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Human ascariasis is the most common and prevalent neglected tropical disease and is estimated that ~819 million people are infected around the globe, accounting for 0.861 million years of disability-adjusted life years in 2017. Even with the existence of highly effective drugs, the constant presence of infective parasite eggs in the environment contribute to a high reinfection rate after treatment. Due to its high prevalence and broad geographic distribution Ascaris infection is associated with a variety of co-morbidities and co-infections. Here, we provide data from both experimental models and humans studies that illustrate how complex is the interaction of Ascaris with the host immune system, especially, in the context of reinfections, co-infections and associated co-morbidities.
Accurate estimates of methane (CH4) production by cattle in different contexts are essential to developing mitigation strategies in different regions. We aimed to: (i) compile a database of CH4 emissions from Brazilian cattle studies, (ii) evaluate prediction precision and accuracy of extant proposed equations for cattle and (iii) develop specialized equations for predicting CH4 emissions from cattle in tropical conditions. Data of nutrient intake, diet composition and CH4 emissions were compiled from in vivo studies using open-circuit respiratory chambers, SF6 technique or the GreenFeed® system. A final dataset containing intake, diet composition, digestibility and CH4 emissions (677 individual animal observations, 40 treatment means) obtained from 38 studies conducted in Brazil was used. The dataset was divided into three groups: all animals (GEN), lactating dairy cows (LAC) and growing cattle and non-lactating dairy cows (GCNL). A total of 54 prediction equations available in the literature were evaluated. A total of 96 multiple linear models were developed for predicting CH4 production (MJ/day). The predictor variables were DM intake (DMI), gross energy (GE) intake, BW, DMI as proportion of BW, NDF concentration, ether extract (EE) concentration, dietary proportion of concentrate and GE digestibility. Model selection criteria were significance (P < 0.05) and variance inflation factor lower than three for all predictors. Each model performance was evaluated by leave-one-out cross-validation. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2006) Tier 2 method performed better for GEN and GCNL than LAC and overpredicted CH4 production for all datasets. Increasing complexity of the newly developed models resulted in greater performance. The GCNL had a greater number of equations with expanded possibilities to correct for diet characteristics such as EE and NDF concentrations and dietary proportion of concentrate. For the LAC dataset, equations based on intake and animal characteristics were developed. The equations developed in the present study can be useful for accurate and precise estimation of CH4 emissions from cattle in tropical conditions. These equations could improve accuracy of greenhouse gas inventories for tropical countries. The results provide a better understanding of the dietary and animal characteristics that influence the production of enteric CH4 in tropical production systems.
Even though the impact of COVID-19 in metropolitan areas has been extensively studied, the geographic spread to smaller cities is also of great concern. We conducted an ecological study aimed at identifying predictors of early introduction, incidence rates of COVID-19 and mortality (up to 8 May 2020) among 604 municipalities in inner São Paulo State, Brazil. Socio-demographic indexes, road distance to the state capital and a classification of regional relevance were included in predictive models for time to COVID-19 introduction (Cox regression), incidence and mortality rates (zero-inflated binomial negative regression). In multivariable analyses, greater demographic density and higher classification of regional relevance were associated with both early introduction and increased rates of COVID-19 incidence and mortality. Other predictive factors varied, but distance from the State Capital (São Paulo City) was negatively associated with time-to-introduction and with incidence rates of COVID-19. Our results reinforce the hypothesis of two patterns of geographical spread of SARS-Cov-2 infection: one that is spatial (from the metropolitan area into the inner state) and another which is hierarchical (from urban centres of regional relevance to smaller and less connected municipalities). Those findings may apply to other settings, especially in developing and highly heterogeneous countries, and point to a potential benefit from strengthening non-pharmaceutical control strategies in areas of greater risk.
Primary dystonia (PDy) is an idiopathic neurological disorder causing involuntary muscle contraction. Its pathophysiology is believed to involve basal-ganglia (BG) dysfunction. A possible association with Obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) is regarded as further evidence of BG involvement but remains controversial due to contradictory research data. We proposed to answer three questions:
1. Do PDy patients have high OCS scores?
2. Are OCS in PDy reactive?
3. Does botulinum toxin treatment (BT) influence PDy psycopathology?
45 patients with blepharospasm, spasmodic torticollis, writer's cramp; 43 patients with hemifacial spasm, cervical spondilarthropathy, peripheral hand neuropathy; 27 healthy volunteers.
