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A new species, Oocephalus pubescens A.Soares & Harley, from Chapada dos Veadeiros, Goiás, Brazil, is described and illustrated. The characteristics that distinguish it from a similar taxon, Oocephalus foliosus, are listed, and comments on its distribution and an occurrence map are provided.
Oxidative stress has been linked to many obesity-related conditions among children including cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Exposure to environmental chemicals such as phthalates, ubiquitously found in humans, may also generate reactive oxygen species and subsequent oxidative stress. We examined longitudinal changes of 8-isoprostane urinary concentrations, a validated biomarker of oxidative stress, and associations with maternal prenatal urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites for 258 children at 5, 9 and 14 years of age participating in a birth cohort residing in an agricultural area in California. Phthalates are endocrine disruptors, and in utero exposure has been also linked to altered lipid metabolism, as well as adverse birth and neurodevelopmental outcomes. We found that median creatinine-corrected 8-isoprostane concentrations remained constant across all age groups and did not differ by sex. Total cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were positively associated with 8-isoprostane in 14-year-old children. No associations were observed between 8-isoprostane and body mass index (BMI), BMI Z-score or waist circumference at any age. Concentrations of three metabolites of high molecular weight phthalates measured at 13 weeks of gestation (monobenzyl, monocarboxyoctyl and monocarboxynonyl phthalates) were negatively associated with 8-isoprostane concentrations among 9-year olds. However, at 14 years of age, isoprostane concentrations were positively associated with two other metabolites (mono(2-ethylhexyl) and mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalates) measured in early pregnancy. Longitudinal data on 8-isoprostane in this pediatric population with a high prevalence of obesity provides new insight on certain potential cardiometabolic risks of prenatal exposure to phthalates.
Increasing rates of young people not in education, employment or training (NEETs) are a cause of concern both in Ireland and internationally, but little longitudinal research has examined the link between psychiatric disorder in young people and NEET status.
The Challenging Times (CT) Study is a longitudinal, population-based study of psychopathology among 212 young Irish people. Clinical interviews were performed at two time points: 12–15 years and 19–24 years.
NEET status in young adulthood was associated with a sevenfold increased risk of current suicidal ideation. This result was independent of prior adolescent mental disorder. NEET young people had a fourfold increased odds of being diagnosed with a mental disorder in childhood or early adolescence compared with their economically active peers. NEET young people were at an almost threefold increased risk of any mental health disorder a twofold increased risk of anxiety disorder and threefold increased odds of suicide attempts over their lifetime compared with economically active peers.
NEET young people are at increased risk for mental disorder and suicidal ideation. The association is bidirectional, as prior mental disorder in adolescence appeared to account for much of the association between NEET status and current mental health problems. However, economic inactivity conveys an increased risk for suicidal ideation over and above that due to prior disorder. Our findings provide a compelling economic and societal argument for early intervention and treatment of mental disorder and the importance of vocational interventions for reducing suicide risk in young adults.
There is a lack of epidemiological research on the mental health of young adults in Ireland.
To determine prevalence of psychiatric disorders in a cohort of young Irish adults.
The Challenging Times study was a landmark study of the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in adolescents in North Dublin, Ireland: 212 school children aged 12-15 years were recruited through schools and interviewed using the K-SADS semi-structured diagnostic instrument. This cohort was traced again at age 19-24 years (mean age 20.8 years) and interviewed using SCID I & II. Main outcome measures were current and lifetime Axis I and Axis II psychiatric disorders.
Follow-up rate was 80%. Using a weighted population prevalence analysis 19.8% of the cohort had a current mental disorder, 56.0% had a lifetime mental disorder of whom 28.4% had mood disorders, 27.1% had anxiety disorders, 22.7% had substance use disorders; 25.4% had lifetime multi-morbidity. Cluster A personality disorders were found in 2.3%. Lifetime prevalence of binge-drinking was 75.0%, cannabis use 65% and 17% of young adults had fulfilled criteria for an alcohol use disorder at sometime in their life. Lifetime prevalence of suicidal thoughts/behaviour was 21.1%.
Lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorder and substance use were high in this sample of young Irish adults. Mental Health service provision for this age group is a priority. Larger studies of nationally representative samples are needed to inform service development.
