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Recent drilling successes on Rutford Ice Stream in West Antarctica demonstrate the viability of hot water drilling subglacial access holes to depths >2000 m. Having techniques to access deep subglacial environments reliably paves the way for subglacial lake exploration beneath the thick central West Antarctic Ice Sheet. An ideal candidate lake, overlain by ~2650 m of ice, identified by Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs), Chile, has led to collaboration with British Antarctic Survey to access Subglacial Lake CECs (SLCECs). To conform with the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research code of conduct, which provides a guide to responsible scientific exploration and stewardship of these pristine systems, any access drilling must minimise all aspects of contamination and disturbance of the subglacial environment. To meet these challenges, along with thicker ice and 2000 m elevation, pumping and water treatment systems developed for the Subglacial Lake Ellsworth project, together with new diesel generators, additional water heating and longer drill hose, are currently being integrated with the BEAMISH hot water drill. A dedicated test season near SLCECs will commission the new clean hot water drill, with testing and validation of all clean operating procedures. A subsequent season will then access SLCECs cleanly.
In most of the world Toxoplasma gondii is comprised of archetypal types (types I, II and III); however, South America displays several non-archetypal strains. This study used an experimental mouse model to characterize the immune response and parasite kinetics following infection with different parasite genotypes. An oral inoculation of 50 oocysts per mouse from T. gondii M4 type II (archetypal, avirulent), BrI or BrIII (non-archetypal, virulent and intermediate virulent, respectively) for groups (G)2, G3 and G4, respectively was used. The levels of mRNA expression of cytokines, immune compounds, cell surface markers and receptor adapters [interferon gamma (IFNγ), interleukin (IL)-12, CD8, CD4, CD25, CXCR3 and MyD88] were quantified by SYBR green reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Lesions were characterized by histology and detection by immunohistochemistry established distribution of parasites. Infection in G2 mice was mild and characterized by an early MyD88-dependent pathway. In G3, there were high levels of expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IFNγ and IL-12 in the mice showing severe clinical symptoms at 8–11 days post infection (dpi), combined with the upregulation of CD25, abundant tachyzoites and tissue lesions in livers, lungs and intestines. Significant longer expression of IFNγ and IL-12 genes, with other Th1-balanced immune responses, such as increased levels of CXCR3 and MyD88 in G4, resulted in survival of mice and chronic toxoplasmosis, with the occurrence of tissue cysts in brain and lungs, at 14 and 21 dpi. Different immune responses and kinetics of gene expression appear to be elicited by the different strains and non-archetypal parasites demonstrated higher virulence.
In Brazil, the buffalo milk market has been growing. However, identity and quality standards have not been established for this raw material, nor have proper distinctions between buffalo milk and bovine milk been defined. Currently, the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) has only three producers that supply raw material for officially marketed derivatives. The aim of this study was to determine the identity and quality standards of raw buffalo milk in this region. Samples were obtained biweekly from three farm cooling tanks between June 2017 and August 2018, to reach a total of 69 samples. The averages for the results of the physicochemical parameters fat, protein, lactose, total solids, SNF (solids-not-fat), calcium, density, FP, acidity and SCC were 5.5 g/100 g, 4.06 g/100 g, 5.07 g/100 g, 15.5 g/100 g, 9.96 g/100 g, 0.161 g/100 g, 1.034 g/ml, −0.527°C, 16°D and 95 × 103 cells/ml, respectively. With reference to the microbiological parameters, the mean of the Standard Plate Count (SPC) and thermotolerant coliforms were 9,0 × 104 CFU/ml and 1.6 × 102 MPN/ml, respectively. Regarding coagulase-positive staphylococci, 36 samples tested positive (52% of total). Neither Salmonella spp. nor Listeria monocytogenes, nor antibiotic or antiparasitic residues were detected in any sample. In conclusion, the buffalo milk used as raw material for dairy products in southern Brazil demonstrated satisfactory physicochemical and microbiological characteristics, in accordance with recent scientific literature.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common disease causing dementia, is linked to increased mortality. However, the effect of antipsychotic use on specific causes of mortality has not yet been investigated thoroughly.
Utilizing the Danish nationwide registers, we defined a cohort of patients diagnosed with AD. Utilizing separate Cox regressions for specific causes of mortality, we investigated the effects of cumulative antipsychotic dosage after diagnosis and current antipsychotic exposure in the time period 2000–2011.
