain and disability.
Early life and prolonged trauma may affect brain modulatory circuitry of pain and emotions. The findings of relationship between traumatic events, dissociation and fibromyalgia can lead to a better understanding of the etiology and suggest new treatment modalities.
Thirty-one patients with fibromyalgia and 19 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were enrolled in the study. All participants were asked to fill in the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire and Dissociation Questionnaire.
Physical neglect score was higher in fibromyalgia group than rheumatoid arthritis group (p < 0.05) although there was no significant difference between two groups in other subscores of childhood trauma and the rest of the dissociation scores. Total trauma scores were positively correlated with dissociation scores in fibromyalgia group whereas this correlation was not seen in rheumatoid group.
Among childhood trauma types, physical neglect seems to have a more important role in fibromyalgia than rheumatoid arthritis. Fibromyalgia may be related to early life stress or prolonged trauma, affecting brain modulatory circuitry of pain and emotions in genetically susceptible individuals.
Interactions between the pharmaceutical industry (PI) and psychiatrists have been under scrutiny recently, though there is little empirical evidence on the nature of the relationship and its intensity at psychiatry trainee level. We therefore studied the level of PI interactions and the underlying beliefs and attitudes in a large sample of European psychiatric trainees.
One thousand four hundred and forty-four psychiatric trainees in 20 European countries were assessed cross-sectionally, with a 62-item questionnaire.
The total number of PI interactions in the preceding two months varied between countries, with least interactions in The Netherlands (M (Mean) = 0.92, SD = 1.44, range = 0–12) and most in Portugal (M = 19.06, SD = 17.44, range = 0–100). Trainees were more likely to believe that PI interactions have no impact on their own prescribing behaviour than that of other physicians (M = 3.30, SD = 1.26 vs. M = 2.39, SD = 1.06 on a 5-point Likert scale: 1 “completely disagree” to 5 “completely agree”). Assigning an educational role to the pharmaceutical industry was associated with more interactions and higher gift value (IRR (incidence rate ratio) = 1.21, 95%CI = 1.12–1.30 and OR = 1.18, 95%CI = 1.02–1.37).
There are frequent interactions between European psychiatric trainees and the PI, with significant variation between countries. We identified several factors affecting this interaction, including attribution of an educational role to the PI. Creating alternative educational opportunities and specific training dedicated to PI interactions may therefore help to reduce the impact of the PI on psychiatric training.
In the last decades, psychiatric training has undergone a major transformation due to the contribution of recent scientific developments in psychiatry. Nowadays, the information acquired during the Psychiatric training seems considerably variable in content and quality between different countries. However, data concerning access to information and also about the educational resources available to the trainees in Europe is very limited.
Objectives and aims
The ATIIPT survey aimed to evaluate Psychiatric trainees’ access to published, online, senior's or industry's information in Europe.
A short paper questionnaire constituted of 7 questions (Appendix 1) was created by the members of the EFPT Research Working Group and passed to each delegate of the 32 countries represented at the 19th EFPT Forum in Prague, Czech Republic, on the 2nd of July 2011.
According to the ATIIPT results, access to information among Psychiatric trainees in Europe is heterogeneous. The most available resources are books and websites, and the most preferable resource is journals. Most of the trainees find their resources sufficient, with the main obstacles being related to low availability of journals and books, lack of time and help from seniors.
Better access to information and more evidence in practice is warranted, since the introduction of novel approaches to access to information may create better psychiatrists in the future, encourage medical students to consider psychiatry as a potential career, and help reduce negative attitudes towards mental illness.
The influence of pharmaceutical industry (PI) on clinical practice and research in psychiatry has been considered a serious problem. Strict rules and guidelines were developed to regulate the interactions between doctors and PI. However, there is an ongoing debate whether these were thoroughly implemented in practice and internalized by physicians. The objective of our study was to assess the attitudes and behaviors of trainees in psychiatry and child & adolescent psychiatry toward PI across Europe. Methodologically, a validated questionnaire with additional items was administered to1444 trainees in 20 European countries. The minimum response rate was set at 60%. We found a high variation across countries in number of interactions between trainees and PI representatives; Portugal and Turkey had the highest number of interactions. The majority (59.76%) agreed that interactions with PI representatives have an impact on physicians’ prescribing behavior; whereas only 29.26% and 19.79% agreed interactions with PI representatives and gifts from PI have impact on their own prescribing behavior, respectively. Most of the gifts were considered appropriate by the majority, except tickets to vacation spot and social dinner at a restaurant. Of the sample, 70.76% think they have not been given sufficient training regarding how to interact with PI representatives. Only less than 20% indicated they have guidelines at institutional or national level. In conclusion, there is substantial interaction between trainees and PI across countries. The majority feel inadequately trained regarding professional interaction with PI, and believes they are immune to the influence of PI.
