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Since 1993, reports on tuberculosis (TB) outbreaks have been collected in Japan; however, there has never been an overall analysis of these TB outbreaks. We aim to provide one here. The TB outbreak data were obtained from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and are described in terms of time, place and transmission site. The average number of TB cases and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) were compared by the transmission site. Some 605 TB outbreaks with 3491 TB cases were reported in 1993–2015 with an increasing trend (r = 0.45), during which time 728 777 TB cases were reported nationwide. On an average, TB outbreaks occurred more often in April to May (5.5 outbreaks per 2 months) than in December to January (3.4). The most common transmission sites were workplaces (n = 255), followed by health facilities (n = 144), schools (n = 60) and welfare facilities (n = 48). Psychiatric hospitals and nursing homes had the highest average number of TB cases per outbreak (8.5 each), whereas schools and prisons had the highest numbers of LTBI cases (29.1 and 38.9, respectively). Countries, particularly those that have resources to investigate TB outbreaks, should collect and analyse findings of TB outbreaks, as it informs surveillance systems and eventually strengthens general health systems.
Studies on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and pneumococcal pneumonia (PP) related to the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) introduction in Asia are scarce. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological and microbiological determinants of hospitalised CAP and PP after PCV13 was introduced in Japan. This observational hospital-based surveillance study included children aged ⩽15 years, admitted to hospitals in and around Chiba City, Japan. Participants had bacterial pneumonia based on a positive blood or sputum culture for bacterial pathogens. Serotype and antibiotic-susceptibility testing of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae isolates from patients with bacterial pneumonia were assessed. The CAP hospitalisation rate per 1000 child-years was 17.7, 14.3 and 9.7 in children aged <5 years and 1.18, 2.64 and 0.69 in children aged 5–15 years in 2008, 2012 and 2018, respectively. There was a 45% and 41% reduction in CAP hospitalisation rates, between the pre-PCV7 and PCV13 periods, respectively. Significant reductions occurred in the proportion of CAP due to PP and PCV13 serotypes. Conversely, no change occurred in the proportion of CAP caused by H. influenzae. The incidence of hospitalised CAP in children aged ⩽15 years was significantly reduced after the introduction of PCV13 in Japan. Continuous surveillance is necessary to detect emerging PP serotypes.
Highly alkaline environments induced by cement-based materials are likely to cause the physical and/or chemical properties of the bentonite buffer materials in radioactive waste repositories to deteriorate. Assessing long-term alteration of concrete/clay systems requires physicochemical models and a number of input parameters. In order to provide reliability in the assessment of the long-term performance of bentonite buffers under disposal conditions, it is necessary to develop and verify reactive transport codes for concrete/clay systems. In this study, a PHREEQC-based, reactive transport analysis code (MC-CEMENT ver. 2) was developed and was verified by comparing results of the calculations with in situ observations of the mineralogical evolution at the concrete/argillite interface. The calculation reproduced the observations such as the mineralogical changes in the argillite limited to within 1 cm in thickness from the interface, formation of CaCO3 and CSH, dissolution of quartz, decrease of porosity in the argillite and an increase in the concrete. These agreements indicate a possibility that models based on lab-scale (∼1 year) experiments can be applied to longer time scales although confidence in the models is necessary for much longer timescales. The fact that the calculations did not reproduce the dissolution of clays and the formation of gypsum indicates that there is still room for improvement in our model.
The crystal structure of allanite from granitic pegmatite, the Daibosatsu Pass, Yamanashi, Japan, has been refined under the constraint of chemical composition determined by electron microprobe analysis of rare earth elements. Back-scattered-electron images and X-ray element maps of the allanites show that each of their crystal grains has chemically homogeneous distribution of major elements. A typical formula for the chemistry is: (Ca0.920☐0.080)Σ1.000(La0.238Ce0.443Pr0.048Nd0.100Sm0.019Th0.042Mn0.008☐0.102)Σ1.000(Al0.607Fe0.3173+Ti0.076)Σ1.000(Al1.000)(Fe0.5432+Fe0.3653+Mn0.055Mg0.037)Σ1.000(SiO4)(Si2O7)O(OH).
