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Prenatal choline is a key nutrient, like folic acid and vitamin D, for fetal brain development and subsequent mental function. We sought to determine whether effects of higher maternal plasma choline concentrations on childhood attention and social problems, found in an initial clinical trial of choline supplementation, are observed in a second cohort.
Of 183 mothers enrolled from an urban safety net hospital clinic, 162 complied with gestational assessments and brought their newborns for study at 1 month of age; 83 continued assessments through 4 years of age. Effects of maternal 16 weeks of gestation plasma choline concentrations ⩾7.07 μM, 1 s.d. below the mean level obtained with supplementation in the previous trial, were compared to lower levels. The Attention Problems and Withdrawn Syndrome scales on Child Behavior Checklist 1½–5 were the principal outcomes.
Higher maternal plasma choline was associated with lower mean Attention Problems percentiles in children, and for male children, with lower Withdrawn percentiles. Higher plasma choline concentrations also reduced Attention Problems percentiles for children of mothers who used cannabis during gestation as well as children of mothers who had gestational infection.
Prenatal choline's positive associations with early childhood behaviors are found in a second, more diverse cohort. Increases in attention problems and social withdrawal in early childhood are associated with later mental illnesses including attention deficit disorder and schizophrenia. Choline concentrations in the pregnant women in this study replicate other research findings suggesting that most pregnant women do not have adequate choline in their diets.
Babies born small-for-gestational age (SGA) have an increased risk of mortality, morbidity and adverse functional consequences. Studies suggest that pre-pregnancy maternal diet may influence newborns’ size. This study aimed to determine whether maternal pre-pregnancy dietary patterns (DP) are associated with delivering SGA newborns in the ProcriAr Cohort Study, Sao Paulo-Brazil. Pre-pregnancy DP of 299 women were investigated using factor analysis with principal component’s estimation, based on intake reported on a validated 110-item FFQ. Newborns were classified as SGA if their weight and/or length, adjusted by gestational age and sex, were below the 10th percentile of the INTERGROWTH-21st standards. Multivariate Poisson regression modelling with robust error variance was performed to examine associations between the different DP (in quintiles) and SGA. In a model adjusted by maternal sociodemographic and health behaviours, women who scored in the highest quintile of the DP ‘Snacks, sandwiches, sweets and soft drinks’ (in relation to the women who scored in the lowest quintile) were significantly more likely to deliver SGA babies (relative risk 1·92; 95 % CI 1·08, 3·39). This study verified that women’s pre-pregnancy dietary behaviour characterised by an energy-dense nutrient-poor food intake was a risk factor for delivering SGA newborns. Investments in education and improved access to healthful food and nutritional information before pregnancy should be prioritised due to their potential positive impact on child health. However, further studies are warranted to identify specific metabolic pathways that may be underlying these associations.
Our objective was to integrate lessons learned from perinatal collaborative care programs across the United States, recognizing the diversity of practice settings and patient populations, to provide guidance on successful implementation.
Collaborative care is a health services delivery system that integrates behavioral health care into primary care. While efficacious, effectiveness requires rigorous attention to implementation to ensure adherence to the core evidence base.
Implementation strategies are divided into three pragmatic stages: preparation, program launch, and program growth and sustainment; however, these steps are non-linear and dynamic.
The discussion that follows is not meant to be prescriptive; rather, all implementation tasks should be thoughtfully tailored to the unique needs and setting of the obstetric community and patient population. In particular, we are aware that implementation on the level described here assumes commitment of both effort and money on the part of clinicians, administrators, and the health system, and that such financial resources are not always available. We conclude with synthesis of a survey of existing collaborative care programs to identify implementation practices of existing programs.
Hospital readmission is an important driver of costs among patients with CHD. We assessed predictors of 30-day rehospitalisation following cardiac surgery in CHD patients across the lifespan.
This was a retrospective analysis of 981 patients with CHD who had cardiac surgery between January 2011 and December 2012. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify demographic, clinical, and surgical predictors of 30-day readmission. Receiver operating curves derived from multivariate logistic modelling were utilised to discriminate between patients who were readmitted and not-readmitted at 30 days. Model goodness of fit was assessed using the Hosmer–Lemeshow test statistic.