In the above mentioned article by Radakovic et al., a typological error has been found in the Results section under the subheading ‘Systematic review’. At the beginning of the second paragraph, the number ‘166’ should read ‘116’.
We aimed to reparameterize and validate an existing dengue model, comprising an entomological component (CIMSiM) and a disease component (DENSiM) for application in Malaysia. With the model we aimed to measure the effect of importation rate on dengue incidence, and to determine the potential impact of moderate climate change (a 1 °C temperature increase) on dengue activity. Dengue models (comprising CIMSiM and DENSiM) were reparameterized for a simulated Malaysian village of 10 000 people, and validated against monthly dengue case data from the district of Petaling Jaya in the state of Selangor. Simulations were also performed for 2008-2012 for variable virus importation rates (ranging from 1 to 25 per week) and dengue incidence determined. Dengue incidence in the period 2010–2012 was modelled, twice, with observed daily weather and with a 1 °C increase, the latter to simulate moderate climate change. Strong concordance between simulated and observed monthly dengue cases was observed (up to r = 0·72). There was a linear relationship between importation and incidence. However, a doubling of dengue importation did not equate to a doubling of dengue activity. The largest individual dengue outbreak was observed with the lowest dengue importation rate. Moderate climate change resulted in an overall decrease in dengue activity over a 3-year period, linked to high human seroprevalence early on in the simulation. Our results suggest that moderate reductions in importation with control programmes may not reduce the frequency of large outbreaks. Moderate increases in temperature do not necessarily lead to greater dengue incidence.
There are several scales used to detect apathy in disease populations. Since apathy is a prevalent symptom in many neurodegenerative diseases, this is an especially important context in which to identify and compare scales.
To provide an overview of apathy scales validated in generic and specific neurodegenerative disease populations, compare validation studies’ methodological quality and the psychometric properties of the validated apathy scales.
A systematic review of literature was conducted of articles published between 1980 and 2013. The final articles selected for review were rated on methodological quality and the psychometric properties of the scales used were interpreted.
Sixteen articles validating apathy scales were included in the review, five in a generic neurodegenerative sample and eleven in specific neurodegenerative samples. The methodological quality of specific studies varied from poor to excellent. The highest quality, which had psychometrically favorable scales, were the dementia apathy interview and rating (DAIR) and the apathy evaluation scale-clinical version (AES-C) in Alzheimer's disease and the Lille apathy rating scale (LARS) in Parkinson's disease. Generic neurodegenerative disease validation studies were of average methodological quality and yielded inconsistent psychometric properties.
Several instruments can be recommended for use in some specific neurodegenerative diseases. Other instruments should either be validated or developed to assess apathy in more generic populations.
In the Western and Central Pacific Ocean (WCPO), which accounts for over half of world
tuna production, purse seine effort and catch on floating objects have increased
significantly due to a rapid increase in the use of fixed and free-floating fish
aggregation devices (FADs). FAD fishing has had an impact on the current status of the
stocks of the three main target tunas in the equatorial WCPO, skipjack (Katsuwonus
pelamis), yellowfin (Thunnus albacares) and bigeye (T.
obesus). FADs have been shown to influence the behaviour and movement patterns
of the three tuna species with the juveniles of each species occupying shallower habitats
when associated with FADs. Aggregation of tunas around drifting objects increases their
vulnerability to purse seine gear, particularly for juvenile and small size classes.
Further to the impacts on the target stocks, the use of FADs has increased the
vulnerability of other fishes to the purse seine method, including some shark and billfish
species. Given the concern over FAD-related fishing effort on target and bycatch species,
there is a need to understand how FAD use affects target and bycatch stocks. Science needs
to better support management decisions are highlighted including the need to identify the
magnitude of broader community-level affects.