In total, 45,894 patients were followed for 3,803,996 person-years. A total of 6129 cardiovascular related deaths, 2088 cancer related deaths, 1620 infection related deaths, and 28 intentional self-harm related deaths are presented. Current antipsychotic exposure increased mortality rate with HR between 1.92 and 2.31 for cardiovascular, cancer, and infection related death. Cumulative antipsychotic dosages were most commonly associated with increased rates of mortality for cardiovascular and infection as cause of death, whereas the associations were less clear with cancer and intentional self-harm as cause of death.
We showed that cumulative antipsychotic drug dosages increased mortality rates for cardiovascular and infection as cause of death. These findings highlight the need for further investigations of long-term effects of treatment and of possible sub-groups who could benefit from treatment.
Little is known about who would benefit from Internet-based personalised nutrition (PN) interventions. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of participants who achieved greatest improvements (i.e. benefit) in diet, adiposity and biomarkers following an Internet-based PN intervention. Adults (n 1607) from seven European countries were recruited into a 6-month, randomised controlled trial (Food4Me) and randomised to receive conventional dietary advice (control) or PN advice. Information on dietary intake, adiposity, physical activity (PA), blood biomarkers and participant characteristics was collected at baseline and month 6. Benefit from the intervention was defined as ≥5 % change in the primary outcome (Healthy Eating Index) and secondary outcomes (waist circumference and BMI, PA, sedentary time and plasma concentrations of cholesterol, carotenoids and omega-3 index) at month 6. For our primary outcome, benefit from the intervention was greater in older participants, women and participants with lower HEI scores at baseline. Benefit was greater for individuals reporting greater self-efficacy for ‘sticking to healthful foods’ and who ‘felt weird if [they] didn’t eat healthily’. Participants benefited more if they reported wanting to improve their health and well-being. The characteristics of individuals benefiting did not differ by other demographic, health-related, anthropometric or genotypic characteristics. Findings were similar for secondary outcomes. These findings have implications for the design of more effective future PN intervention studies and for tailored nutritional advice in public health and clinical settings.
To evaluate the efficacy of detergent and friction on removal of traditional biofilm and cyclic-buildup biofilm (CBB) from polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) channels and to evaluate the efficacy of glutaraldehyde to kill residual bacteria after cleaning.
PTFE channels were exposed to artificial test soil containing 108 CFU/mL of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis, followed by full cleaning and high-level disinfection (HLD) for five repeated rounds to establish CBB. For traditional biofilm, the HLD step was omitted. Cleaning with enzymatic and alkaline detergents, bristle brush, and Pull Thru channel cleaner were compared to a water flush only. Carbohydrate, protein, viable count, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels were analyzed and atomic force microscopy (AFM) was performed.
In the absence of friction, cleaning of traditional biofilm and CBB was not effective compared to the positive control (Dunn-Bonferroni tests; P > .05) regardless of the detergent used. ATP, protein, and carbohydrate analyses were unable to detect traditional biofilm or CBB. The AFM analysis showed that fixation resulted in CBB being smoother and more compact than traditional biofilm.
Friction during the cleaning process was a critical parameter regardless of the detergent used for removal of either traditional biofilm or CBB. Glutaraldehyde effectively killed the remaining microorganisms regardless of the cleaning method used.
Consanguineous marriages potentially play an important role in the transmission of β-thalassaemia in many communities. This study aimed to determine the rate and socio-demographic associations of consanguineous marriages and to assess the influence on the prevalence of β-thalassaemia in Sri Lanka. Three marriage registrars from each district of Sri Lanka were randomly selected to prospectively collect data on all couples who registered their marriage during a 6-month period starting 1st July 2009. Separately, the parents of patients with β-thalassaemia were interviewed to identify consanguinity. A total of 5255 marriages were recorded from 22 districts. The average age at marriage was 27.3 (±6.1) years for males and 24.1 (±5.7) years for females. A majority (71%) of marriages were ‘love’ marriages, except in the Moor community where 84% were ‘arranged’ marriages. Overall, the national consanguinity rate was 7.4%. It was significantly higher among ethnic Tamils (22.4%) compared with Sinhalese (3.8%) and Moors (3.2%) (p < 0.001). Consanguinity rates were also higher in ‘arranged’ as opposed to ‘love’ marriages (11.7% vs 5.6%, p < 0.001). In patients with β-thalassaemia, the overall consanguinity rate was 14.5%; it was highest among Tamils (44%) and lowest among Sinhalese (12%). Parental consanguinity among patients with β-thalassaemia was double the national average. Although consanguinity is not the major factor in the transmission of the disease in the country, emphasis should be given to this significant practice when conducting β-thalassaemia prevention and awareness campaigns, especially in high-prevalence communities.
