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The current trends in stimulated Brillouin scattering and optical phase conjugation are overviewed. This report is formed by the selected papers presented in the “Fifth International Workshop on stimulated Brillouin scattering and phase conjugation 2010” in Japan. The nonlinear properties of phase conjugation based on stimulated Brillouin scattering and photo-refraction can compensate phase distortions in the high power laser systems, and they will also open up potentially novel laser technologies, e.g., phase stabilization, beam combination, pulse compression, ultrafast pulse shaping, and arbitrary waveform generation.
Recent experimental results demonstrated that well formed plasma jets can be produced at laser interaction with targets made of materials with high atomic number (A ≥ 29 where A = 29 corresponds to Cu). On the contrary, it is impossible to launch a plasma jet on low-A material targets like plastic. This paper is aimed at explanation of this difference by considering mechanisms responsible for plasma jet formation, i.e., the radiative cooling of ablative plasma and the influence of target irradiation annular profile speculated hitherto, newly complemented by different expansion regimes of the Cu and plastic plasmas (provided by numerical simulations). The experiment was carried out with the PALS iodine laser. Two different planar massive targets, plastic and Cu, as well as the plastic target covered by thin Cu layers of various thicknesses were irradiated by the third harmonic laser beam of energy of 30 J, pulse duration of 250 ps (full width at half maximum), and the focal spot radius of 400 µm. To find the most suitable range of these layers (from 28 to 190 nm) a simple analytical model of laser-driven evaporation was developed. Three-frame laser interferometer and an X-ray streak camera were used as two main diagnostic tools. Numerical modeling was performed with the use of two-dimensional hydrodynamic code ATLANT-HE. Results provided from experiments and theoretical analyses have proved that the process of plasma jet formation is rather complex. Relative importance of the three mechanisms mentioned above depends on the target irradiation geometry as well as the target material used.
Interactions of laser driven plasma jets with He and Ar gas puffs was investigated experimentally by means of three-frame interferometric/shadowgraphic system and three-frame X-ray pinhole camera. A defocused iodine laser beam using the Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS) interacting with massive planar Cu targets generated high-speed well-collimated plasma jets. The PALS third harmonic (0.438 µm), with pulse duration of 250 ps (full width at half maximum), and energy of 100 J was employed in two irradiation geometries: with an incidence normal to the target surface and with an oblique one (30° with respect to the target normal), in order to minimize the heating of the ambient gas by the laser beam. The results of these interaction experiments, in particular, those obtained in case of the oblique incidence geometry, are presented and discussed. They show the effect of the double shock formation in ambient gases: starting by the ablative plasma action, followed by that of the jet.
An overview on current trends in stimulated Brillouin scattering and optical phase conjugation is given. This report is based on the results of the “Second International Workshop on stimulated Brillouin scattering and phase conjugation” held in Potsdam/Germany in September 2007. The properties of stimulated Brillouin scattering are presented for the compensation of phase distortions in combination with novel laser technology like ceramics materials but also for e.g., phase stabilization, beam combination, and slow light. Photorefractive nonlinear mirrors and resonant refractive index gratings are addressed as phase conjugating mirrors in addition.
This paper is devoted to investigations of laser energy transfer into solid targets with respect to the focusing lens focal point position relative to the solid target surface as obtained at the PALS laser facility. The third harmonic of the PALS laser beam with energy ~90 J and pulse duration ~250 ps (FWHM) was used for irradiation of two kinds of targets made of Cu: a slab and a 3.6 µm thick foil. The focal point of the beam was located either inside or in front of the target surface, and care was taken to ensure the same laser spot radii in both cases (250 µm). It was demonstrated that these two opposite focal point positions give rise to significantly different laser-plasma interactions: with either depression or maximum of the laser intensity distribution in the center of the beam, respectively. It was also verified that the focal point position inside of the target is favorable for plasma jets creation, whereas the opposite case is more effective for acceleration of flyers.
Interactions of sub-nanosecond pulses of kJ-class iodine laser
“PALS” with low-density foams and acceleration of Al foils by
the pressure of the heated foam matter are investigated here, both
experimentally and theoretically. X-ray streak camera is used for
evaluation of the speed of energy transfer through the porous foam
material. The shock-wave arrival on the rear side of the target is
monitored by optical streak camera. Accelerated foil velocities, measured
by three-frame optical interferometers, and shadowgraphs, reach up to
107 cm/s. The accelerated foil shape is smooth without any
signature of small-scale structures present in the incident laser beam.
Conversion efficiencies as high as 14% of the laser energy into the
kinetic energy of Al foil are derived. Experimental results compare well
with our two-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations and with an approximate
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