We report a single-crystal Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) study of a sample of pollucite from Maine, USA. Prior to our work, the sample had been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction and electron-probe microanalysis. It is cubic Ia3d, with a crystal-chemical formula Na1.93(Cs10.48Rb0.31K0.04)Σ=10.83(Al14.45Si33.97)Σ=48.42O96·3.92H2O, and an H2O content, determined by thermogravimetric analysis, of 1.6 wt.%. The single-crystal FTIR spectrum has a doublet of intense bands at 3670 and 3589 cm–1, which are assigned to the ν3 and ν1 stretching modes of the H2O molecule, respectively. A very intense and sharp peak at 1620 cm–1 is assigned to the ν2 bending vibration. In the near-infrared region there is a relatively intense peak at 5270 cm–1, which is assigned to a combination (ν2 + ν3) mode of H2O, and a weak but well defined doublet at 7118 and 6831 cm–1, which is assigned to the first overtones of the fundamental stretching modes. A relatively weak but extremely sharp peak at 2348 cm–1 shows that the pollucite contains CO2 molecules in structural cavities. Mapping the sample using FTIR indicates that both H2O and CO2 are homogeneously distributed. Secondary ion mass spectrometry yielded an average CO2 content of 0.09±0.02 wt.%. On the basis of this value, we determined the integrated molar absorption coefficient for the spectroscopic analysis of CO2 in pollucite to be εiCO2 = 11,000±3000 l mol–1 cm–2; the linear molar absorption coefficient for the same integration range is εlCO2 = 1600±500 l mol–1 cm–1.
Epidemiological research has shown that hallucinations and delusions, the classic symptoms of psychosis, are far more prevalent in the population than actual psychotic disorder. These symptoms are especially prevalent in childhood and adolescence. Longitudinal research has demonstrated that psychotic symptoms in adolescence increase the risk of psychotic disorder in adulthood. There has been a lack of research, however, on the immediate clinicopathological significance of psychotic symptoms in adolescence.
To investigate the relationship between psychotic symptoms and non-psychotic psychopathology in community samples of adolescents in terms of prevalence, co-occurring disorders, comorbid (multiple) psychopathology and variation across early v. middle adolescence.
Data from four population studies were used: two early adolescence studies (ages 11–13 years) and two mid-adolescence studies (ages 13–16 years). Studies 1 and 2 involved school-based surveys of 2243 children aged 11–16 years for psychotic symptoms and for emotional and behavioural symptoms of psychopathology. Studies 3 and 4 involved in-depth diagnostic interview assessments of psychotic symptoms and lifetime psychiatric disorders in community samples of 423 children aged 11–15 years.
Younger adolescents had a higher prevalence (21–23%) of psychotic symptoms than older adolescents (7%). In both age groups the majority of adolescents who reported psychotic symptoms had at least one diagnosable non-psychotic psychiatric disorder, although associations with psychopathology increased with age: nearly 80% of the mid-adolescence sample who reported psychotic symptoms had at least one diagnosis, compared with 57% of the early adolescence sample. Adolescents who reported psychotic symptoms were at particularly high risk of having multiple co-occurring diagnoses.
Psychotic symptoms are important risk markers for a wide range of non-psychotic psychopathological disorders, in particular for severe psychopathology characterised by multiple co-occurring diagnoses. These symptoms should be carefully assessed in all patients.
Psychotic symptoms occur more frequently in the general population than psychotic disorder and index risk for psychopathology. Multiple studies have reported on the prevalence of these symptoms using self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews but there is a lack of consensus about the prevalence of psychotic symptoms among children and adolescents.
We conducted a systematic review of all published literature on psychotic symptom prevalence in two age groups, children aged 9–12 years and adolescents aged 13–18 years, searching through electronic databases PubMed, Ovid Medline, PsycINFO and EMBASE up to June 2011, and extracted prevalence rates.
We identified 19 population studies that reported on psychotic symptom prevalence among children and adolescents. The median prevalence of psychotic symptoms was 17% among children aged 9–12 years and 7.5% among adolescents aged 13–18 years.
Psychotic symptoms are relatively common in young people, especially in childhood. Prevalence is higher in younger (9–12 years) compared to older (13–18 years) children.
Adolescent cannabis use has been shown in many studies to increase the risk of later psychosis. Childhood trauma is associated with both substance misuse and risk for psychosis. In this study our aim was to investigate whether there is a significant interaction between cannabis use and childhood trauma in increasing the risk for experiencing psychotic symptoms during adolescence.
Psychiatric interviews using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children (K-SADS) semi-structured instrument were carried out with 211 adolescents aged between 12 and 15 years and their parents as part of a population-based study. The interview enquired about early traumatic events, cannabis use and psychiatric symptoms in adolescence.