PDy patients scored significantly higher than controls and healthy controls on the YBOCS (11.1 ± 7.24; 5.98 ± 4.33; 2.07 ± 0.92, both p< 0.001). Controls’ mean score was also significantly higher than healthy subjects’. Controls scored higher than PDy and healthy subjects on the SCL-90R somatization scale. BT treated PDy patients had significantly lower anxiety and somatization but higher UDRS and similar YBOCS ratings compared to untreated patients.
Higher ratings of OCS but not of depression, anxiety or somatization in PDy patients suggests a neurophysiological origin for OCS in PDy. However, diseased controls also scored higher than healthy subjects, suggesting that OCS may nevertheless be partly reactive in PDy. BT may decrease anxiety/depressive symptoms but not OCS, lending further strength to a possible neurophysiological aetiology for OCS in PDy.
Primary focal dystonia (PFD) is an idiopathic movement disorder that manifests as involuntary, sustained muscle contractions, leading to abnormal postures. Its pathophysiology probably involves a functional disorder of the basal ganglia and their frontal cortical connections. The hypothetical association with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has raised particular interest, as both disorders seem to involve frontal cortical-basal dysfunction. Anyway, evidence supporting this association is scarce and contradictory.
To address the next two questions: (1) Do primary dystonia patients have high obsessive-compulsive symptom scores? (2) Are these symptoms more severe in dystonia than in controls with equivalent peripheral neurological disorders?
We’ve conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive, controlled study comprising 45 consecutive patients with PFD (i.e., blepharospasm, spasmodic torticollis, or writer's cramp), 46 consecutive patients with hemifacial spasm, cervical spondylarthropathy, or carpal tunnel syndrome, and 30 healthy volunteers. Assessment included the DSM-IV based psychiatric interview, Symptom Check- list 90R, Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and Checklist, and the Unified Dystonia Rating Scale.
Dystonia patients had higher Yale-Brown scores than both control groups. Major depression and generalized anxiety disorder were the most frequent psychiatric diagnoses in PFD. Obsessive-compulsive disorder frequency was 6.7%. PFD patients have higher obsessive-compulsive symptom scores than individuals with similar functional disabilities resulting from other neurological disorders, suggesting that obsessive-compulsive symptoms in dystonia are not reactive to chronic disability.
Dystonic muscle contractions and obsessive-compulsive symptoms may share a common neurobiological basis related to cortical-basal dysfunction. Psychopathology, especially obsessive-compulsive symptoms, should be actively explored and treated in primary focal dystonia.
Living Kidney transplantation leads to better outcomes for the transplant recipient and is associated with low morbility and mortality to receptors and donors.
This study aims to describe the narratives, motivations and distinctive characteristics of kidney donors, and changes in psychopathology and life quality.
We evaluated all kidney donors candidates in Hospital São João Centre, between January 2004 and September 2012, using a semistructured questionnaire.
A total of 62 donors candidates were evaluated, all were receptors family, most were non-practicing catholic and few participated in voluntary activities or were blood donors. The decision was spontaneous, the main aim was to improve the health of the family and the negative consequences were devalued. about the candidates in which the donation happened (30.6%), the majority would repeat the decision, they felt more valued and there self-esteem was higher. They took more responsibility for the health of the receptor and they thought that after transplantation the kidney belonged to both. In general, the donation strengthened the relationship with the receptor and didn’t affect donor's life quality.
The decision to donate is more dependent on the relationship with the recipient than altruism feelings. After the donation, donors will experience a period of renegotiation of identity (usually with increased self-esteem and enjoyment of life), redefinition of roles (changing activities, multiple roles and feelings of heroism) and changes in the relationship with the receptor (stronger, with feelings of debt and recognition).