Readmission in the 30 days following congenital heart surgery is common (14.0%). Among 981 patients risk factors associated with increased odds of 30-day readmission after congenital heart surgery through multivariate analysis included a history of previous cardiac surgery (p < 0.001), longer post-operative length of stay (p < 0.001), as well as nutritional (p < 0.001), haematologic (p < 0.02), and endocrine (p = 0.04) co-morbidities. Patients who underwent septal defect repair had reduced odds of readmission (p < 0.001), as did children (p = 0.04) and adult (p = 0.005) patients relative to neonates.
Risk factors for readmission include a history of cardiac surgery, longer length of stay, and co-morbid conditions. This information may serve to guide efforts to prevent readmission and inform resource allocation in the transition of care to the outpatient setting. This study also demonstrated the feasibility of linking a national subspecialty registry to a clinical and administrative data repository to follow longitudinal outcomes of interest.
Diet has direct and indirect effects on health through inflammation and the gut microbiome. We investigated total dietary inflammatory potential via the literature-derived index (Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®)) with gut microbiota diversity, composition and function. In cancer-free patient volunteers initially approached at colonoscopy and healthy volunteers recruited from the medical centre community, we assessed 16S ribosomal DNA in all subjects who provided dietary assessments and stool samples (n 101) and the gut metagenome in a subset of patients with residual fasting blood samples (n 34). Associations of energy-adjusted DII scores with microbial diversity and composition were examined using linear regression, permutational multivariate ANOVA and linear discriminant analysis. Spearman correlation was used to evaluate associations of species and pathways with DII and circulating inflammatory markers. Across DII levels, α- and β-diversity did not significantly differ; however, Ruminococcus torques, Eubacterium nodatum, Acidaminococcus intestini and Clostridium leptum were more abundant in the most pro-inflammatory diet group, while Akkermansia muciniphila was enriched in the most anti-inflammatory diet group. With adjustment for age and BMI, R. torques, E. nodatum and A. intestini remained significantly associated with a more pro-inflammatory diet. In the metagenomic and fasting blood subset, A. intestini was correlated with circulating plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, a pro-inflammatory marker (rho = 0·40), but no associations remained significant upon correction for multiple testing. An index reflecting overall inflammatory potential of the diet was associated with specific microbes, but not overall diversity of the gut microbiome in our study. Findings from this preliminary study warrant further research in larger samples and prospective cohorts.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Active surveillance (AS) is a recognized strategy to manage low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) in the absence of cancer progression. Little prospective data exists on the decisional factors associated with selecting and adhering to AS in the absence of cancer progression. We developed a survey instrument to predict AS uptake and adherence. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We utilized a three-step process to develop and refine a survey instrument designed to predict AS uptake and adherence among men with low-risk PCa: 1) We identified relevant conceptual domains based on prior research and a literature review. 2) We conducted 21 semi-structured concept elicitation interviews to identify patient-perceived barriers and facilitators to AS uptake and adherence among men with a low-risk PCa who had been on AS for ≥1 year. The identified concepts became the basis of our draft survey instrument. 3) We conducted two rounds of cognitive interviews with men with low-risk PCa (n = 12; n = 6) to refine and initially validate the instrument. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Relevant concepts identified from the initial interviews included the importance of patient: knowledge of their PCa risk, value in delaying treatment, trust in urologist and the AS surveillance protocol, and perceived social support. Initially, the survey was drafted as a single instrument to be administered after a patient had selected AS comprising sections on patient health, AS selection, and AS adherence. Based on the first round of cognitive interviews, we revised the single instrument into two surveys to track shifts in patient preference and experience. The first, administered at diagnosis, focuses on selection, and the second, a 6-month follow up, focuses on adherence. Following revisions, participants indicated the revised 2-part instrument was clear and not burdensome to complete. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The instrument’s content validity was evaluated through cognitive interviews, which supported that the survey items’ intended and understood meanings were isomorphic. In the next phase, we plan to conduct a large-scale prospective cohort study to evaluate the predictive validity, after which it will be available for public research use.