To determine if specific dietary patterns are associated with risk of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and high BMI in four sites in Peru.
We analysed dietary patterns from a cohort of Peruvian adults in four geographical settings using latent class analysis. Associations with prevalence and incidence of hypertension, T2DM and high BMI were assessed using Poisson regression and generalised linear models, adjusted for potential confounders.
Four sites in Peru varying in degree of urbanisation.
Adults aged ≥35 years (n 3280).
We identified four distinct dietary patterns corresponding to different stages of the Peruvian nutrition transition, reflected by the foods frequently consumed in each pattern. Participants consuming the ‘stage 3’ diet, characterised by high proportional consumption of processed foods, animal products and low consumption of vegetables, mostly consumed in the semi-urban setting, showed the highest prevalence of all health outcomes (hypertension 32·1 %; T2DM 10·7 %; high BMI 75·1 %). Those with a more traditional ‘stage 1’ diet characterised by potato and vegetables, mostly consumed in the rural setting, had lower prevalence of hypertension (prevalence ratio; 95 CI: 0·57; 0·43, 0·75), T2DM (0·36; 0·16, 0·86) and high BMI (0·55; 0·48, 0·63) compared with the ‘stage 3’ diet. Incidence of hypertension was highest among individuals consuming the ‘stage 3’ diet (63·75 per 1000 person-years; 95 % CI 52·40, 77·55).
The study found more traditional diets were associated with a lower prevalence of three common chronic diseases, while prevalence of these diseases was higher with a diet high in processed foods and low in vegetables.
To determine the association between excess body fat, assessed by skinfold thickness, and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension (HT).
Data from the ongoing PERU MIGRANT Study were analysed. The outcomes were T2DM and HT, and the exposure was skinfold thickness measured in bicipital, tricipital, subscapular and suprailiac areas. The Durnin–Womersley formula and SIRI equation were used for body fat percentage estimation. Risk ratios and population attributable fractions (PAF) were calculated using Poisson regression.
Rural (Ayacucho) and urban shantytown district (San Juan de Miraflores, Lima) in Peru.
Adults (n 988) aged ≥30 years (rural, rural-to-urban migrants, urban) completed the baseline study. A total of 785 and 690 were included in T2DM and HT incidence analysis, respectively.
At baseline, age mean was 48·0 (sd 12·0) years and 47 % were males. For T2DM, in 7·6 (sd 1·3) years, sixty-one new cases were identified, overall incidence of 1·0 (95 % CI 0·8, 1·3) per 100 person-years. Bicipital and subscapular skinfolds were associated with 2·8-fold and 6·4-fold risk of developing T2DM. On the other hand, in 6·5 (sd 2·5) years, overall incidence of HT was 2·6 (95 % CI 2·2, 3·1) per 100 person-years. Subscapular and overall fat obesity were associated with 2·4- and 2·9-fold risk for developing HT. The PAF for subscapular skinfold was 73·6 and 39·2 % for T2DM and HT, respectively.
We found a strong association between subscapular skinfold thickness and developing T2DM and HT. Skinfold assessment can be a laboratory-free strategy to identify high-risk HT and T2DM cases.
We present deep low radio frequency (230-470 MHz) observations from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array of the Perseus cluster, probing the non-thermal emission from the old particle population of the AGN outflows. Our observations of this nearby relaxed cool core cluster have revealed a multitude of new structures associated with the mini-halo, extending to hundreds of kpc in size. Its irregular morphology seems to have been influenced both by the AGN activity and by the sloshing motion of the cluster’ gas. In addition, it has a filamentary structure similar to that seen in radio relics found in merging clusters. These results illustrate the high-quality images that can be obtained with the new JVLA at low radio-frequencies.