Factitious disorder (FD) is defined by the intentional production or feigning of physical or psychological symptoms with the objective of assuming the patient role. It's frequently difficult to adequately diagnose this disorder when the faked symptoms are those of a psychological or a psychiatric disorder. In these cases, there is often high comorbidity with other mental disorders, thus making it difficult to differentiate between real and factitious symptoms.
To present a case-report of FD with hallucinations and a review study regarding the theme available in Medline.
Brief literature review.
A case report is presented and literature of this theme shortly reviewed.
The case involves a 23-year-old female, a psychology student, born in destructured family. She had attempted suicide many times since she was 16 years old, one of them with high lethality. One month before her admission to our inpatient clinic in order to allow a clear diagnosis to be made, she began active auditory hallucinations, persecutory delusional ideation with disorganized behavior and consequent social isolation. A suitable dose of atypical antipsychotic drug was administered but Psychotic disorder was ruled out and she was dignosed with FD. After the factitious symptoms that prevented any type of therapeutic approach disappeared, the real symptoms of the patient were those characteristic of a borderline personality disorder.
This case emphasizes the need for the careful observation of these patients in order to establish the diagnosis and to improve a specific management strategy for them.
Anxiety in elderly can be diagnosed based on a detailed history and cognitive examination using various instruments. These instruments aim to obtain information that supports both the syndromic and etiological diagnosis and the planning and execution of therapeutic and rehabilitation measures to be used in each case. During the nursing consultation with elderly people in the Federal University of State of Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO), many patients with cognitive impairment showed anxious behavior. The study objectives to describe the factors related to the nursing diagnose anxiety in elderly patients attended in the nursing consultation. The consultations are based in the application of the nursing process. After the symptoms analysis, the nursing diagnosis anxiety is complemented with the related factors. The principals are death threat (64%), stressors (19%) and not needs met (17%). The data found are associated with cognitive impairment. Cognitive impairment in the elderly can lead to anxiety, depression and hopelessness, according to many studies.
Working the cognitive needs, and reducing stressors are appropriate strategies to reduce the anxiety. The care with the health professionals is important to notice the related factors early and improve the strategies.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The developments of familiar therapy allows a systemic (collaborative) approach centered in what functions best in the system, integrating action plans which presupposes a family appreciation concept as a transformer system.
Presentation of a family clinical case (X family) in which one of the members is diagnosed with “elective mutism”, this being labelled as a “a family problem” which led to familiar therapy.
In the therapeutic process we use a number of resources centered in family strengths as strategies directed to the solution and system change. We incorporate an innovating strategy, which we call “differentiated spectularity”, trying to make something different based on therapy concepts centered on solutions. The presentation of exceptions and the use of scales allowed us to monitor the change process.
The strategy materialization, where family members in their family environment saw the film of their latest session in a favourable context for the enlargement of their own vision as a family, allowed change expansion amplifying its complexity. The family members perceive themselves as having a moderate cohesion level, increasing the levels of adaptability, which places the X family in a “balanced” class. The family member with a diagnosis of elective mutism, after six months of family therapy, showed changes in withdrawal, anxiety and shyness behaviour.
Sharing family members different versions allows us to tell the story over and over again. The questioning emerging from the pro-active mirror effect is the core element of the change registered with incidence in the emotional and behaviour domains.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of human alveolar echinococcosis, is an important emerging parasite in the northern hemisphere. In epidemiological studies, the highest attention is being paid to foxes as the main reservoir hosts responsible for geographic expansion from multiple focal populations and the invasion of urban habitats, but little information is available on the parasite distribution in other carnivores. Hence, the study was designed to obtain updated information about the occurrence and genetic diversity of E. multilocularis in grey wolves and dogs in Slovakia. Faecal samples of wolves were collected from three locations under a certain level of environmental protection in the central and eastern parts of the country, and the presence of the parasite DNA was detected in 35.7% of 112 samples, with the highest rate (51.2%) recorded in the Poloniny National Park in north-eastern Slovakia. Among 110 faecal dog samples, E. multilocularis was detected in three faeces from segregated Roma settlements in the eastern part of the country, which accounted for an overall positivity of 2.7%. Sequence analysis of two mitochondrial genes, 12S rRNA and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1, revealed four haplotypes in 13 isolates from wolves and dogs originating from four sites in eastern and central Slovakia, with all samples bearing a European-type pattern of E. multilocularis. The more than one-third positivity rate of E. multilocularis in wolf faecal samples dispersed over a large part of the country has corroborated the extensive circulation of the parasite in wildlife and confirmed the need to improve intervention control strategies.