Minor depression is diagnosed when a patient suffers from two to four depressive symptoms for at least two weeks. Though minor depression is a widespread phenomenon, its pathophysiology has hardly been studied. To get a first insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disorder we assessed serum levels of biomarkers for plasticity, glial and neuronal function: brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), S100B and neuron specific enolase (NSE). Twenty-seven subjects with minor depressive episode and 82 healthy subjects over 60 years of age were selected from the database of the Leipzig population-based study of civilization diseases (LIFE). Serum levels of BDNF, S100B and NSE were compared between groups, and correlated with age, body-mass index, and degree of white matter hyperintensities (score on Fazekas scale). S100B was significantly increased in males with minor depression in comparison to healthy males, whereas other biomarkers did not differ between groups (P = 0.10–0.66). NSE correlated with Fazekas score in patients with minor depression (rs = 0.436, P = 0.048) and in the whole sample (rs = 0.252, P = 0.019). S100B correlated with body mass index (rs = 0.246, P = 0.031) and with age in healthy subjects (rs = 0.345, P = 0.002). Increased S100B in males with minor depression, without alterations in BDNF and NSE, supports the glial hypothesis of depression. Correlation between white matter hyperintensities and NSE underscores the vascular hypothesis of late life depression.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Face-to-face interactions in social groups are a central aspect of human social lives. Although the composition of such groups has received ample attention in various fields—e.g., sociology, social psychology, management, and educational science—their micro-level dynamics are rarely analyzed empirically. In this article, we present a new statistical network model (DyNAM-i) that can represent the dynamics of conversation groups and interpersonal interaction in different social contexts. Taking an actor-oriented perspective, this model can be applied to test how individuals’ interaction patterns differ and how they choose and change their interaction groups. It moves beyond dyadic interaction mechanisms and translates central social network mechanisms—such as homophily, transitivity, and popularity—to the context of interactions in group settings. The utility and practical applicability of the new model are illustrated in two social network studies that investigate face-to-face interactions in a small party and an office setting.
Maternal inflammation in early pregnancy has been identified epidemiologically as a prenatal pathogenic factor for the offspring's later mental illness. Early newborn manifestations of the effects of maternal inflammation on human fetal brain development are largely unknown.
Maternal infection, depression, obesity, and other factors associated with inflammation were assessed at 16 weeks gestation, along with maternal C-reactive protein (CRP), cytokines, and serum choline. Cerebral inhibition was assessed by inhibitory P50 sensory gating at 1 month of age, and infant behavior was assessed by maternal ratings at 3 months of age.
Maternal CRP diminished the development of cerebral inhibition in newborn males but paradoxically increased inhibition in females. Similar sex-dependent effects were seen in mothers' assessment of their infant's self-regulatory behaviors at 3 months of age. Higher maternal choline levels partly mitigated the effect of CRP in male offspring.
The male fetal-placental unit appears to be more sensitive to maternal inflammation than females. Effects are particularly marked on cerebral inhibition. Deficits in cerebral inhibition 1 month after birth, similar to those observed in several mental illnesses, including schizophrenia, indicate fetal developmental pathways that may lead to later mental illness. Deficits in early infant behavior follow. Early intervention before birth, including prenatal vitamins, folate, and choline supplements, may help prevent fetal development of pathophysiological deficits that can have life-long consequences for mental health.
Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) history have high rates of performance validity test (PVT) failure. The study aimed to determine whether those with scores in the invalid versus valid range on PVTs show similar benefit from psychotherapy and if psychotherapy improves PVT performance.
Veterans (N = 100) with PTSD, mild-to-moderate TBI history, and cognitive complaints underwent neuropsychological testing at baseline, post-treatment, and 3-month post-treatment. Veterans were randomly assigned to cognitive processing therapy (CPT) or a novel hybrid intervention integrating CPT with TBI psychoeducation and cognitive rehabilitation strategies from Cognitive Symptom Management and Rehabilitation Therapy (CogSMART). Performance below standard cutoffs on any PVT trial across three different PVT measures was considered invalid (PVT-Fail), whereas performance above cutoffs on all measures was considered valid (PVT-Pass).
Although both PVT groups exhibited clinically significant improvement in PTSD symptoms, the PVT-Pass group demonstrated greater symptom reduction than the PVT-Fail group. Measures of post-concussive and depressive symptoms improved to a similar degree across groups. Treatment condition did not moderate these results. Rate of valid test performance increased from baseline to follow-up across conditions, with a stronger effect in the SMART-CPT compared to CPT condition.
Both PVT groups experienced improved psychological symptoms following treatment. Veterans who failed PVTs at baseline demonstrated better test engagement following treatment, resulting in higher rates of valid PVTs at follow-up. Veterans with invalid PVTs should be enrolled in trauma-focused treatment and may benefit from neuropsychological assessment after, rather than before, treatment.
