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Weight cycling is prevalent in sports/professions with body composition standards, and has been associated with weight management behaviours that may contribute to suboptimal diet quality and weight gain. US Army Soldiers may be at increased risk of weight cycling relative to civilians due to mandated body composition standards. However, the relationship between weight cycling, weight management behaviours, BMI and diet quality among Soldiers is unknown. In this cross-sectional study, 575 Soldiers (89 % enlisted, 90 % male, 23 ± 4 years) at Army installations at Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson, AK, Joint-Base Lewis McChord, WA, and Fort Campbell, KY completed questionnaires on food frequency, health-related behaviours and history of weight cycling (≥ 3 weight fluctuations ≥ 5 % body weight). Weight cycling was reported by 33 % of Soldiers. Those who reported weight cycling reported higher BMI (27 ± 4 v. 25 ± 3 kg/m2, P < 0·001) and higher prevalence of engaging in weight management behaviours prior to body weight screening but did not report lower dietary quality (Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI) scores 59 ± 10 v 59 ± 11, P = 0·46) relative to those who did not report weight cycling. Results of mediation analyses suggested that weight cycling may affect BMI both directly (c’ = 1·19, 95 % CI: 0·62, 1·75) and indirectly (ab = 0·45, 95 % CI: 0·19, 0·75), and HEI scores indirectly (ab = 0·69, 95 % CI: 0·20, 1·35) through the adoption of weight management behaviours. Weight cycling is common in Soldiers and is associated with higher BMI and higher prevalence of engaging in weight management behaviours that mediate associations between weight cycling, BMI and diet quality.
Cyclospora cayetanensis is a parasite causing cyclosporiasis (an illness in humans). Produce (fruits, vegetables, herbs), water and soil contaminated with C. cayetanensis have been implicated in human infection. The objective was to conduct a scoping review of primary research in English on the detection, epidemiology and control of C. cayetanensis with an emphasis on produce, water and soil. MEDLINE® (Web of ScienceTM), Agricola (ProQuest), CABI Global Health, and Food Science and Technology Abstracts (EBSCOhost) were searched from 1979 to February 2020. Of the 349 relevant primary research studies identified, there were 75 detection-method studies, 40 molecular characterisation studies, 38 studies of Cyclospora in the environment (33 prevalence studies, 10 studies of factors associated with environmental contamination), 246 human infection studies (212 prevalence/incidence studies, 32 outbreak studies, 60 studies of environmental factors associated with non-outbreak human infection) and eight control studies. There appears to be sufficient literature for a systematic review of prevalence and factors associated with human infection with C. cayetanensis. There is a dearth of publicly available detection-method studies in soil (n = 0) and water (n = 2), prevalence studies on soil (n = 1) and studies of the control of Cyclospora (particularly on produce prior to retail (n = 0)).
Diet quality indices are a practical, cost-effective method to evaluate dietary patterns, yet few have investigated diet quality in athletes. This study describes the relative validity and reliability of the recently developed Athlete Diet Index (ADI). Participants completed the electronic ADI on two occasions, 2 weeks apart, followed by a 4-d estimated food record (4-dFR). Relative validity was evaluated by directly comparing mean scores of the two administrations (mAdm) against scores derived from 4-dFR using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient and Bland–Altman (B–A) plots. Construct validity was investigated by comparing mAdm scores and 4-dFR-derived nutrient intakes using Spearman’s coefficient and independent t test. Test–retest reliability was assessed using paired t test, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and B–A plots. Sixty-eight elite athletes (18·8 (sd 4·2) years) from an Australian sporting institute completed the ADI on both occasions. Mean score was 84·1 (sd 15·2; range 42·5–114·0). The ADI had good reliability (ICC = 0·80, 95 % CI 0·69, 0·87; P < 0·001), and B–A plots (mean 1·9; level of agreement −17·8, 21·7) showed no indication of systematic bias (y = 4·57–0·03 × x) (95 % CI −0·2, 0·1; P = 0·70). Relative validity was evaluated in fifty athletes who completed all study phases. Comparison of mAdm scores with 4-dFR-derived scores was moderate (rs 0·69; P < 0·001) with no systematic bias between methods of measurement (y = 6·90–0·04 × x) (95 % CI −0·3, 0·2; P = 0·73). Higher scores were associated with higher absolute nutrient intake consistent with a healthy dietary pattern. The ADI is a reliable tool with moderate validity, demonstrating its potential for application to investigate the diet quality of athletes.