This study aimed to evaluate the transcriptional changes occurring in isolated perfused mammary alveolar tissue in response to inoculation with S. agalactiae and to identify the most affected biological functions and pathways after 3 h. Four udders taken at slaughter from cows with healthy mammary gland were perfused ex situ with warmed and gassed Tyrode's solution. Mammary alveolar tissue samples were taken from the left fore and rear quarters (IQ-inoculated quarters) before inoculation (hour 0) and at 3 h post inoculation (hpi) and at the same times from control right fore and rear quarters (not inoculated: NIQ). A total of 1756 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between IQ and NIQ at 3 hpi using edgeR package. Within this set of DEGs, 952 were up regulated and mainly involved with innate immune response and inflammatory response, e.g., CD14, CCL5, TLR2, IL-8, SAA3, as well as in transcriptional regulation such as FOS, STAT3 and NFKBIA. Genes down-regulated (804) included those involved with lipid synthesis e.g., APOC2, SCD, FABP3 and FABP4. The most affected pathways were chemokine signaling, Wnt signaling and complement and coagulation cascades, which likely reflects the early stage response of mammary tissue to S. agalactiae infection. No significant gene expression changes were detected by RNA-Seq in the others contrasts. Real time-PCR confirmed the increase in mRNA abundance of immune-related genes: TLR2, TLR4, IL-1β, and IL-10 at 3 hpi between IQ and NIQ. The expression profiles of Casp1 and Bax for any contrasts were unaffected whereas Bcl2 was increased in IQ, which suggests no induction of apoptosis during the first hours after infection. Results provided novel information regarding the early functional pathways and gene network that orchestrate innate immune responses to S. agalactiae infection. This knowledge could contribute to new strategies to enhance resistance to this disease, such as genomic selection.
Survival and infectivity of trypanosomatids rely on cell-surface and secreted glycoconjugates, many of which contain a variable number of galactose residues. Incorporation of galactose to proteins and lipids occurs along the secretory pathway from UDP-galactose (UDP-Gal). Before being used in glycosylation reactions, however, this activated sugar donor must first be transported across the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi membranes by a specific nucleotide sugar transporter (NST). In this study, we identified an UDP-Gal transporter (named TcNST2 and encoded by the TcCLB.504085.60 gene) from Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. TcNST2 was identified by heterologous expression of selected putative nucleotide sugar transporters in a mutant Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line. TcNST2 mRNA levels were detected in all T. cruzi life-cycle forms, with an increase in expression in axenic amastigotes. Confocal microscope analysis indicated that the transporter is specifically localized to the Golgi apparatus. A three-dimensional model of TcNST2 suggested an overall structural conservation as compared with members of the metabolite transporter superfamily and also suggested specific features that could be related to its activity. The identification of this transporter is an important step toward a better understanding of glycoconjugate biosynthesis and the role NSTs play in this process in trypanosomatids.
Conservation planning, with its emphasis on nature reserves, provides a basis for the development of spatial plans, usually at regional scale, that explicitly state objectives and then provide options for achieving them, despite limited financial resources. Conservation planning, however, is still an imperfect science that places more importance on ecological considerations than on social ones. Complementing social considerations with an integrated understanding of the ecology of a region, and obtaining enough social data in a cost-effective manner, are recurrent challenges. Here, we address the potential of systematic planning to improve human–wildlife interactions. Mapping risks and opportunities with behavioural, social and economic data, e.g., would greatly facilitate management decisions. While data collection through conventional field methods is a constraint at large spatial scales, the huge and fast-growing amount of social data in the 'big data' space remains largely unexplored. We describe new, promising approaches for big data visualization and analysis that could be used to inform wildlife managers through easy-to-interpret, data-intensive approaches.
