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The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of COVID-19 in Nigeria with a view of generating evidence to enhance planning and response strategies. A national surveillance dataset between 27 February and 6 June 2020 was retrospectively analysed, with confirmatory testing for COVID-19 done by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The primary outcomes were cumulative incidence (CI) and case fatality (CF). A total of 40 926 persons (67% of total 60 839) had complete records of RT-PCR test across 35 states and the Federal Capital Territory, 12 289 (30.0%) of whom were confirmed COVID-19 cases. Of those confirmed cases, 3467 (28.2%) had complete records of clinical outcome (alive or dead), 342 (9.9%) of which died. The overall CI and CF were 5.6 per 100 000 population and 2.8%, respectively. The highest proportion of COVID-19 cases and deaths were recorded in persons aged 31–40 years (25.5%) and 61–70 years (26.6%), respectively; and males accounted for a higher proportion of confirmed cases (65.8%) and deaths (79.0%). Sixty-six per cent of confirmed COVID-19 cases were asymptomatic at diagnosis. In conclusion, this paper has provided an insight into the early epidemiology of COVID-19 in Nigeria, which could be useful for contextualising public health planning.
Despite an increasing awareness of the importance of spirituality in mental health contexts, a ‘religiosity gap’ exists in the difference in the value placed on spirituality and religion by professionals compared with service users. This may be due to a lack of understanding about the complex ways people connect with spirituality within contemporary society and mental health contexts, and can result in people's spiritual needs being neglected, dismissed or pathologised within clinical practice. The aim of this qualitative systematic review is to characterise the experiences of spirituality among adults with mental health difficulties in published qualitative research.
An electronic search of seven databases was conducted along with forward and backward citation searching, expert consultation and hand-searching of journals. Thirty-eight studies were included from 4944 reviewed papers. The review protocol was pre-registered (PROSPERO:CRD42017080566).
A thematic synthesis identified six key themes: Meaning-making (sub-themes: Multiple explanations; Developmental journey; Destiny v. autonomy), Identity, Service-provision, Talk about it, Interaction with symptoms (sub-themes: Interactive meaning-making; Spiritual disruption) and Coping (sub-themes: Spiritual practices; Spiritual relationship; Spiritual struggles; Preventing suicide), giving the acronym MISTIC.
This qualitative systematic review provides evidence of the significant role spirituality plays in the lives of many people who experience mental health difficulties. It indicates the importance of mental health professionals being aware of and prepared to support the spiritual dimension of people using services. The production of a theory-based framework can inform efforts by health providers to understand and address people's spiritual needs as part of an integrated holistic approach towards care.
We present a multi-frequency study of the intermediate spiral SAB(r)bc type galaxy NGC 6744, using available data from the Chandra X-Ray telescope, radio continuum data from the Australia Telescope Compact Array and Murchison Widefield Array, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer infrared observations. We identify 117 X-ray sources and 280 radio sources. Of these, we find nine sources in common between the X-ray and radio catalogues, one of which is a faint central black hole with a bolometric radio luminosity similar to the Milky Way’s central black hole. We classify 5 objects as supernova remnant (SNR) candidates, 2 objects as likely SNRs, 17 as H ii regions, 1 source as an AGN; the remaining 255 radio sources are categorised as background objects and one X-ray source is classified as a foreground star. We find the star-formation rate (SFR) of NGC 6744 to be in the range 2.8–4.7 M⊙~yr − 1 signifying the galaxy is still actively forming stars. The specific SFR of NGC 6744 is greater than that of late-type spirals such as the Milky Way, but considerably less that that of a typical starburst galaxy.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
Introduction: Data regarding adverse events (AEs) (unintended harm to the patient from health care provided) among children seen in the emergency department (ED) are scarce despite the high risk setting and population. The objective of our study was to estimate the risk and type of AEs, and their preventability and severity, among children treated in pediatric EDs. Methods: Our prospective cohort study enrolled children <18 years of age presenting for care during 21 randomized 8 hr-shifts at 9 pediatric EDs from Nov 2014 to October 2015. Exclusion criteria included unavailability for follow-up or insurmountable language barrier. RAs collected demographic, medical history, ED course, and systems level data. At day 7, 14, and 21 a RA administered a structured telephone interview to all patients to identify flagged outcomes (e.g. repeat ED visits, worsening/new symptoms, etc). A validated trigger tool was used to screen admitted patients’ health records. For any patients with a