The crystal structure of allanite, monoclinic, a 8.905 (1), b 5.7606 (5), c 10.123 (1) Å, β 114.78°(1), space group P21/m, Z = 2, has been refined to an unweighted R factor of 3.46% for 1459 observed reflections. Although the H atom position was not determined on the Difference-Fourier map, inspection of the bond valence sums demonstrates that the H atom is uniquely located at the O10 atom and involved in a hydrogen bond to O4. A systematic examination as to crystal chemistry of allanites suggests that the isolated SiO4 tetrahedron has the largest distortion of three kinds of the tetrahedron containing Si2O7 groups in the allanite structure. This observation is common to the epidote group minerals, while the larger distortion of A2 sites caused by occupancy by REE in allanites contrasts with the smaller one of A sites in other epidote group minerals. In the allanite groups the bond angles between the O10–H bond and hydrogen bond H···O4 are found to range from 170 to 180°.
Compilation of the chemical compositions of the title allanite and the others from granitic rocks, Japan, which reveals Th-incorporation as the coupled substitution of 3Th4+ + ☐ (vacancy) ⇌ 4REE3+, provides an explanation for the observation that higher Th concentrations characterize allanites from the island arcs. The ternary Al2O3-Fe2O3-ΣREE diagram illustrates that allanites are grouped, according to their origins, into three classes suggestive of tectonic backgrounds for the crystallization localities; (1) intracontinental, (2) island arc and (3) continental margin.
Waimirite-(Y) (IMA 2013-108), orthorhombic YF3, occurs associated with halloysite, in hydrothermal veins (up to 30 mm thick) cross-cutting the albite-enriched facies of the A-type Madeira granite (∼1820 Ma), at the Pitinga mine, Presidente Figueiredo Co., Amazonas State, Brazil. Minerals in the granite are 'K-feldspar', albite, quartz, riebeckite, 'biotite', muscovite, cryolite, zircon, polylithionite, cassiterite, pyrochlore-group minerals, 'columbite', thorite, native lead, hematite, galena, fluorite, xenotime-(Y), gagarinite-(Y), fluocerite-(Ce), genthelvite–helvite, topaz, 'illite', kaolinite and 'chlorite'. The mineral occurs as massive aggregates of platy crystals up to ∼1 μm in size. Forms are not determined, but synthetic YF3 displays pinacoids, prisms and bipyramids. Colour: pale pink. Streak: white. Lustre: non-metallic. Transparent to translucent. Density (calc.) = 5.586 g/cm3 using the empirical formula. Waimirite-(Y) is biaxial, mean n = 1.54–1.56. The chemical composition is (average of 24 wavelength dispersive spectroscopy mode electron microprobe analyses, O calculated for charge balance): F 29.27, Ca 0.83, Y 37.25, La 0.19, Ce 0.30, Pr 0.15, Nd 0.65, Sm 0.74, Gd 1.86, Tb 0.78, Dy 8.06, Ho 1.85, Er 6.38, Tm 1.00, Yb 5.52, Lu 0.65, O (2.05), total (97.53) wt.%. The empirical formula (based on 1 cation) is (Y0.69Dy0.08Er0.06Yb0.05Ca0.03Gd0.02Ho0.02Nd0.01Sm0.01Tb0.01Tm0.01Lu0.01)Σ1.00[F2.54〈0.25O0.21]Σ3.00. Orthorhombic, Pnma, a = 6.386(1), b = 6.877(1), c = 4.401(1) Å, V = 193.28(7) Å3, Z = 4 (powder data). Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) data [d in Å (I) (hkl)]: 3.707 (26) (011), 3.623 (78) (101), 3.438 (99) (020), 3.205 (100) (111), 2.894 (59) (210), 1.937 (33) (131), 1.916 (24) (301), 1.862 (27) (230). The name is for the Waimiri-Atroari Indian people of Roraima and Amazonas. A second occurrence of waimirite-(Y) is described from the hydrothermally altered quartz-rich microgranite at Jabal Tawlah, Saudi Arabia. Electron microprobe analyses gave the empirical formula (Y0.79Dy0.08Er0.05Gd0.03Ho0.02Tb0.01Tm0.01Yb0.01)Σ1.00[F2.85O0.08〈0.07]Σ3.00. The