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Flavorings differ between brands and tobacco products, potentially altering the sensory perceptions. This study aimed to examine discrepancies in flavor preference across various non-cigarette tobacco products among a national representative sample of US adult regular tobacco users. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study Wave 3 (W3) were used. Weighted prevalence of flavor preference for various tobacco products, including electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), traditional cigars, cigarillos/filtered cigars, hookah and snus/smokeless, was presented for 9,037 adult current and new former users of multiple flavored tobacco products. Within-subject flavor discrepancies were assessed using generalized estimating equations (GEE) models considering the complex sampling design of the PATH study. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Most regular users of a flavored tobacco products reported using one flavor category per product. Fruit flavors, followed by tobacco, were the most common flavor categories among ENDS (32% and 25%, respectively) and hookah users (44% and 36%, respectively). Tobacco flavor was the most common among regular users of traditional cigars (80%), cigarillos/filtered cigars (55%), and smokeless tobacco (79%). Polytobacco users of ENDS and traditional cigars had the largest discrepancy, where about 68-76%% used different flavor categories when switching products. Conversely, polytobacco users of traditional cigars and cigarillos/filtered cigars had the lowest discrepancy (23-25%). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Many consumers of multiple tobacco products had different flavor preferences when switching between products. In the event of a partial or full flavor ban for ENDS, these findings raise questions about consumer loyalty to a particular tobacco product or a particular flavor category. Conflict of Interest Description: MLG serves as a paid consultant for Johnson & Johnson and has received research grant from Pfizer, manufacturers of smoking cessation medications. The other authors have no conflicts to declare. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: MLG serves as a paid consultant for Johnson & Johnson and has received research grant from Pfizer, manufacturers of smoking cessation medications. The other authors have no conflicts to declare.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Wheezing has been shown to be associated with use of cigarettes, and more recently, electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). This study assessed the association of poly use of tobacco products with wheezing among a national representative sample of US adult current tobacco users. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study Wave 3 (W3) were used. Weighted prevalences of self-reported wheezing and related respiratory symptoms for non-users compared to users of cigarettes, ENDS, cigars, and any combination of these products (poly use of tobacco products) were presented for 28,082 adults. The cross-sectional association of tobacco use with self-reported wheezing and other related respiratory symptoms was assessed using weighted multivariable and ordinal logistic regression with consideration of complex sampling design. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Most adults who reported on wheezing symptoms did not currently use cigarettes, ENDS or cigars (79%), 15% used cigarettes, 3% used a combination of cigarettes, ENDS and cigars, 1% used ENDS, and 1% used cigars. Significantly higher odds of ever had wheezing or whistling in chest at any time in the past was observed among current cigarette (adjusted OR: 2.62, 95%CI: 2.35, 2.91), ENDS (1.49, 95%CI: 1.14, 1.95), and poly users (2.67, 95%CI: 2.26, 3.16) compared to non-users. No differences were seen for cigar use. Polytobacco use was associated with a higher odds of ever wheezing when compared to ENDS (1.61, 95%CI: 1.19, 2.17) and cigar use (2.87, 95%CI: 1.93, 4.26), but not cigarettes. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Wheezing is associated with the use of cigarettes, ENDS, or any combination of cigarette, ENDS and cigars likely due to the inhalation of noxious chemicals and gases found in the smoke of cigarettes and ENDS that are likely to increase the odds of experiencing wheezing. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: MLG serves as a paid consultant for Johnson & Johnson and has received research grant from Pfizer, manufacturers of smoking cessation medications. The other authors have no conflicts to declare.
