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Medium frequency radars with multiple receivers are able to track the movement of the interference pattern on the ground from echoes from irregularities in refractive index. In particular, refractive index in the mesosphere is determined by electron density – commonly known as the ionospheric D-region. Thus using this technique it is possible to determine winds in the height regime 70-90 km, depending on the degree of ionization throughout the year. In addition, by examining the fading times of the passage of these structures, it is possible to deduce metrics pertaining to neutral air turbulence. Here, we employ a well-established method to this effect. Thereafter, comparing the turbulent intensity to the kinematic viscosity of the neutral atmosphere, we determine the turbopause altitude. Above this height, atmospheric constituents behave independently, whereas below, all components are mixed. Contrary to earlier analyses, we present evidence the turbopause altitude has been constant since approximately 2004.
In March 2018, the US Department of Defense (DOD) added the smallpox vaccination, using ACAM2000, to its routine immunizations, increasing the number of persons receiving the vaccine. The following month, Fort Hood reported a cluster of 5 myopericarditis cases. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the DOD launched an investigation.
The investigation consisted of a review of medical records, establishment of case definitions, causality assessment, patient interviews, and active surveillance. A 2-sided exact rate ratio test was used to compare myopericarditis incidence rates.
This investigation identified 4 cases of probable myopericarditis and 1 case of suspected myopericarditis. No alternative etiology was identified as a cause. No additional cases were identified. There was no statistically significant difference in incidence rates between the observed cluster (5.23 per 1000 vaccinated individuals, 95% CI: 1.7–12.2) and the ACAM2000 clinical trial outcomes for symptomatic persons, which was 2.29 per 1000 vaccinated individuals (95% CI: 0.3–8.3).
Vaccination with ACAM2000 is the presumptive cause of this cluster. Caution should be exercised before considering vaccination campaigns for smallpox given the clinical morbidity and costs incurred by a case of myopericarditis. Risk of myopericarditis should be carefully weighed with risk of exposure to smallpox.
Technology has proven itself to be invaluable across many disciplines, including psychology. With the rise in technological advancements, services are now can be provided through technological media. This chapter describes tele-mental health (TMH) services, which refer to the supports (e.g., therapy, consultation, intervention, coaching) that are provided in ‘real time’ by practitioners to clients through telephones, cellphones, computers, tablets and any other device that can facilitate communication with the aid of technology. This chapter in particular focuses on TMH services that are facilitated through video-chat interfaces. The origins and evidence base for TMH are included, along with recommendations for ethical and legal considerations, as well as rapport building. Though practitioners may be hesitant to deliver TMH services, the purpose of this chapter is to provide readers with enough information to help prepare them for the field and ease any reservations they may harbor
ABSTRACT IMPACT: This work aims to identify best practices for university-based asset development programs to improve commercialization throughput, which in turn will drive innovation in the biomedical space and directly contribute to improved human health. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: University technology transfer exhibits a high rate of failure, often due to a lack of researcher experience or early-stage financial capital. The LEAP program at Washington University (WUSTL) was created to address these needs. The goal of this study is to assess the performance of LEAP against similar gap funds and further improve program operations. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The goals of LEAP are achieved by providing university inventors with individualized consulting and feedback from industry experts, as well as awarding funding to the most promising projects. To determine whether these activities are impactful, we distributed an awardee report form to collect data on all funded LEAP projects, and then combined the results with project registration information. We also collected records Office of Technology Management, including invention disclosures, licenses, and startup creations. The resulting dataset was used to calculate program metrics and then evaluated against comparable gap funds. Sentiment data from participant surveys were also analyzed to assess perceived program value and knowledge transfer. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: As of the Sp2020 cycle, LEAP has funded 76 projects. Resubmitted projects had a funding rate of 52%, vs. 34% for new projects. Of the startups founded off of WUSTL intellectual property since 2016, nearly two-thirds had previously participated in LEAP. Funded LEAP projects also had a 29% licensing rate, which is comparable to similar gap funds. Lastly, participants self-reported an increase in knowledge across a range of commercialization areas. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: The increased repeat funding rate and self-reported knowledge suggest that LEAP is impactful in building commercialization proficiency. The licensing rate and prevalence of LEAP projects in WUSTL startups also indicate that LEAP is indeed promoting tech transfer. Together, these results suggest that LEAP could be a model for other institutions.