flagged outcome or trigger, 3 ED physicians independently determined if an AE occurred. Primary outcome was the proportion of patients with an AE related to ED care within 3 weeks of their ED visit. Results: We enrolled 6377 (72.0%) of 8855 eligible patients; 545 (8.5%) were lost to follow-up. Median age was 4.4 years (range 3 months to 17.9 yrs). Eight hundred and seventy seven (13.8%) were triaged as CTAS 1 or 2, 2638 (41.4%) as CTAS 3, and 2839 (44.7%) as CTAS 4 or 5. Top entrance complaints were fever (11.2%) and cough (8.8%). Flagged outcomes/triggers were identified for 2047 (32.1%) patients. While 252 (4.0%) patients suffered at least one AE within 3 weeks of ED visit, 163 (2.6%) suffered an AE related to ED care. In total, patients suffered 286 AEs, most (67.9%) being preventable. The most common AE types were management issues (32.5%) and procedural complications (21.9%). The need for a medical intervention (33.9%) and another ED visit (33.9%) were the most frequent clinical consequences. In univariate analysis, older age, chronic conditions, hospital admission, initial location in high acuity area of the ED, having >1 ED MD or a consultant involved in care, (all p<0.001) and longer length of stay (p<0.01) were associated with AEs. Conclusion: While our multicentre study found a lower risk of AEs among pediatric ED patients than reported among pediatric inpatients and adult ED patients, a high proportion of these AEs were preventable.
We carry out a multi-wavelength analysis of star forming galaxies in the massive cluster MS0451.6-0305 at z∼0.54 to shed light on the evolution of the far-infrared-radio relationship in rich clusters. We have performed Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) fitting of IRAC 3.6μ, IRAC 4.5μ and MIPS 24μ photometry from Spitzer to derive the total infrared bolometric luminosity of spectroscopically confirmed cluster members with radio counterparts. The radio flux densities were measured from deep Very Large Array (VLA) radio continuum observations. The relationship between the infrared and radio luminosities for our sources show the strong correlation found between these two parameters for star forming galaxies. The far-infrared to radio luminosity ratio (qIR) values measured for these sources are comparable to those measured in low redshift clusters and indicative of an excess of radio emission.
The Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering faculty at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSM&T) has developed a unique undergraduate program that integrates research, extracurricular activities, and outreach experiences. A common thread throughout the program is an introduction to the artistic and historical background of metallurgical engineering. These activities use kinesthetic learning to promote student learning of metallurgical engineering, aspects often not traditionally included in engineering curricula. These programs are similar to those envisioned by the National Academy of Engineering in response to the changing needs of engineering. These are described in two visionary books published by the National Research Council.
A major focus of the program integrates blacksmithing activities with curricular, extracurricular, and outreach activities. All SDSM&T students are invited to a weekly blacksmithing activity called Hammer-in. Blacksmithing-related laboratories were added to the curriculum. Additionally, students developed a portable blacksmithing laboratory with faculty supervision. The laboratory has been taken to K-12 schools, including Native American schools on reservations, to reach out to regional students, thereby promoting interest in STEM careers. The success of these activities led to their incorporation into a National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU) at SDSM&T called Back to the Future that focuses on understanding new technologies through historical antecedents. The SDSM&T students who participated in this REU used this experience as part of their junior/senior design courses. This program has increased enrollment in the department and has led to better learning outcomes for the students.
Immunohistochemistry and immunogold labelling techniques were used to localize the EG95 vaccine antigen in Echinococcus granulosus oncospheres. In non-activated oncospheres, the cytoplasm of 2 pairs of bilateral cells exhibited specific positive labelling for the presence of EG95. No surface localization was seen in non-activated or recently activated oncospheres. Besides the staining of 2 pairs of bilateral cells, there was also a generalized distribution of specific staining for EG95 throughout the parenchyma of activated oncospheres. Immunogold labelling of non-activated oncosphere revealed specific reactivity for EG95 involving 2 pairs of bilateral cells and the ultrastructural characteristics of these cells were consistent with them being penetration gland cells. No other oncospheral structures stained specifically for the presence of EG95. The absence of surface location of EG95 in oncospheres suggests that the parasite may not be susceptible to vaccine-induced antibody and complement mediated attack until some post-oncospheral development has occurred. Further studies would be required to determine when the EG95 antigen associates with the parasite's surface, thus making them susceptible to immune attack.