Managing collections means ensuring that the data about them are useful, available, and accurate. In addition to the technical aspects of data management, there are layers of political and social structure that direct the construction and use of collections data. The Minnesota Historical Society (MNHS) employs a set of data standards that allows us to gather electronic cataloging data from a wide community of archaeology researchers who are depositing collections at our institution. Though met with initial resistance, these standards have facilitated publication in Open Context as linked open data. Furthermore, institutional discussions concerning Creative Commons licensing and the cultural sensitivity of collections data were precipitated by publication, highlighting the role of social agreement in data management. We found that successful employment of data standards must take into account the needs of the various stakeholders and further their interests. Standards will be most useful and successful when they are lightweight, are supported by training and documentation, and exist as part of a system that allows for more than one way to characterize the collections.
This study investigated whether higher maternal choline levels mitigate effects of marijuana on fetal brain development. Choline transported into the amniotic fluid from the mother activates α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on fetal cerebro-cortical inhibitory neurons, whose development is impeded by cannabis blockade of their cannabinoid-1(CB1) receptors.
Marijuana use was assessed during pregnancy from women who later brought their newborns for study. Mothers were informed about choline and other nutrients, but not specifically for marijuana use. Maternal serum choline was measured at 16 weeks gestation.
Marijuana use for the first 10 weeks gestation or more by 15% of mothers decreased newborns' inhibition of evoked potentials to repeated sounds (d’ = 0.55, p < 0.05). This effect was ameliorated if women had higher gestational choline (rs = −0.50, p = 0.011). At 3 months of age, children whose mothers continued marijuana use through their 10th gestational week or more had poorer self-regulation (d’ = −0.79, p < 0.05). This effect was also ameliorated if mothers had higher gestational choline (rs = 0.54, p = 0.013). Maternal choline levels correlated with the children's improved duration of attention, cuddliness, and bonding with parents.
Prenatal marijuana use adversely affects fetal brain development and subsequent behavioral self-regulation, a precursor to later, more serious problems in childhood. Stopping marijuana use before 10 weeks gestational age prevented these effects. Many mothers refuse to cease use because of familiarity with marijuana and belief in its safety. Higher maternal choline mitigates some of marijuana's adverse effects on the fetus.
Optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) [Dubietis et al., Opt. Commun. 88, 437 (1992)] implemented by multikilojoule Nd:glass pump lasers is a promising approach to produce ultraintense pulses (
). Technologies are being developed to upgrade the OMEGA EP Laser System with the goal to pump an optical parametric amplifier line (EP OPAL) with two of the OMEGA EP beamlines. The resulting ultraintense pulses (1.5 kJ, 20 fs,
) would be used jointly with picosecond and nanosecond pulses produced by the other two beamlines. A midscale OPAL pumped by the Multi-Terawatt (MTW) laser is being constructed to produce 7.5-J, 15-fs pulses and demonstrate scalable technologies suitable for the upgrade. MTW OPAL will share a target area with the MTW laser (50 J, 1 to 100 ps), enabling several joint-shot configurations. We report on the status of the MTW OPAL system, and the technology development required for this class of all-OPCPA laser system for ultraintense pulses.
The current study examined the concurrent and prospective associations of ethnic–racial identity content (i.e., centrality, private regard, and public regard) and depressive symptomatology among Latino adolescents. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of Latino adolescents (N = 148, 53.4% girls) who were 13–14 years old at Wave 1. Results indicated that higher ethnic–racial centrality at Waves 1 and 2 predicted fewer depressive symptoms at Waves 2 and 3, respectively. In addition, more positive private regard at Wave 1 predicted fewer depressive symptoms at Wave 2, and more positive public regard at Wave 2 predicted fewer symptoms at Wave 3. Thus, ethnic–racial identity content may serve as a cultural protective factor that is linked to diminished depressive symptomatology among Latino youth.
Maternal depression is one of the most common prenatal complications, and prenatal maternal depression predicts many child psychopathologies. Here, we apply the fetal programming hypothesis as an organizational framework to address the possibility that fetal exposure to maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy affects fetal development of vulnerabilities and risk mechanisms, which enhance risk for subsequent psychopathology. We consider four candidate pathways through which maternal prenatal depression may affect the propensity of offspring to develop later psychopathology across the life span: brain development, physiological stress regulation (hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical axis), negative emotionality, and cognitive (effortful) control. The majority of past research has been correlational, so potential causal conclusions have been limited. We describe an ongoing experimental test of the fetal programming influence of prenatal maternal depressive symptoms using a randomized controlled trial design. In this randomized controlled trial, interpersonal psychotherapy is compared to enhanced usual care among distressed pregnant women to evaluate whether reducing prenatal maternal depressive symptoms has a salutary impact on child ontogenetic vulnerabilities and thereby reduces offspring's risk for emergence of later psychopathology.