Community pharmacies were underutilized as vaccination locations during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Since that time, community pharmacies are a common location for seasonal influenza vaccinations with approximately one-third of adults now getting vaccinated at a pharmacy. Leveraging community pharmacies to vaccinate during a pandemic such as pandemic influenza or the current coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic will result in a more timely and comprehensive public health response. The purpose of this article is to summarize the results of a strategic planning meeting held in 2017 that focused on operationalizing pandemic influenza vaccinations at a regional supermarket chain pharmacy. Participating in the planning session from the supermarket chain were organizational experts in pharmacy clinical programs, managed care, operations leadership, supply chain, information technology, loss prevention, marketing, and compliance. Additionally, experts from the county and state departments of health and university faculty collaborated in the planning session. Topics addressed included (1) establishing a memorandum of understanding with the state, (2) developing an internal emergency response plan, (3) scaling the pandemic response, (4) considerations for pharmacy locations, (5) staffing for pandemic response, (6) pandemic vaccine-specific training, (7) pharmacy workflow, (8) billing considerations, (9) documentation, (10) supplies and equipment, (11) vaccine supply chain, (12) communications, and (13) security and crowd control. Information from this planning session may be valuable to community pharmacies across the nation that seek to participate in COVID-19 pandemic vaccinations.
Psychological attachment to political parties can bias people’s attitudes, beliefs, and group evaluations. Studies from psychology suggest that self-affirmation theory may ameliorate this problem in the domain of politics on a variety of outcome measures. We report a series of studies conducted by separate research teams that examine whether a self-affirmation intervention affects a variety of outcomes, including political or policy attitudes, factual beliefs, conspiracy beliefs, affective polarization, and evaluations of news sources. The different research teams use a variety of self-affirmation interventions, research designs, and outcomes. Despite these differences, the research teams consistently find that self-affirmation treatments have little effect. These findings suggest considerable caution is warranted for researchers who wish to apply the self-affirmation framework to studies that investigate political attitudes and beliefs. By presenting the “null results” of separate research teams, we hope to spark a discussion about whether and how the self-affirmation paradigm should be applied to political topics.
The first demonstration of laser action in ruby was made in 1960 by T. H. Maiman of Hughes Research Laboratories, USA. Many laboratories worldwide began the search for lasers using different materials, operating at different wavelengths. In the UK, academia, industry and the central laboratories took up the challenge from the earliest days to develop these systems for a broad range of applications. This historical review looks at the contribution the UK has made to the advancement of the technology, the development of systems and components and their exploitation over the last 60 years.
This chapter argues that the success of Trump’s candidacy in the 2016 Republican primary was due in part to its value as barbed comedic entertainment, generated through gesture. The chapter builds on semiotician Mikhael Bakhtin’s notion of the “grotesque body” to examine the ways that Trump’s unconventional communicative style, particularly his use of gesture to critique the political system and caricature his opponents, brought momentum to his campaign by creating spectacle. By reducing a target perceived as an opponent to an essentialized action of the body, Trump’s bodily parodies deliver the message that he rejects progressive social expectations regarding how minority groups should be represented. Five highly mediatized caricatures are analyzed in detail: the Wrist-Flailing Reporter, the Food-Shoveling Governor, the Choking Ex-Politician, the Border-Crossing Mexican, and the Swooning Democratic Nominee. In each of these gestural enactments, Trump displays his antagonism to political correctness by embodying discourses of disability, class, race, immigration, and gender, thus encouraging a new sociopolitical order that discourages empathy toward the vulnerable.
Schizotypy is a putative risk phenotype for psychosis liability, but the overlap of its genetic architecture with schizophrenia is poorly understood.
We tested the hypothesis that dimensions of schizotypy (assessed with the SPQ-B) are associated with a polygenic risk score (PRS) for schizophrenia in a sample of 623 psychiatrically healthy, non-clinical subjects from the FOR2107 multi-centre study and a second sample of 1133 blood donors.
We did not find correlations of schizophrenia PRS with either overall SPQ or specific dimension scores, nor with adjusted schizotypy scores derived from the SPQ (addressing inter-scale variance). Also, PRS for affective disorders (bipolar disorder and major depression) were not significantly associated with schizotypy.
This important negative finding demonstrates that despite the hypothesised continuum of schizotypy and schizophrenia, schizotypy might share less genetic risk with schizophrenia than previously assumed (and possibly less compared to psychotic-like experiences).
A number of genomic conditions caused by copy number variants (CNVs) are associated with a high risk of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders (ND-CNVs). Although these patients also tend to have cognitive impairments, few studies have investigated the range of emotion and behaviour problems in young people with ND-CNVs using measures that are suitable for those with learning difficulties.