crystal structure was determined with a single crystal from Saudi Arabia. Unit-cell parameters refined from single-crystal XRD data are a = 6.38270(12), b = 6.86727(12), c = 4.39168(8) Å, V = 192.495(6) Å3, Z = 4. The refinement converged to R1 = 0.0173 and wR2 = 0.0388 for 193 independent reflections. Waimirite-(Y) is isomorphous with synthetic SmF3, HoF3 and YbF3. The Y atom forms a 9-coordinated YF9 tricapped trigonal prism in the crystal structure. The substitution of Y for Dy, as well as for other lanthanoids, causes no notable deviations in the crystallographic values, such as unit-cell parameters and interatomic distances, from those of pure YF3.
It is known that n-Si solar cells have higher efficiency than p-Si solar cells. One of the problems connected with n-Si application for solar cell production is the difficulty of using Czochralski method for growing n-Si ingots, uniform in structure. The present paper examines the possibility of production of n-Si ingots, uniform in resistance, by neutron transmutation doping (NTD) for photovoltaics using the mathematical modeling method. The provided calculation data are obtained by MCU-RFFI/A accounting code with DLC/MCUDAT-1.0 constant library developed by «Kurchatov Institute» Russian Research Center. The MCU accounting code is used for solution of the neutron-transport equation by Monte-Carlo procedure on the basis of estimated nuclear data for arbitrary three-dimensional geometry systems.
The present paper provides the estimation of uniformity of neutron-flux density along the ingot length and radius; dependence of silicon resistance on duration of irradiation. These studies established the neutron flux density distribution along the ingot length and radius; regularities of silicon resistance changes on duration and intensity of irradiation.
The Universe is permeated by hot, turbulent, magnetized plasmas. Turbulent plasma is a major constituent of active galactic nuclei, supernova remnants, the intergalactic and interstellar medium, the solar corona, the solar wind and the Earth’s magnetosphere, just to mention a few examples. Energy dissipation of turbulent fluctuations plays a key role in plasma heating and energization, yet we still do not understand the underlying physical mechanisms involved. THOR is a mission designed to answer the questions of how turbulent plasma is heated and particles accelerated, how the dissipated energy is partitioned and how dissipation operates in different regimes of turbulence. THOR is a single-spacecraft mission with an orbit tuned to maximize data return from regions in near-Earth space – magnetosheath, shock, foreshock and pristine solar wind – featuring different kinds of turbulence. Here we summarize the THOR proposal submitted on 15 January 2015 to the ‘Call for a Medium-size mission opportunity in ESAs Science Programme for a launch in 2025 (M4)’. THOR has been selected by European Space Agency (ESA) for the study phase.
We developed the novel pressure-annealing method for fabricating printed low-work function metal patterns and printed metal alloy patterns. The printed diode having various rectification properties was successfully produced by using the printed metal alloy electrode pressure-annealed.
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) double antibody technique was standardized for detecting S. mansoni Polysaccharide and protein antigens in serum of infected mice. Anti-sera specific for either worm components were obtained in sheep and peroxidase conjugates prepared from each serum. The immunoenzimatic test for protein could detect as little as 6μg/ml antigens, and the test for polysaccharides 3 μg/ml.