Nerve transfer surgery for patients with nerve and spinal cord injuries can result in dramatic functional improvements. As a result, interdisciplinary complex nerve injury programs (CNIPs) have been established in many Canadian centers, providing electrodiagnostic and surgical consultations in a single encounter. We sought to determine which allied health care services are included in Canadian CNIPs, at the 3rd Annual Canadian Peripheral Nerve Symposium. Twenty CNIPs responded to a brief survey and reported access as follows: occupational therapy = 60%, physiotherapy = 40%, social work = 20%, and mental health = 10%. Access to allied health services is variable in CNIPs across Canada, possibly resulting in heterogeneity in patient care.
The uncertainty surrounding high intakes of folic acid and associations with cognitive decline in older adults with low vitamin B12 status has been an obstacle to mandatory folic acid fortification for many years. We estimated the prevalence of combinations of low/normal/high vitamin B12 and folate status and compared associations with global cognitive function using two approaches, of individuals in a population-based study of those aged ≥50 years in the Republic of Ireland. Cross-sectional data from 3781 men and women from Wave 1 of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing were analysed. Global cognitive function was assessed by the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Prevalence estimates for combinations of vitamin B12 (plasma vitamin B12 < or ≥258 pmol/l) and folate (plasma folate ≤ or >45·3 nmol/l) concentrations were generated. Negative binomial regression models were used to investigate the associations of vitamin B12 and folate status with global cognitive function. Of the participants, 1·5 % (n 51) had low vitamin B12 (<258 pmol/l) and high folate (>45·3 nmol/l) status. Global cognitive performance was not significantly reduced in these individuals when compared with those with normal status for both B-vitamins (n 2433). Those with normal vitamin B12/high folate status (7·6 %) had better cognitive performance (MMSE: incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0·82, 95 % CI 0·68, 0·99; P = 0·043, MoCA: IRR 0·89, 95 % CI 0·80, 0·99; P = 0·025). We demonstrated that high folate status was not associated with lower cognitive scores in older adults with low vitamin B12 status. These findings provide important safety information that could guide fortification policy recommendations in Europe.
Olanzapine is prescribed in the treatment of schizophrenia and BPAD. It is not licensed for personality disorders, behavioural issues or in patients with opiate addiction.This audit sought to identify the number of opiate dependent patients in a tertiary referral centre on olanzapine and the reason why.
All patients attending one sector had their notes examined over a three year period to see whether they are or were on olanzapine. All patients were opiate dependent and prescribed methadone.Parameters looked at included Axis 1 or 2 diagnosis, previous psychiatric in-patient admissions, forensic history and whether fasting lipids and glucose were checked.
169 charts were reviewed.Of these, 37 patients either were on or had been on olanzapine (21.9% overall).20 of these patients (11.8%) had an Axis 1 disorder, 17(10%) had behavioural diffciulties.Of the 20 patients with an Axis 1 disorder, 18 of them had an in-patient hospital admission.Only 7 of 17 patients on olanzapine with behavioural issues had an in-patient admission.All patients with behavioural difficulties had a forensic history and 16/17 had custodial sentences.15 of the 20 patients with Axis 1 diagnoses served custodial sentences.
A significant percentage of patients were prescribed olanzapine off license with no clinical indication.This is a worrying finding due to the abuse potential of olanzapine and longer term metabolic effects.Caution should be taken with prescribing olanzapine to opiate addicts who abuse it for its sedative effect.The value of this study is that it is one of the few to date to describe this problem.
Why patients with psychosis use cannabis remains debated. The self-medication hypothesis has received some support but other evidence points towards an alleviation of dysphoria model. This study investigated the reasons for cannabis use in first-episode psychosis (FEP) and whether strength in their endorsement changed over time.
FEP inpatients and outpatients at the South London and Maudsley, Oxleas and Sussex NHS Trusts UK, who used cannabis, rated their motives at baseline (n = 69), 3 months (n = 29) and 12 months (n = 36). A random intercept model was used to test the change in strength of endorsement over the 12 months. Paired-sample t-tests assessed the differences in mean scores between the five subscales on the Reasons for Use Scale (enhancement, social motive, coping with unpleasant affect, conformity and acceptance and relief of positive symptoms and side effects), at each time-point.