A total of 322 young people with 13 ND-CNVs across eight loci (mean age: 9.79 years, range: 6.02–17.91, 66.5% male) took part in the study. Primary carers completed the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC).
Of the total, 69% of individuals with an ND-CNV screened positive for clinically significant difficulties. Young people from families with higher incomes (OR = 0.71, CI = 0.55–0.91, p = .008) were less likely to screen positive. The rate of difficulties differed depending on ND-CNV genotype (χ2 = 39.99, p < 0.001), with the lowest rate in young people with 22q11.2 deletion (45.7%) and the highest in those with 1q21.1 deletion (93.8%). Specific patterns of strengths and weaknesses were found for different ND-CNV genotypes. However, ND-CNV genotype explained no more than 9–16% of the variance, depending on DBC subdomain.
Emotion and behaviour problems are common in young people with ND-CNVs. The ND-CNV specific patterns we find can provide a basis for more tailored support. More research is needed to better understand the variation in emotion and behaviour problems not accounted for by genotype.
Upon completing her first university degree in 2005, Rita M. Lopidia and seven other women from universities in Sudan came together to form EVE Organization for Women Development. EVE provides skills building, rights awareness and leadership training for young women in South Sudan. Since forming, EVE has broadened its scope to promote women's political participation and advocate for women's voices to be included at the peace table.
In this chapter, Rita M. Lopidia and Lucy Hall discuss Rita's firsthand experience of feminist advocacy on Women, Peace and Security (WPS) in South Sudan and transnationally. Under Rita's leadership EVE has also played a key role in monitoring the implementation of UNSCR 1325 in South Sudan. South Sudan launched its first National Action Plan (NAP) in 2016 for a period of five years (2015– 2020).
Lucy Hall (LH): Rita, I understand that you spent the majority of your childhood in Sudan as an internally displaced person (IDP). Could you tell me about how this inspires your activism?
Rita M. Lopidia (RML): I was only eight years old when the conflict between the Sudanese government and the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) intensified in Juba in the early 1990s. We lived through the horror of continuous shelling, students’ riots, demonstrations rejecting Arabization of the curriculum, and the disappearing of civilians at the hands of Sudanese government national intelligence services for allegedly supporting rebels. It was during this period that I started to realize that something was wrong with my country. At the age of 10, I was a restless kid and amid the uprising in town, I decided to join the students’ movement at St Joseph's Church in Juba and that was where the spirit of activism in me was nurtured.
My family was eventually displaced to Khartoum where I completed my undergraduate degree. I consider myself privileged to have completed my first degree, given the hardship and discrimination that South Sudanese people faced under the Sudanese government. Some South Sudanese women were not even able to complete their basic education. In 2006, my friends and I founded Eve Organization in Khartoum to support South Sudanese Women.
This article examines provincial policy influence on long-term care (LTC) professionals’ advice-seeking networks in Canada’s Maritime provinces. The effects of facility ownership, geography, and region-specific political landscapes on LTC best-practice dissemination are examined. We used sociometric statistics and network sociograms, calculated from surveys with 169 senior leaders in LTC facilities, to identify advice-seeking network structures and to select 11 follow-up interview participants. Network structures were distinguished by density, sub-group number, opinion leader, and boundary spanner distribution. Network structure was affected by ownership model in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, and by regional geography in New Brunswick. Political instability within each province’s LTC system negatively affected network actors’ capabilities to enact innovation. Moreover, provincial policy variations influence advice-seeking network structures, facilitating and constraining relationship development and networking. Consequently, local policy context is essential to informing dissemination strategy design or implementation.
Over the past twenty years, several taxonomies of personality and psychopathology have been developed. More recently, many studies have compared dimensional models of personality pathology to categorical diagnoses of personality disorders. Altogether, this proliferation of research suggests the value of articulating the desirable properties of a good taxonomic system. Here, the authors extend basic research in cognitive science on the limitations of representational capacity, which suggests that humans need to compress complex clinical presentations to make good judgments. With this in mind, the authors propose that information compression and information fidelity are two principles that are essential to good taxonomy. The principle of information compression is that taxonomies should prune the complexities of a detailed clinical presentation to focus on important sources of covariation. The principle of information fidelity is that a good taxonomy should maintain essential features that reasonably approximate the structure of an individual or the population. They conclude with the claim that the overarching goal of taxonomic science in classifying personality pathology is to provide clinicians and researchers with empirically based informative priors that help to bias thinking toward useful clinical distinctions.