Migration of mental health professionals is an important phenomenon influencing mental health services of host and donor countries. Data on medical migration in Europe is very limited, particularly in the field of young doctors and psychiatry. To research this hot topic, the European Federation of Psychiatric Trainees (EFPT) conducted the EFPT Brain Drain Survey.
To identify the impact of previous short-term mobility on international migration and to understand characteristics, patterns and reasons of migration.
In this cross-sectional European multicentre study, data were collected from 2281 psychiatric trainees across 33 countries. All participants answered to the EFPT Brain Drain Survey reporting their attitudes and experiences on migration.
Two-thirds of the trainees had not had a short-mobility experience in their lifetime, but those that went abroad were satisfied with their experiences, reporting that these influenced their attitude towards migration positively. However, the majority of the trainees had not had a migratory experience of more than 1 year. Flows showed that Switzerland and United Kingdom have the greatest number of immigrant trainees, whereas Germany and Greece have the greatest number of trainees leaving. ‘'Pull factors'’ were mostly academic and personal reasons, whereas ‘'push factors'’ were mainly: academic and financial reasons. Trainees that wanted to leave the country were significantly more dissatisfied with their income.
The majority of the trainees has considered leaving the country they currently lived in, but a lower percentage has taken steps towards migration.
Research is one of the most appealing fields for trainees in psychiatry and is an essential competency within curricula. Skills gained through research impact on clinical care and can be developed throughout the training of young psychiatrists. Since mobility is growing at different levels within psychiatry, giving rise to new challenges while requiring the exchange of visions and know-how, international collaborative research becomes crucial and should be promoted since the training.
To share the experience of joint work and collaborative research done through joining professional associations, such as the European Federation of Psychiatric Trainees (EFPT) that provide opportunities for participating in research activities and establishing networks with others.
The interest for academic background and investigational activities are essential in psychiatry, being therefore crucial to share and promote discussion on the international research projects done in an international meeting point like this.
Assess the research projects done through time by the EFPT research group with special focus on the most recent ones.
Since 2008 the EFPT started a research group with the aim of facilitating trainee-led collaborative studies. Over the years, several international research projects on training-related areas have been conducted and published in international peer-reviewed journals.
The research projects done will be briefly presented, showing that trainees can have the possibility to participate in all the phases of the projects as national coordinators and share with other colleagues their research competencies, having the possibility at times to rely on supervision by internationally renowned experts.
There is a shortage of psychiatrists worldwide. Within Europe, psychiatric trainees can move between countries, which increases the problem in some countries and alleviates it in others. However, little is known about the reasons psychiatric trainees move to another country.
Survey of psychiatric trainees in 33 European countries, exploring how frequently psychiatric trainees have migrated or want to migrate, their reasons to stay and leave the country, and the countries where they come from and where they move to. A 61-item self-report questionnaire was developed, covering questions about their demographics, experiences of short-term mobility (from 3 months up to 1 year), experiences of long-term migration (of more than 1 year) and their attitudes towards migration.
A total of 2281 psychiatric trainees in Europe participated in the survey, of which 72.0% have ‘ever’ considered to move to a different country in their future, 53.5% were considering it ‘now’, at the time of the survey, and 13.3% had already moved country. For these immigrant trainees, academic was the main reason they gave to move from their country of origin. For all trainees, the overall main reason for which they would leave was financial (34.4%), especially in those with lower (<500€) incomes (58.1%), whereas in those with higher (>2500€) incomes, personal reasons were paramount (44.5%).
A high number of psychiatric trainees considered moving to another country, and their motivation largely reflects the substantial salary differences. These findings suggest tackling financial conditions and academic opportunities.
Workforce migration of mental health professionals seems to have a significant impact on mental health services, both in the donor and host countries. Nevertheless, information on migration in junior doctors within Europe is very limited. Therefore, the European Federation of Psychiatric Trainees (EFPT) has conducted the Brain Drain Survey.
To identify, in junior doctors training in psychiatry, the impact of international short-term mobility experiences, towards a future workforce migration across countries, exploring its patterns and reasons.
In this cross-sectional international study, data were collected from 2281 psychiatric trainees in 33 countries. All participants answered to the EFPT Brain Drain Survey reporting their attitudes and experiences on mobility and migration.
Only one-third of the trainees had a short-mobility experience in their lifetime, being education the main purpose for these experiences. Interestingly, the main predictors for future migratory tendency were not only the having a income and being dissatisfied with this income, but having a short-mobility experience. In fact, people that had short-mobility experiences were two times more likely to express a migratory tendency. Trainees that went abroad were predominantly satisfied with their experiences, reporting that these influenced their attitudes towards migration, positively.