We re-analyzed OJ287 in 120 Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA, MOJAVE) observations (at 15 GHz) covering the time span between Apr. 1995 and Apr. 2017. We find that the radio jet motion over the sky is consistent with a precessing and nutating jet source. The variability of the radio flux-density can be explained by Doppler beaming due to a change in the viewing angle. We suggest that part of the optical emission is due to synchrotron emission related to the jet radiation. We find a strikingly similar scaling for the timescales for precession and nutation as indicated for SS433 with a factor of roughly 50 times longer in OJ287.
Radio jets are the large-scale and extragalactic footprints of accretion onto supermassive black holes, and are suggested to be the key ingredient controlling the galaxy stellar mass function. Of particular importance is their jet power - the time-averaged energetic feedback into their environment. Hence, the dynamics, energetics and life-cycles of radio-loud AGN (RLAGN) must be understood in order to build a qualitative and quantitative picture of their impact over cosmic time. Here, we present a study of the spectral age of two powerful, cluster-center radio galaxies, and compare with an analytic model to robustly determine their jet powers. We also present some recent LOFAR observations of the different phases of RLAGN activity, namely the remnant and subsequent restarting phases, which are key to understanding the dynamics of RLAGN over their total lifetime.
Very high energy (VHE) emission has been detected from the radio galaxy NGC1275, establishing it as a potential cosmic-ray (CR) accelerator and a high energy neutrino source. We here study neutrino and γ-ray emission from the core of NGC1275 simulating the interactions of CRs assumed to be accelerated by magnetic reconnection, with the accreting plasma environment. To do this, we combine (i) numerical general relativistic (GR) magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD), (ii) Monte Carlo GR leptonic radiative transfer and, (iii) Monte Carlo interaction of CRs. A leptonic emission model that reproduces the SED in the [103-1010.5] eV energy range is used as the background target for photo-pion interactions+electromagnetic cascading. CRs injected with the power-law index Îº=1.3 produce an emission profile that matches the VHE tail of NGC1275. The associated neutrino flux, below the IceCube limits, peaks at ∼PeV energies. However, coming from a single source, this neutrino flux may be an over-estimation.
Traditionally, personalised nutrition was delivered at an individual level. However, the concept of delivering tailored dietary advice at a group level through the identification of metabotypes or groups of metabolically similar individuals has emerged. Although this approach to personalised nutrition looks promising, further work is needed to examine this concept across a wider population group. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to: (1) identify metabotypes in a European population and (2) develop targeted dietary advice solutions for these metabotypes. Using data from the Food4Me study (n 1607), k-means cluster analysis revealed the presence of three metabolically distinct clusters based on twenty-seven metabolic markers including cholesterol, individual fatty acids and carotenoids. Cluster 2 was identified as a metabolically healthy metabotype as these individuals had the highest Omega-3 Index (6·56 (sd 1·29) %), carotenoids (2·15 (sd 0·71) µm) and lowest total saturated fat levels. On the basis of its fatty acid profile, cluster 1 was characterised as a metabolically unhealthy cluster. Targeted dietary advice solutions were developed per cluster using a decision tree approach. Testing of the approach was performed by comparison with the personalised dietary advice, delivered by nutritionists to Food4Me study participants (n 180). Excellent agreement was observed between the targeted and individualised approaches with an average match of 82 % at the level of delivery of the same dietary message. Future work should ascertain whether this proposed method could be utilised in a healthcare setting, for the rapid and efficient delivery of tailored dietary advice solutions.
To characterise clusters of individuals based on adherence to dietary recommendations and to determine whether changes in Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores in response to a personalised nutrition (PN) intervention varied between clusters.
Food4Me study participants were clustered according to whether their baseline dietary intakes met European dietary recommendations. Changes in HEI scores between baseline and month 6 were compared between clusters and stratified by whether individuals received generalised or PN advice.
Individuals in cluster 1 (C1) met all recommended intakes except for red meat, those in cluster 2 (C2) met two recommendations, and those in cluster 3 (C3) and cluster 4 (C4) met one recommendation each. C1 had higher intakes of white fish, beans and lentils and low-fat dairy products and lower percentage energy intake from SFA (P<0·05). C2 consumed less chips and pizza and fried foods than C3 and C4 (P<0·05). C1 were lighter, had lower BMI and waist circumference than C3 and were more physically active than C4 (P<0·05). More individuals in C4 were smokers and wanted to lose weight than in C1 (P<0·05). Individuals who received PN advice in C4 reported greater improvements in HEI compared with C3 and C1 (P<0·05).