Innovation Concept: A major barrier to the development of a national simulation case repository and multi-site simulation research is the lack of a standardized national case template. This issue was recently identified as a priority research topic for Canadian simulation based education (SBE) research in emergency medicine (EM). We partnered with the EM Simulation Education Researchers Collaborative (EM-SERC) to develop a national simulation template. Methods: The EM Sim Cases template was chosen as a starting point for the consensus process. We generated feedback on the template using a three-phase modified nominal group technique. Members of the EM-SERC mailing list were consulted, which included 20 EM simulation educators from every Canadian medical school except Northern Ontario School of Medicine and Memorial University. When comments conflicted, the sentiment with more comments in favour was incorporated. Curriculum, Tool or Material: In phase one we sought free-text feedback on the EM Sim Cases template via email. We received 65 comments from 11 respondents. An inductive thematic analysis identified four major themes (formatting, objectives, debriefing, and assessment tools). In phase two we sought free-text feedback on the revised template via email. A second thematic analysis on 40 comments from 12 respondents identified three broad themes (formatting, objectives, and debriefing). In phase three we sought feedback on the penultimate template via focus groups with simulation educators and technologists at multiple Canadian universities. This phase generated 98 specific comments which were grouped according to the section of the template being discussed and used to develop the final template (posted on emsimcases.com). Conclusion: We describe a national consensus-building process which resulted in a simulation case template endorsed by simulation educators from across Canada. This template has the potential to: 1. Reduce the replication of effort across sites by facilitating the sharing of simulation cases. 2. Enable national collaboration on the development of both simulation cases and curricula. 3. Facilitate multi centre simulation-based research by removing confounders related to the local adoption of an unfamiliar case template. This could improve the rigour and validity of these studies by reducing inter-site variability. 4. Increase the validity of any simulation scenarios developed for use in national high-stakes assessment.
Introduction: One of the most common adverse effects of habitual cannabis use is hyperemesis—recurrent bouts of protracted vomiting, retching and abdominal pain superimposed on a baseline of daily nausea and anorexia. Largely anecdotal evidence supports the use of haloperidol, benzodiazepines or topical capsaicin over traditional antiemetics, yet little is known about the cause or optimal treatment of this newly recognized disorder. We report the results of one of the first clinical trials on so-called cannabis hyperemesis syndrome (NCT03056482). Methods: We approached adults with a working diagnosis of hyperemesis due to cannabis, provided they had ongoing emesis for >2 hours, a cyclic pattern of 3+ episodes in the last 2 years, and near daily use of cannabis by inhalation. We excluded those who were pregnant, deemed unreliable, or using opioids. Subjects provided written consent to be randomized during the index or any subsequent visit to either haloperidol (with a nested randomization to either 0.05 mg/kg or 0.1 mg/kg) or ondansetron 8 mg intravenously in a quadruple-blind fashion, and to be followed for 7 days. The primary outcome was the average reduction from baseline in abdominal pain and nausea (each measured on a 10-cm VAS) at 2 hours. While the original trial design allowed for crossover, the primary analysis used only the first treatment period since fewer than the prespecified threshold of 20% of subjects crossed over. Results: We enrolled 33 subjects, of whom 30 (16 men, 29+/-11 years old, using 1.5+/-0.9 g/day since age 19+/-2 years) were treated at least once (haloperidol 13, ondansetron 17). Haloperidol at either dose was superior to ondansetron (difference 2.3 cm [95%CI 0.6, 4.0]; p = 0.01), with similar improvements in both pain and nausea, as well as less rescue antiemetics (27% vs 61%; p = 0.04), and shorter time to ED departure (3.1+/-1.7 vs 5.6+/-4.5 hours; p = 0.03 Wilcoxon rank sum). There were two (haloperidol) vs six (ondansetron) return visits for ongoing nausea/vomiting, as well as two return visits for acute dystonia, both in the higher dose haloperidol group. Conclusion: Haloperidol is superior to ondansetron for the acute symptomatic treatment of patients with ongoing hyperemesis attributed to habitual cannabis use. The efficacy of this agent over ondansetron provides insight into the mechanism of this new disorder, now almost a daily diagnosis in many Canadian emergency departments.