These findings show that short-term mobility has a positive impact into future long-term migration, increasing its probability.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The brain drain of mental health professionals is an important issue especially for developing countries with inadequate recruitment rates. The European Federation of Psychiatric Trainees (EFPT) investigated the extent of migration among trainees across Europe by Brain Drain research project. Results from a non-EU country, with the lowest number of mental health professionals per 100 000 population across OECD countries might provide important clues.
To identify attitudes towards and behaviors towards international migration among psychiatry trainees from Turkey.
An online survey was conducted among psychiatry trainees from Turkey in 2013, as part of the EFPT Brain Drain Research Project.
Of 107 trainees surveyed, 74% considered living abroad. However, the rate of having even short mobility experience was just 13%, and these were mainly educational visits. More than half of those who visited a foreign country reported to have a satisfactory experience, which might explain the positive influence of these visits on attitudes towards migration. Responders perceived academic conditions as the most important aspect of training that needs to be improved, in line with the fact that inadequate training programs were important reasons for migrating.
Overall, psychiatry trainees in Turkey tend to remain in their country of origin, which may protect healthcare system against the detriment of workforce loss. The relatively low rate of migration may also reflect the legislative barriers (e.g. being o non-EU country) impeding migrating. Our findings also suggest that the unmet educational needs of trainees require immediate attention.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
This research communication aims to test the hypothesis that B-Mode, colour Doppler ultrasonographic measurements and characteristics can identify mastitis in dairy cows. A total of 102 lactating cows were divided into 3 groups: cows in which all mammary quarters were CMT-negative, cows with CMT-positive mammary quarters and cows with clinical mastitis in at least one quarter. Colour Doppler ultrasonography measurements of the supramammary lymph nodes revealed that distortion-type vascular morphology, the rate of type 4 vascular densities and the incidence of mixed-type vascular distributions were highest in the clinical mastitis group, whereas the frequency of avascularity in supramammary lymph nodes was highest in the CMT-negative group. All differences were significant. In conclusion, the use of B-mode and colour Doppler ultrasonographic measurements of the supramammary lymph nodes can provide useful information about the current condition of mastitis in cows, although its diagnostic potential remains to be determined.
Otitis media with effusion is a clinical manifestation characterised by inflammation of middle-ear mucosa. This study investigated the therapeutic effect of erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin and roxithromycin on a histamine-induced animal model of otitis media with effusion.
The animals were divided into five groups, receiving erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, roxithromycin or saline solution. The guinea pigs in the study groups received erythromycin (40 mg/kg/day), clarithromycin (15 mg/kg/day), azithromycin (10 mg/kg/day) or roxithromycin (10 mg/kg/day) for 3 days by gastric tube. Four hours after the end of the administration, histamine solution was injected into the right middle ear.
The lowest neutrophil density value obtained using stereological techniques was in the azithromycin group (0.86 ± 0.25 × 10−5/μm3), while the highest value was observed in the control group (6.68 ± 3.12 × 10−5/μm3). The anti-inflammatory properties of clarithromycin, azithromycin and roxithromycin were similar to one another, but better than that of erythromycin.
The use of macrolide antibiotics is recommended, as they show antibacterial and anti-inflammatory efficacy in otitis media with effusion.
We are trying to reduce the largest uncertainties in using white dwarf stars as Galactic chronometers by understanding the details of carbon crystalliazation that currently result in a 1–2 Gyr uncertainty in the ages of the oldest white dwarf stars. We expect the coolest white dwarf stars to have crystallized interiors, but theory also predicts hotter white dwarf stars, if they are massive enough, will also have some core crystallization. BPM 37093 is the first discovered of only a handful of known massive white dwarf stars that are also pulsating DAV, or ZZ Ceti, variables. Our approach is to use the pulsations to constrain the core composition and amount of crystallization. Here we report our analysis of 4 hours of continuous time series spectroscopy of BPM 37093 with Gemini South combined with simultaneous time-series photometry from Mt. John (New Zealand), SAAO, PROMPT, and Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito (CASLEO, Argentina).
The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the pectoralis major myofascial flap on pharyngocutaneous fistula formation and time to oral feeding.
This retrospective study reviewed 155 total laryngectomies. Patients were divided into two main groups. Group 1 included 110 patients who were treated primarily by total laryngectomy and group 2 comprised 45 patients who were treated by salvage laryngectomy with or without a pectoralis major myofascial flap.
The use of a pectoralis major myofascial flap did not have a significant effect on pharyngocutaneous fistula formation in the salvage group (p = 0.376). When comparing the oral feeding day of patients with pharyngocutaneous fistula, a significant difference was observed between the salvage group with pectoralis major myofascial flap reinforcement and the salvage group without pectoralis major myofascial flap reinforcement (p = 0.004).
Our study demonstrated that pectoralis major myofascial flap reinforcement did not decrease the rate of pharyngocutaneous fistula formation. Instead, it prevented the formation of large fistulas that would require surgical management, and showed a similar time to oral feeding and length of hospital stay to primary laryngectomy.