The cluster where the fewest recommendations were met (C4) reported greater improvements in HEI following a 6-month trial of PN whereas there was no difference between clusters for those randomised to the Control, non-personalised dietary intervention.
To characterise participants who dropped out of the Food4Me Proof-of-Principle study.
The Food4Me study was an Internet-based, 6-month, four-arm, randomised controlled trial. The control group received generalised dietary and lifestyle recommendations, whereas participants randomised to three different levels of personalised nutrition (PN) received advice based on dietary, phenotypic and/or genotypic data, respectively (with either more or less frequent feedback).
Seven recruitment sites: UK, Ireland, The Netherlands, Germany, Spain, Poland and Greece.
Adults aged 18–79 years (n 1607).
A total of 337 (21 %) participants dropped out during the intervention. At baseline, dropouts had higher BMI (0·5 kg/m2; P<0·001). Attrition did not differ significantly between individuals receiving generalised dietary guidelines (Control) and those randomised to PN. Participants were more likely to drop out (OR; 95 % CI) if they received more frequent feedback (1·81; 1·36, 2·41; P<0·001), were female (1·38; 1·06, 1·78; P=0·015), less than 45 years old (2·57; 1·95, 3·39; P<0·001) and obese (2·25; 1·47, 3·43; P<0·001). Attrition was more likely in participants who reported an interest in losing weight (1·53; 1·19, 1·97; P<0·001) or skipping meals (1·75; 1·16, 2·65; P=0·008), and less likely if participants claimed to eat healthily frequently (0·62; 0·45, 0·86; P=0·003).
Attrition did not differ between participants receiving generalised or PN advice but more frequent feedback was related to attrition for those randomised to PN interventions. Better strategies are required to minimise dropouts among younger and obese individuals participating in PN interventions and more frequent feedback may be an unnecessary burden.
Cognitive dysfunction is common in major depressive disorder (MDD) and a critical determinant of health outcome. Anhedonia is a criterion item toward the diagnosis of a major depressive episode (MDE) and a well-characterized domain in MDD. We sought to determine the extent to which variability in self-reported cognitive function correlates with anhedonia.
A post hoc analysis was conducted using data from (N=369) participants with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR)-defined diagnosis of MDD who were enrolled in the International Mood Disorders Collaborative Project (IMDCP) between January 2008 and July 2013. The IMDCP is a collaborative research platform at the Mood Disorders Psychopharmacology Unit, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, and the Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio. Measures of cognitive function, anhedonia, and depression severity were analyzed using linear regression equations.
A total of 369 adults with DSM-IV-TR–defined MDD were included in this analysis. Self-rated cognitive impairment [ie, as measured by the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS)] was significantly correlated with a proxy measure of anhedonia (r=0.131, p=0.012). Moreover, total depression symptom severity, as measured by the total Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score, was also significantly correlated with self-rated measures of cognitive dysfunction (r=0.147, p=0.005). The association between anhedonia and self-rated cognitive dysfunction remained significant after adjusting for illness severity (r=0.162, p=0.007).
These preliminary results provide empirical data for the testable hypothesis that anhedonia and self-reported cognitive function in MDD are correlated yet dissociable domains. The foregoing observation supports the hypothesis of overlapping yet discrete neurobiological substrates for these domains.
The interplay between the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene variants and diet has been implicated in the development of obesity. The aim of the present analysis was to investigate associations between FTO genotype, dietary intakes and anthropometrics among European adults. Participants in the Food4Me randomised controlled trial were genotyped for FTO genotype (rs9939609) and their dietary intakes, and diet quality scores (Healthy Eating Index and PREDIMED-based Mediterranean diet score) were estimated from FFQ. Relationships between FTO genotype, diet and anthropometrics (weight, waist circumference (WC) and BMI) were evaluated at baseline. European adults with the FTO risk genotype had greater WC (AAv. TT: +1·4 cm; P=0·003) and BMI (+0·9 kg/m2; P=0·001) than individuals with no risk alleles. Subjects with the lowest fried food consumption and two copies of the FTO risk variant had on average 1·4 kg/m2 greater BMI (Ptrend=0·028) and 3·1 cm greater WC (Ptrend=0·045) compared with individuals with no copies of the risk allele and with the lowest fried food consumption. However, there was no evidence of interactions between FTO genotype and dietary intakes on BMI and WC, and thus further research is required to confirm or refute these findings.