Three new species of the Neotropical genus Barbacenia (Velloziaceae, Pandanales) from Tocantins, Brazil, are described and illustrated, based on morphology and leaf anatomy. The known species richness of the genus is mapped within the countries of South America and the states of Brazil.
The present study aimed to evaluate the mechanisms modulated by dietary arginine supplementation to sows during lactation regarding antioxidant capacity and vascularization of mammary glands. At 109 days of gestation, animals were transferred to individual farrowing crates equipped with manual feeders and automatic drinker bowls. Environmental temperature and humidity inside the farrowing rooms were registered every 15 min. At farrowing, sows were assigned in a completely randomized design to a control diet (CON) or the CON diet supplemented with 1.0% L-arginine (ARG). A total of three gilts and two sows were fed the CON diet, whereas three gilts and three sows were fed ARG diets. Sows were fed a fixed amount of 6.0 kg/day, subdivided equally in four delivery times (0700, 1000, 1300 and 1600 h) for 21 days. At weaning, sows were slaughtered and mammary tissue samples and blood from the pudendal vein were collected. Data were analyzed considering each sow as an experimental unit. Differences were considered at P<0.05. L-arginine fed sows presented lower messenger RNA (mRNA) expression for prolactin receptor (P=0.002), angiopoietin1 (P=0.03) and receptor tyrosine kinase (P=0.01); higher mRNA expression for prostaglandin synthase 1 (P=0.01); a trend of decrease for glucocorticoid receptor (P=0.06) and IGF receptor 1 (P=0.07); and a trend (P=0.05) for an increased glutathione peroxidase mRNA expression. The angiopoietin2:angiopoietin1 mRNA ratio tended to increase (P=0.07) in ARG fed sows. L-arginine fed sows had greater (P=0.04) volumetric proportion of blood vessels and a trend of enhance (P=0.07) in the number of blood vessels per mm2. These findings show that 1.0% ARG supplementation to sows activates proliferative mechanisms, may improve mammary tissues’ angiogenesis and tended to increase mRNA expression of genes that encode antioxidant enzymes in mammary gland of sows.
This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) treatment default in a priority city for disease control in Brazil. A cohort of TB cases diagnosed from 2008 to 2009 was followed up from patients’ entry into three outpatient sites, in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais (Brazil), until the recording of the outcomes. Drug addiction, alcoholism and treatment site appeared to be independently associated with default. Current users of crack as the hardest drug (odds ratio (OR) 12·25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3·04–49·26) were more likely to default than other hard drug users (OR 5·67, 95% CI 1·34–24·03), former users (OR 4·12, 95% CI 1·11–15·20) and those not known to use drugs (reference group). Consumers at high risk of alcoholism (OR 2·94, 95% CI 1·08–7·99) and those treated in an outpatient hospital unit (OR 8·22, 95% CI 2·79–24·21%) also were more likely to default. Our results establish that substance abuse was independently associated with default. National TB programmes might be more likely to achieve their control targets if they include interventions aimed at improving adherence and cure rates, by diagnosing and treating substance abuse concurrently with standard TB therapy.
Among other zooarchaeological remains, terrestrial snails’ shells from the Thaumastus and Megalobulimus genera are found in some Brazilian shellmounds, presenting a potential substitute for charcoal in radiocarbon dating analyses, as reliable representatives of the atmospheric carbon isotopic ratio. In this paper, we present statistically similar results of both charcoal and land snails samples from the same archaeological contexts in three settlements on the coast of Rio de Janeiro. The Manitiba I shellmound results range from 4.2 to 3.7 ka cal BP (95.4%), contemporary with the Saquarema shellmound, occupied during the period from 4.3 to 3.6 ka cal BP (95.4%). For the Usiminas shellmound, two groups of samples revealed different periods of time for two occupational layers from 2.3 to 2.1 ka cal BP (95.4%) and from 1.6 and 1.3 ka cal BP (95.4%). A model constraining each group of samples to within a single phase has a general agreement of 97% with only two outliers out of 22 dates, yielding minimum individual agreement of 74% and 7% posterior outlier probability for Saquarema shells. These are good examples of sites in which the occupation chronology can be successfully obtained by the radiocarbon dating of land snails.