Depression and mortality have been studied separately in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and in populations healthy at study inception. This does not allow comparisons across risk-factor groups based on the cross-classification of depression and CHD status. We prospectively examined the effects of depressive symptoms, assessed in 2002-2004, on all-cause and cardiovascular -mortality in a large sample of 5936 middle-aged participants, with and without established CHD, followed over 5.6 years
We created 4-risk-factor groups based on the cross classification of depressive symptoms and CHD status. The age-and-sex-adjusted hazard ratios for all causes death were 1.67-fold (p< 0.05) higher for participants with only CHD, 2.10-fold (p< 0.001) higher for those with only depressive symptoms and 4.99-fold (p< 0.001) higher for those with both CHD and depressive symptoms when compared to participants without either condition. The two latter risk-factor groups remained at increased risk after adjustments for relevant confounders. Further comparisons indicated that the risks of all-cause death were also higher, but to a lesser extent, for participants with both depressive-symptoms and CHD when compared to those with only one of these conditions. These associations were also observed for cardiovascular mortality
This study provides evidence that depressive symptoms are associated with an increased risk of all-cause and CVD death and that this risk is particularly marked in depressive participants with co-morbid CHD. Several clinical guidelines have recommended screening, referral, and treatment of depression in primary and cardiovascular care units. These findings suggest that these recommendations need further consideration.
Altered neurocognitive function in schizophrenia could reflect both genetic and illness-specific effects.
To use functional magnetic resonance imaging to discriminate between the influences of the genetic risk for schizophrenia and environmental factors on the neural substrate of verbal fluency, a candidate schizophrenia endophenotype using a case control twin design.
We studied 23 monozygotic twin pairs: 13 pairs discordant for schizophrenia and 10 pairs of healthy volunteer twins. Groups were matched for age, gender, handedness, level of education, parental socio-economic status, and ethnicity. Behavioural performance and regional brain activation during a phonological verbal fluency task were assessed.
Relative to healthy control twins, both patients and their non-psychotic co-twins produced fewer correct responses and showed less activation in the medial temporal region and inferior frontal gyrus. Twins with schizophrenia showed greater activation than both their non-psychotic co-twins and controls in right lateral temporal cortex, reflecting reduced deactivation during word generation while their non-psychotic co-twins showed greater activation in the left temporal cortex.
Both genetic vulnerability to schizophrenia and schizophrenia were associated with impaired verbal fluency performance, reduced engagement of the medial temporal region and dorsal inferior frontal gyrus. Schizophrenia was specifically associated with an additional reduction in deactivation in the right temporal cortex.
Postpartum onset of anxiety disorders, particularly of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are rarely reported in the literature although frequently observed in the clinical setting. The obsessions and compulsions focus on the newborn and create immense distress. Research on the stress response in postpartum psychiatric populations is limited and the neural and neuroendocrine correlates of postpartum OCD is unclear. Few studies investigated the brain circuitry involved in OCD, very few included women and none in the postpartum period, and none of which focus on the stress reactivity underlying network.
The purpose of this study is to examine neural activation in women with postpartum OCD as compared to healthy postpartum women in response to a stress task using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).
Subjects are females diagnosed with postpartum OCD and matched healthy controls. During the stress phase, fMRI is recorded to observe brain activity while subjects complete the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST), a psychological stressor. Saliva samples are obtained before and after the stressor to assess the hormonal stress response along with subjective stress rating.
To date, 9 postpartum OCD women and 10 controls completed the study. Preliminary analyses show that the majority of the subjects demonstrated an increase in subjective stress rating with postpartum OCD women experiencing the MIST more stressful compared to controls. As previously reported we observed deactivation throughout the limbic system in all subjects but only the postpartum OCD women also recruited the orbitofrontal cortex.
These preliminary observations are consistent with the literature and point toward a distinct stress brain activation pattern in postpartum OCD women. It is hoped that the results of this study will provide further insight into the nature of neurophysiological and neuroendocrinological involvement in postpartum OCD.
There is strong qualitative and quantitative evidence of white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There is also good evidence of altered connectivity in schizophrenia using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging, but no study has yet addressed the diagnostic specificity of these findings or whether they are related to specific susceptibility genes.
Diffusion tensor MRI was used to assess white matter integrity in patients with bipolar I disorder (BD) (n=42), schizophrenia (n=28) and healthy controls (n=38). Clinically stable patients with one other close family member with the same diagnosis were selected. In a second study, we examined white matter associations with Neuregulin I in a sample of healthy controls. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was compared between the groups using voxel-based morphometry, automated region of interest analysis and probabilistic tractography. Results : Patients with BD and those with schizophrenia showed reduced FA in the anterior limb of the internal capsule, anterior thalamic radiation and uncinate fasciculus compared with controls. Results from the second study showed reductions in those carrying a Neuregulin 1 variant previously associated with psychotic symptoms.
Reduced white matter density and integrity is common to both schizophrenia and BD. It is likely that this shared white matter disruption is determined in part by shared genetic risk factors.