Perinatal mood and anxiety disorders (PMADs) are the most common complication of pregnancy and have been found to have long-term implications for both mother and child. In vulnerable patient populations such as those served at Denver Health, a federally qualified health center the prevalence of PMADs is nearly double the nationally reported rate of 15–20%. Nearly 17% of women will be diagnosed with major depression at some point in their lives and those numbers are twice as high in women who live in poverty. Women also appear to be at higher risk for depression in the child-bearing years. In order to better address these issues, an Integrated Perinatal Mental Health program was created to screen, assess, and treat PMADs in alignment with national recommendations to improve maternal–child health and wellness. This program was built upon a national model of Integrated Behavioral Health already in place at Denver Health.
A multidisciplinary team of physicians, behavioral health providers, public health, and administrators was assembled at Denver Health, an integrated hospital and community health care system that serves as the safety net hospital to the city and county of Denver, CO. This team was brought together to create a universal screen-to-treat process for PMAD’s in perinatal clinics and to adapt the existing Integrated Behavioral Health (IBH) model into a program better suited to the health system’s obstetric population. Universal prenatal and postnatal depression screening was implemented at the obstetric intake visit, a third trimester prenatal care visit, and at the postpartum visit across the clinical system. At the same time, IBH services were implemented across our health system’s perinatal care system in a stepwise fashion. This included our women’s care clinics as well as the family medicine and pediatric clinics. These efforts occurred in tandem to support all patients and staff enabling a specially trained behavioral health provider (psychologists and L.C.S.W.’s) to respond immediately to any positive screen during or after pregnancy.
In August 2014 behavioral health providers were integrated into the women’s care clinics. In January 2015 universal screening for PMADs was implemented throughout the perinatal care system. Screening has improved from 0% of women screened at the obstetric care intake visit in August 2014 to >75% of women screened in August 2016. IBH coverage by a licensed psychologist or licensed clinical social worker exists in 100% of perinatal clinics as of January 2016. As well, in order to gain sustainability, the ability to bill same day visits as well as to bill, and be reimbursed for screening and assessment visits, continues to improve and provide for a model that is self-sustaining for the future.
Implementation of a universal screening process for PMADs alongside the development of an IBH model in perinatal care has led to the creation of a program that is feasible and has the capacity to serve as a national model for improving perinatal mental health in vulnerable populations.
Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and viral hepatitis is associated with high morbidity and mortality in the absence of clinical management, making identification of these cases crucial. We examined characteristics of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfections by using surveillance data from 15 US states and two cities. Each jurisdiction used an automated deterministic matching method to link surveillance data for persons with reported acute and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, to persons reported with HIV infection. Of the 504 398 persons living with diagnosed HIV infection at the end of 2014, 2.0% were coinfected with HBV and 6.7% were coinfected with HCV. Of the 269 884 persons ever reported with HBV, 5.2% were reported with HIV. Of the 1 093 050 persons ever reported with HCV, 4.3% were reported with HIV. A greater proportion of persons coinfected with HIV and HBV were males and blacks/African Americans, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Persons who inject drugs represented a greater proportion of those coinfected with HIV and HCV, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Matching HIV and viral hepatitis surveillance data highlights epidemiological characteristics of persons coinfected and can be used to routinely monitor health status and guide state and national public health interventions.
Arabic is often investigated within dialectological frameworks that emerged in the 19th century, though that work now exists alongside decades of variationist sociolinguistic research. The latter method typically produces abundant data, recorded at very high quality, which lend themselves to being transcribed, described and preserved. This paper presents descriptive information on the Arabic dialect of Gaza City, based on recent sociolinguistic fieldwork conducted in the Gaza Strip with 39 speakers from the wider Gaza City community. These descriptive aspects of the dialect are presented as part of a broader discussion regarding the need for a more holistic integration of sociolinguistics and language description and documentation in work on understudied or endangered varieties of Arabic.