Referral for brief intervention among people who misuse alcohol is reported to be effective but its impact among those who present to services following deliberate self-harm (DSH) has not been examined.
Consecutive patients who presented to an Emergency Department (ED) following an episode of DSH were screened for alcohol misuse. Those found to be misusing alcohol were randomly assigned to brief intervention plus a health information leaflet or to a health information leaflet alone. The primary outcome was whether the patient reattended an ED following a further episode of DSH during the subsequent 6 months. Secondary outcomes were alcohol consumption, mental health and satisfaction with care measured 3 and 6 months after randomization.
One hundred and three people took part in the study. Follow-up data on our primary outcome were obtained for all subjects and on 63% for secondary outcomes. Half those referred for brief intervention received it. Repetition of DSH was strongly associated with baseline alcohol consumption, but not influenced by treatment allocation. There was a non-significant trend towards the number of units of alcohol consumed per drinking day being lower among those randomized to brief intervention.
Referral for brief intervention for alcohol misuse following an episode of DSH may not influence the likelihood of repetition of self-harm. Longer-term interventions may be needed to help people who deliberately harm themselves and have evidence of concurrent alcohol misuse.
The expansion rate of the Universe can potentially be measured using age-dating of Luminous Red Galaxies (LRGs). Here, we explore the validity of the assumptions implicit in this method using LRGs identified in the Millenium Simulation (MS). We use stellar population modelling and spectral synthesis to estimate the errors on ages that can be expected and discuss optimization of such an experiment. We find that H(z) using simulated galaxies from MS can be recovered with high accuracy. Using single stellar populations (SSPs) to age-date LRGs is not sufficient but if the MS star formation histories of galaxies are used, accurate ages are obtainable. We discuss an observing program to carry out this experiment using SALT (Southern African Large Telescope).
Little information exists on treatment effectiveness in antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). We investigated the feasibility and effectiveness of carrying out a randomized controlled trial of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in men with ASPD who were aggressive.
This was an exploratory two-centre, randomized controlled trial in a community setting. Fifty-two adult men with a diagnosis of ASPD, with acts of aggression in the 6 months prior to the study, were randomized to either treatment as usual (TAU) plus CBT, or usual treatment alone. Change over 12 months of follow-up was assessed in the occurrence of any act of aggression and also in terms of alcohol misuse, mental state, beliefs and social functioning.
The follow-up rate was 79%. At 12 months, both groups reported a decrease in the occurrence of any acts of verbal or physical aggression. Trends in the data, in favour of CBT, were noted for problematic drinking, social functioning and beliefs about others.
CBT did not improve outcomes more than usual treatment for men with ASPD who are aggressive and living in the community in this exploratory study. However, the data suggest that a larger study is required to fully assess the effectiveness of CBT in reducing aggression, alcohol misuse and improving social functioning and view of others. It is feasible to carry out a rigorous randomized controlled trial in this group.
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with behavioral traits that predate the onset of AN and persist after recovery. We identified patterns of behavioral traits in AN trios (proband plus two biological parents).
A total of 433 complete trios were collected in the Price Foundation Genetic Study of AN using standardized instruments for eating disorder (ED) symptoms, anxiety, perfectionism, and temperament. We used latent profile analysis and ANOVA to identify and validate patterns of behavioral traits.
We distinguished three classes with medium to large effect sizes by mothers' and probands' drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, perfectionism, neuroticism, trait anxiety, and harm avoidance. Fathers did not differ significantly across classes. Classes were distinguished by degree of symptomatology rather than qualitative differences. Class 1 (~33%) comprised low symptom probands and mothers with scores in the healthy range. Class 2 (~43%) included probands with marked elevations in drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, neuroticism, trait anxiety, and harm avoidance and mothers with mild anxious/perfectionistic traits. Class 3 (~24%) included probands and mothers with elevations on ED and anxious/perfectionistic traits. Mother–daughter symptom severity was related in classes 1 and 3 only. Trio profiles did not differ significantly by proband clinical status or subtype.
A key finding is the importance of mother and daughter traits in the identification of temperament and personality patterns in families affected by AN. Mother–daughter pairs with severe ED and anxious/perfectionistic traits may represent a more homogeneous and familial variant of AN that could be of value in genetic studies.