Analysing the stability and adaptation of cultivars to different environments is always necessary before recommending them for planting on large areas. Additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) models have been used to analyse genotype-by-environment interactions (G × E). AMMI models require data with homogeneous variance, normal errors and additive effects. However, agronomic data do not always conform to these statistical assumptions. The objective of the present study was to analyse G × E interactions for severity and incidence of grey leaf spot, a foliar disease in maize caused by Cercospora zeae-maydis, using a generalized AMMI model. Data were collected and evaluated for 36 maize cultivars from experiments carried out in nine Brazilian regions in 2010/11 by the Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA – Milho e Sorgo). Only two of three stable genotypes defined by a quasi-likelihood model with a logistic link function could be recommended for their desirable agronomic characteristics. Four growing locations in which the genotypes were stable were identified, but in only one of these was stability associated with very severe grey leaf spot disease. Cultivars adapted to specific locations with low percentage disease severity were also identified.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding a combination of insulin, transferrin and selenium (ITS) and l-ascorbic acid (AA) during in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro culture (IVC) on in vitro embryo production. To verify the effect of the supplements, cleavage and blastocyst rates, embryo size and total cell number were performed. Embryonic development data, embryo size categorization and kinetics of maturation were analyzed by chi-squared test, while the total cell number was analyzed by a Kruskal–Wallis test (P < 0.05). When ITS was present during IVM, IVC or the entire culture, all treatments had a cleavage and blastocyst rates and embryo quality, similar to those of the control group (P < 0.05). Supplementation of IVM medium with ITS and AA for 12 h or 24 h showed that the last 12 h increased embryo production (51.6%; n = 220) on D7 compared with the control (39.5%; n = 213). However, no improvement was observed in blastocyst rate when less competent oocytes, obtained from 1–3 mm follicles, were exposed to ITS + AA for the last 12 h of IVM, with a blastocyst rate of 14.9% (n = 47) compared with 61.0% (n = 141) in the control group. The results suggest that the addition of ITS alone did not affect embryo production; however, when combined with AA in the last 12 h of maturation, there was improvement in the quantity and quality of embryos produced. Furthermore, the use of ITS and AA during IVM did not improve the competence of oocytes obtained from small follicles.
Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is the most important food grain legume in Africa. Cowpea is nodulated by rhizobium bacteria in almost all soils of the tropics, but studies performed in the 1970s and 1980s in Nigeria suggested only modest responses of grain yield in the field to inoculation of selected rhizobium strains. More recently, experiments performed in Brazil have shown that cowpea responded to inoculation of rhizobium selected locally and grain yields increased by up to 30%. We tested some of the Brazilian strains on cowpea at a site in northern Mozambique and at several sites in Northern Ghana. At all sites phosphorus fertilizer (26 kg P ha−1) was added to all plots. At the site in Mozambique despite considerable damage to the crop by the parasitic yellow witchweed (Alectra vogelii), grain yields were more than doubled by inoculation of one of the Brazilian strains and reached 1.4 Mg ha−1. In on-station experiments conducted in 2012 in June and August in northern Ghana using the local cowpea variety Padi-Tuya as the test crop, nodule weight at 35 days after planting (dap) tripled with rhizobium strain BR 3299 (530 mg plant−1) in August with the other inoculants (BR 3267 and a mixture of BR 3267 and BR 3299) also increased nodule weight to over 300 mg plant−1. In the first on-station experiment, grain yields were doubled by the inoculation of any of the three rhizobium strains, and in the second experiment, significant increases in grain yield ranged from 39% to 57% and reached over 2.0 Mg ha−1. Similar increases in nodulation and grain yield due to inoculation were observed in 22 on-farm trials. Nitrogen fertilizer application promoted vegetative growth but did not increase grain yield and nodulation. Inoculating cowpea with highly effective rhizobium strains can therefore enhance grain yield of smallholder farmers in Africa.