Both bisexual and unisexual male worm low infections were produced, and studied for as long as 27 weeks post-exposure. Worm components were found in serum from both types of infections and in progressively higher percentages of animals until the end of the 27 weeks observations period. For unisexual male infections this percentage reached from about 50% to 60% of mice, and 100% for bisexual infections. Significantly higher antigen concentrations in serum were found at 27 weeks for bisexual infections, no antigen increase being detected in relation to starting egg secretion, which occurred at 5 week infections.
STM stimulated light emissions (STM-LE) from cleaved surfaces of GaAs(110) were investigated using a UHV-STM combined with a light detection system. Clean surfaces of Zn doped GaAs (p=5×1018) were obtained by mechanical cleavage in UHV. Light emission from the cleavage surface showed a single peak in a spectrum, which corresponds to luminescence by the conduction band to acceptor level transition in GaAs. In STM image Zn acceptors show bright tri angular-shaped contrasts, while in photon map they show dark contrasts when taken with a sample bias voltage of 2.0 V and 2.2 V at 80K. This contrast can be explained from the local band bending due to the charging effect or strain effect of the Zn acceptor.
The adsorption reaction of O2 molecule with symmetric dimers on the Si(001)–2×1 reconstructed surface has been investigated by ab initio molecular orbital calculations. Detailed analysis of the lowest energy reaction path has revealed that there exists a metastable state in which O2 molecule adsorbs on silicon dimer without dissociation, the dissociation of O2 molecule requires large activation energy, and a silicon oxide and an isolated oxygen atom are produced after the reaction has been completed. The activation energy required for the conversion from the metastable state to the final products has been estimated to be 60.4 kcal/mol. This result suggests that a symmetric dimer on the Si(001)–2×1 surface is hardly oxidized at room temperature. This conclusion is consistent with the recent STM observations that the initial stage of oxidation starts from the dimer defect sites on the Si(001) surface. On the contrary, it has been found that no activation energy is required for the oxidation reaction by O atom.
Ordered and modulated structures in InGaP alloy semiconductors grown on (001) GaAs substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, chloride-vapor phase epitaxy, and liquid phase epitaxy have been systematically studied by transmission electron microscopy. In InGaP grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition at 630°C, strong ordering of CuPt-type has been observed, which is associated with an abnormality in the photoluminescence peak energy. For crystals grown by chloride-vapor phase epitaxy, CuPt-type ordered structures have also been observed. However, the degree of ordering is weaker in the latter case and crystals grown at 576-740°C exhibit normal photoluminescence peak energies. On the other hand, in crystals grown by liquid phase epitaxy, no superstructure spots are found in the electron diffraction patterns and the crystals exhibit normal photoluminescence peak energies. Modulated structures do not depend on the growth method since they are observed in all crystals. From these results, it has been concluded that the ordered structures are not generated under thermal equilibrium conditions but rather by the diffusion and reconstruction of deposited atoms on the growth surface.
1.The effect of sugar fatty acid esters (SFEs; currently used as food additives for human consumption) on rumen volatile fatty acids (VFA) and gas production was studied with sheep rumen contents in vitro.
2. Some SFEs having monoester contents of more than 70 % increased the molar proportion of propionate in conjunction with reduction in the acetate: propionate ratio when the individual SFE was added to rumen contents in a final concentration of 4 g/l. Laurate sugar ester was the most potent propionate enhancer and rumen gas depressor, the effective dose being as low as 1 g/l in a final concentration. Fatty acid esters other than SFEs had little, if any, effect on rumen VFA production and their molar proportions.
3. Approximately 50% of laurate sugar ester was hydrolysed by in vitro incubation with rumen fluid for 2 h. The addition of fatty acids and sucrose was also effective in the alterations of rumen VFA and gas production. However, the effect of SFEs on in vitro rumen fermentation was significantly greater than that of their constituent fatty acids or sucrose, or both. Accordingly, the effect appeared to be ascribed to the complex action of SFE itself and to its constituents, free fatty acids and sucrose.
4. SFEs, at the level of 4 g/l, reduced substantially the froth formation (ingesta volume increase) and seemed to be effective for the prevention of bloat.
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