Time had a significant effect on scores when controlling for reason; average scores on each subscale were higher at baseline than at 3 months and 12 months. At each time-point, patients endorsed ‘enhancement’ followed by ‘coping with unpleasant affect’ and ‘social motive’ more highly for their cannabis use than any other reason. ‘Conformity and acceptance’ followed closely. ‘Relief of positive symptoms and side effects’ was the least endorsed motive.
Patients endorsed their reasons for use at 3 months and 12 months less strongly than at baseline. Little support for the self-medication or alleviation of dysphoria models was found. Rather, patients rated ‘enhancement’ most highly for their cannabis use.
A systematic review and network meta-analysis were conducted to assess the relative efficacy of internal or external teat sealants given at dry-off in dairy cattle. Controlled trials were eligible if they assessed the use of internal or external teat sealants, with or without concurrent antimicrobial therapy, compared to no treatment or an alternative treatment, and measured one or more of the following outcomes: incidence of intramammary infection (IMI) at calving, IMI during the first 30 days in milk (DIM), or clinical mastitis during the first 30 DIM. Risk of bias was based on the Cochrane Risk of Bias 2.0 tool with modified signaling questions. From 2280 initially identified records, 32 trials had data extracted for one or more outcomes. Network meta-analysis was conducted for IMI at calving. Use of an internal teat sealant (bismuth subnitrate) significantly reduced the risk of new IMI at calving compared to non-treated controls (RR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.25–0.72). For comparisons between antimicrobial and teat sealant groups, concerns regarding precision were seen. Synthesis of the primary research identified important challenges related to the comparability of outcomes, replication and connection of interventions, and quality of reporting of study conduct.
A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to determine the efficacy of selective dry-cow antimicrobial therapy compared to blanket therapy (all quarters/all cows). Controlled trials were eligible if any of the following were assessed: incidence of clinical mastitis during the first 30 DIM, frequency of intramammary infection (IMI) at calving, or frequency of IMI during the first 30 DIM. From 3480 identified records, nine trials were data extracted for IMI at calving. There was an insufficient number of trials to conduct meta-analysis for the other outcomes. Risk of IMI at calving in selectively treated cows was higher than blanket therapy (RR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.13, 1.16), but substantial heterogeneity was present (I2 = 58%). Subgroup analysis showed that, for trials using internal teat sealants, there was no difference in IMI risk at calving between groups, and no heterogeneity was present. For trials not using internal teat sealants, there was an increased risk in cows assigned to a selective dry-cow therapy protocol, compared to blanket treatment, with substantial heterogeneity in this subgroup. However, the small number of trials and heterogeneity in the subgroup without internal teat sealants suggests that the relative risk between treatments may differ from the determined point estimates based on other unmeasured factors.
A systematic review and network meta-analysis were conducted to assess the relative efficacy of antimicrobial therapy given to dairy cows at dry-off. Eligible studies were controlled trials assessing the use of antimicrobials compared to no treatment or an alternative treatment, and assessed one or more of the following outcomes: incidence of intramammary infection (IMI) at calving, incidence of IMI during the first 30 days in milk (DIM), or incidence of clinical mastitis during the first 30 DIM. Databases and conference proceedings were searched for relevant articles. The potential for bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias 2.0 algorithm. From 3480 initially identified records, 45 trials had data extracted for one or more outcomes. Network meta-analysis was conducted for IMI at calving. The use of cephalosporins, cloxacillin, or penicillin with aminoglycoside significantly reduced the risk of new IMI at calving compared to non-treated controls (cephalosporins, RR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.23–0.65; cloxacillin, RR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.38–0.79; penicillin with aminoglycoside, RR = 0.42, 95% CI 0.26–0.72). Synthesis revealed challenges with a comparability of outcomes, replication of interventions, definitions of outcomes, and quality of reporting. The use of reporting guidelines, replication among interventions, and standardization of outcome definitions would increase the utility of primary research in this area.