In separate analyses both cannabis use and childhood trauma were significantly associated with risk of experiencing psychotic symptoms. However, the presence of both childhood trauma and early cannabis use significantly increased the risk for psychotic symptoms beyond the risk posed by either risk factor alone, indicating that there was a greater than additive interaction between childhood trauma and cannabis use.
Our finding of a greater than additive interaction between childhood trauma and cannabis use may have implications for the identification of individuals at high risk of experiencing psychotic symptoms. For example, measures to actively discourage or intensively treat cannabis use in children and adolescents who have experienced abuse may help to prevent the development of psychosis in this vulnerable group. Our findings require replication in larger samples to confirm this interaction effect.
Background. Very little research has examined the frequency with which women with major depressive disorder experience premenstrual exacerbation (PME) of depression or the characteristics of those who report such worsening. The NIMH Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study provides a unique opportunity to evaluate PME in depressed women seeking treatment in primary care or psychiatric settings.
Method. This report presents data from the first 1500 participants enrolled in the STAR*D study. Premenopausal women with major depressive disorder were asked if they experienced a worsening of their depressive symptoms 5–10 days prior to menses. Those reporting PME were compared with those reporting no PME with regard to sociodemographic characteristics, course of illness features, symptom presentation, general medical co-morbidity, functional impairment, and quality of life.
Results. Of 433 premenopausal women not taking oral contraceptives, 64% reported a premenstrual worsening of their depression. Women who reported PME had a longer duration of their current major depressive episode [30·7 (S.D.=73·7) months versus 13·5 (S.D.=13·2) months; p=0·001], as well as greater general medical co-morbidity. Women reporting PME were also more likely to endorse symptoms of leaden paralysis, somatic complaints, gastrointestinal complaints, and psychomotor slowing, and were less likely to endorse blunted mood reactivity.
Conclusions. PME is endorsed by the majority of premenopausal women with major depressive disorder and appears to be associated with a longer duration of depressive episode. PME is a common and important clinical issue deserving of further attention in both research and practice.
Background. Little is known about how continuation and maintenance cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) influences important psychological constructs that may be associated with long-term outcome of major depressive disorder. The goal of this study was to examine whether CBT would help maintain attributional style changes experienced by patients during acute phase fluoxetine treatment.
Method. Three hundred and ninety-one patients with major depressive disorder were enrolled in an open, fixed-dose 8 week fluoxetine trial. Remitters to this acute phase treatment (N=132) were randomized to receive either fixed-dose fluoxetine (meds only) or fixed-dose fluoxetine plus cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT+meds) during a 6-month continuation treatment phase. The Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ) was completed by patients at three time points – acute phase baseline, continuation phase baseline and continuation phase endpoint. Analysis of covariance was used to compare continuation phase ASQ composite score changes between groups.
Results. Patients in both treatment groups experienced significant gains in positive attributional style during the acute phase of treatment. Continuation phase ASQ composite change scores differed significantly between treatment groups, with the CBT+meds group maintaining acute phase positive attributional style changes, and the meds only group exhibiting a worsening of attributional style. The two treatment groups did not significantly differ in rates of relapse and final continuation phase visit HAMD-17 scores.
Conclusions. In this sample, the addition of CBT to continuation psychopharmacological treatment was associated with maintenance of acute treatment phase attributional style gains. Further research is needed to evaluate the role of such gains in the long-term course of depressive illness.
We investigate electrical stressing and switching in hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (mc-Si:H) by thermal, and optical and electrical measurements of Cr/mc-Si:H/metal thin-film structures. Boron-doped microcrystalline Si films of 30-50 nm thick are deposited by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) on Cr-coated glass at 160°C and contacted with Ag or Al. Switching in devices of size 5 to 30 mm is stimulated by a current-ramp from 10 nA to 50 mA. We find that the voltage across the mc-Si:H devices initially increases logarithmically with current, then saturates at 2∼3 V, and finally drops to a low value of 1 to 1.5 V. This drop indicates a permanent decrease of device resistance to below 1 kW. During current stressing, the surface temperature increases with the bias current, and the surface reflectivity changes. After switching, a small increase in crystalline fraction can be observed by micro-Raman scattering measurements. The observations suggest electrothermal processes which cause changes in microstructure of the mc-Si bulk during current stress.