Customer requirements and vision in aerospace dictate that the next generation of civil transport aircraft should have a strong emphasis on increased safety, reduced environmental impact and reduced cost without sacrificing performance. In this context, the School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at the Queen’s University of Belfast and Bombardier have, in recent years, been conducting research into some of the key aerodynamic technologies for the next generation of aircraft engine nacelles. Investigations have been performed into anti-icing technology, efficient thrust reversal, engine fire zone safety, life cycle cost and integration of the foregoing with other considerations in engine and aircraft design. A unique correlation for heat transfer in an anti-icing system has been developed. The effect of normal vibration on heat transfer in such systems has been found to be negligible. It has been shown that carefully designed natural blockage thrust reversers without a cascade can reduce aircraft weight with only a small sacrifice in the reversed thrust. A good understanding of the pressure relief doors and techniques to improve the performance of such doors have been developed. Trade off studies between aerodynamics, manufacturing and assembly of engine nacelles have shown the potential for a significant reduction in life cycle cost.
The Keck Interferometer Nuller (KIN) is one of the major scientific and technical precursors to the Terrestrial Planet Finder Interferometer (TPF-I) mission. KIN's primary objective is to measure the level of exo-zodiacal mid-infrared emission around nearby main sequence stars, which requires deep broad-band nulling of astronomical sources of a few Janskys at 10 microns. A number of new capabilitites are needed in order to reach that goal with the Keck telescopes: mid-infrared coherent recombination, interferometric operation in “split pupil” mode, N-band optical path stabilization using K-band fringe tracking and internal metrology, and eventually, active atmospheric dispersion correction. We report here on the progress made implementing these new functionalities, and discuss the initial levels of extinction achieved on the sky.
Background. Socio-cultural factors impact on the extent of suicidal ideation and attempted suicide but the relative importance of these factors among people from different ethnic groups in Britain has not been explored. We examined the prevalence of suicidal ideation, the incidence of attempted suicide, and the extent of service utilization following attempted suicide among representative samples of White, Irish, Black Caribbean, Bangladeshi, Indian and Pakistani individuals living in England.
Method. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the EMPIRIC study, a cross-sectional survey of 4281 adults aged 16–74 years, living in private households in England.
Results. Lifetime suicidal ideation was generally lower in ethnic minority groups but higher among those born in the UK than those who migrated to England as adults. Risk factors for suicidal ideation have much in common across different ethnic groups; current symptoms of mental distress being the most important. White British and Irish respondents were twice as likely to receive medical attention following attempted suicide than those from other ethnic groups.
Conclusions. Services need to adapt in order to ensure that people from ethnic minorities receive appropriate psychological and medical care following attempted suicide.
Materials studies of high Al-content (> 30%) AlGaN epilayers and the performance of AlGaN-based LEDs with emission wavelengths shorter than 300 nm are reported. N-type AlGaN films with Al compositions greater than 30% reveal a reduction in conductivity with increasing Al composition. The reduction of threading dislocation density from the 1–5 × 1010 cm-2 range to the 6–9 × 109cm-2 range results in an improvement of electrical conductivity and Al0.90Ga0.10N films with n= 1.6e17 cm-3 and μ=20 cm2/Vs have been achieved. The design, fabrication and packaging of flip-chip bonded deep UV LEDs is described. Large area (1 mm × 1 mm) LED structures with interdigitated contacts demonstrate output powers of 2.25 mW at 297 nm and 1.3 mW at 276 nm when operated under DC current. 300 μm × 300 μm LEDs emitting at 295 nm and operated at 20 mA DC have demonstrated less than 50% drop in output power after more than 2400 hours of operation. Optimization of the electron block layer in 274 nm LED structures has enabled a significant reduction in deep level emission bands, and a peak quantum well to deep level ratio of 700:1 has been achieved for 300 μm × 300 μm LEDs operated at 100 mA DC. Shorter wavelength LED designs are described, and LEDs emitting at 260 nm, 254nm and 237 nm are reported.
The junction temperature of AlGaN/GaN ultraviolet (UV) Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) emitting at 295 nm is measured by using the temperature coefficients of the diode forward voltage and emission peak energy. The high-energy slope of the spectrum is explored to measure the carrier temperature. A linear relation between junction temperature and current is found. Analysis of the experimental methods reveals that the diode-forward voltage is the most accurate method (± 3 °C). A theoretical model for the dependence of the diode junction voltage (Vj) on junction temperature (T) is developed that takes into account the temperature dependence of the energy gap. A thermal resistance of 87.6 K/W is obtained with the AlGaN/GaN LED sample mounted with thermal paste on a heat sink.