We conducted a systematic review and network meta-analysis to determine the comparative efficacy of antibiotics used to control bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in beef cattle on feedlots. The information sources for the review were: MEDLINE®, MEDLINE In-Process and MEDLINE® Daily, AGRICOLA, Epub Ahead of Print, Cambridge Agricultural and Biological Index, Science Citation Index, Conference Proceedings Citation Index – Science, the Proceedings of the American Association of Bovine Practitioners, World Buiatrics Conference, and the United States Food and Drug Administration Freedom of Information New Animal Drug Applications summaries. The eligible population was weaned beef cattle raised in intensive systems. The interventions of interest were injectable antibiotics used at the time the cattle arrived at the feedlot. The outcome of interest was the diagnosis of BRD within 45 days of arrival at the feedlot. The network meta-analysis included data from 46 studies and 167 study arms identified in the review. The results suggest that macrolides are the most effective antibiotics for the reduction of BRD incidence. Injectable oxytetracycline effectively controlled BRD compared with no antibiotics; however, it was less effective than macrolide treatment. Because oxytetracycline is already commonly used to prevent, control, and treat BRD in groups of feedlot cattle, the use of injectable oxytetracycline for BRD control might have advantages from an antibiotic stewardship perspective.
In this manuscript we use realistic data to conduct a network meta-analysis using a Bayesian approach to analysis. The purpose of this manuscript is to explain, in lay terms, how to interpret the output of such an analysis. Many readers are familiar with the forest plot as an approach to presenting the results of a pairwise meta-analysis. However when presented with the results of network meta-analysis, which often does not include the forest plot, the output and results can be difficult to understand. Further, one of the advantages of Bayesian network meta-analyses is in the novel outputs such as treatment rankings and the probability distributions are more commonly presented for network meta-analysis. Our goal here is to provide a tutorial for how to read the outcome of network meta-analysis rather than how to conduct or assess the risk of bias in a network meta-analysis.
Vaccination against putative causal organisms is a frequently used and preferred approach to controlling bovine respiratory disease complex (BRD) because it reduces the need for antibiotic use. Because approximately 90% of feedlots use and 90% of beef cattle receive vaccines in the USA, information about their comparative efficacy would be useful for selecting a vaccine. We conducted a systematic review and network meta-analysis of studies assessing the comparative efficacy of vaccines to control BRD when administered to beef cattle at or near their arrival at the feedlot. We searched MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, MEDLINE Daily Epub Ahead of Print, AGRICOLA, Cambridge Agricultural and Biological Index, Science Citation Index, and Conference Proceedings Citation Index – Science and hand-searched the conference proceedings of the American Association of Bovine Practitioners and World Buiatrics Congress. We found 53 studies that reported BRD morbidity within 45 days of feedlot arrival. The largest connected network of studies, which involved 17 vaccine protocols from 14 studies, was included in the meta-analysis. Consistent with previous reviews, we found little compelling evidence that vaccines used at or near arrival at the feedlot reduce the incidence of BRD diagnosis.
A systematic review and network meta-analysis were conducted to assess the relative efficacy of antimicrobial therapy for clinical mastitis in lactating dairy cattle. Controlled trials in lactating dairy cattle with natural disease exposure were eligible if they compared an antimicrobial treatment to a non-treated control, placebo, or a different antimicrobial, for the treatment of clinical mastitis, and assessed clinical or bacteriologic cure. Potential for bias was assessed using a modified Cochrane Risk of Bias 2.0 tool. From 14775 initially identified records, 54 trials were assessed as eligible. Networks were established for bacteriologic cure by bacterial species group, and clinical cure. Disparate networks among bacteriologic cures precluded meta-analysis. Network meta-analysis was conducted for trials assessing clinical cure, but lack of precision of point estimates resulted in wide credibility intervals for all treatments, with no definitive conclusions regarding relative efficacy. Consideration of network geometry can inform future research to increase the utility of current and previous work. Replication of intervention arms and consideration of connection to existing networks would improve the future ability to determine relative efficacy. Challenges in the evaluation of bias in primary research stemmed from a lack of reporting. Consideration of reporting guidelines would also improve the utility of future research.
Additional crystallographic data are given for the recently reported mineral middlebackite, which has been described for discoveries at Iron Knob in South Australia and Passo di San Lugano near Trento, Italy. The material examined in the present study was from a third finding of the mineral, viz. from a quartz outcrop at Mooloo Downs Station in Western Australia within which it was co-located with the chemically- and structurally-related mineral moolooite, CuIIC2O4·nH2O, reported by Clarke and Williams (1986). In this study, the crystal structure was elucidated independently of the other studies using a combination of the a priori charge flipping and simulated annealing methods with synchrotron radiation diffraction (SRD) powder data. The principal crystal data for the Mooloo Downs material are: space group P21/c with lattice parameters a = 7.2659(18) Å, b = 5.7460(11) Å, c = 5.6806(11) Å, β = 104.588(3)°; Vc = 229.46(18) Å3; empirical formula CuII2C2O4(OH)2 with 2 formula units per unit cell; and calculated density = 3.605 g cm−3. The lattice parameters agree approximately with values given for the other studies, but not within the reported error estimates. The atom coordinates, interatomic distances, and angles for the Mooloo Downs material are compared with those from the other studies using single crystal data, with the values from all three studies agreeing approximately, but again not within the reported uncertainties. The crystal chemistry found for middlebackite received strong confirmation through the synthesis for the first time of di-copper oxalate di-hydroxide. Laboratory X-ray diffraction powder data for the synthetic form of the mineral from this study agree closely with the SRD data for the natural mineral.
The orthorhombic mineral moolooite, CuC2O4. nH2O, described by Clarke and Williams (1986) using Debye-Scherrer photographic data, has a fully-disordered stacking fault (FDSF) structure. Related monoclinic models have been reported for various synthesised samples based on Schmittler (1968). In the present study, synchrotron radiation diffraction data for moolooite and synthesised specimens have been examined with particular reference to crystallographic disorder. The moolooite data correspond to space group Pnnm, with a = 5.3064(2), b = 5.6804(2), c = 2.5630(1) Å; Vc = 77.26(1) Å3; and Z = 1; and the FDSF structure along the b-direction has been confirmed. The synthetic specimen data from the study indicate partial ordering, with space group P21/n; and the cell parameters for one specimen being a = 5.957(7), b = 5.611(5), c = 5.133(7) Å; β = 115.16(2)°; Vc = 155.27 Å3 and Z = 2. The level of zeolitic water in the materials has been considered using the approach of Schmittler based on thermogravimetry and pycnometry. The new data for natural topotype material correspond to CuC2O4.1.0H2O. It is postulated that the level of water for natural and synthetic specimens may be attributed to the conditions under which the material forms.
The role that vitamin D plays in pulmonary function remains uncertain. Epidemiological studies reported mixed findings for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)–pulmonary function association. We conducted the largest cross-sectional meta-analysis of the 25(OH)D–pulmonary function association to date, based on nine European ancestry (EA) cohorts (n 22 838) and five African ancestry (AA) cohorts (n 4290) in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. Data were analysed using linear models by cohort and ancestry. Effect modification by smoking status (current/former/never) was tested. Results were combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 68 (sd 29) nmol/l for EA and 49 (sd 21) nmol/l for AA. For each 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1) was higher by 1·1 ml in EA (95 % CI 0·9, 1·3; P<0·0001) and 1·8 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·5; P<0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·06), and forced vital capacity (FVC) was higher by 1·3 ml in EA (95 % CI 1·0, 1·6; P<0·0001) and 1·5 ml (95 % CI 0·8, 2·3; P=0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·56). Among EA, the 25(OH)D–FVC association was stronger in smokers: per 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, FVC was higher by 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·3) for current smokers and 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·2, 2·1) for former smokers, compared with 0·8 ml (95 % CI 0·4, 1·2) for never smokers. In summary, the 25(OH)D associations with FEV1 and FVC were positive in both ancestries. In EA, a stronger association was observed for smokers compared with never smokers, which supports the importance of vitamin D in vulnerable populations.