To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Studies have suggested that stress predicts both body dissatisfaction (BD) and disordered eating (DE) patterns. However, the mechanisms of this process are not entirely clear and could be elucidated through further exploration in daily life.
The purpose of this study was to 1) explore the concurrent and lagged relationship between stress and BD in the daily life of individuals with differing levels of trait eating pathology (EP) and 2) to investigate whether maladaptive coping moderated these relationships.
107 female participants (mean age = 26.92) completed an online survey about stress, coping strategies and trait EP. Participants used a smartphone app to report on state stress, BD and DE six times a day for seven days
Individuals with elevated trait EP experienced a significantly higher frequency of stress events (b = 0.04). Participants’ use of maladaptive coping significantly increased state stress (b = 0.41), but was not moderated by EP. Participants’ state stress and BD measured at the same time point (concurrent assessment) were significantly related (b = 0.13). Either stress or BD at the previous time point did not significantly predict changes in the other (lagged assessment, b = 0.02, b = -0.09, respectively). The aforementioned state-based associations were not moderated by trait EP
Women with more severe EP were found to experience stress more frequently. Maladaptive coping strategies were related to stress, but not moderated by EP. The association between stress and BD from concurrent but not lagged assessment highlights the importance of assessing and targeting momentary stress levels.
The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted the delivery of mental health services globally. Within Australia, the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent containment measures have led to reduced face-to-face attendances. To maintain access to mental health consultations, new telehealth services were introduced by the Australian Government in late March 2020.
We aimed to quantify the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patterns of mental health attendances in Australia using an interrupted time series model.
To characterise patterns of mental health service utilisation, monthly mental health attendances between January 2016 and June 2020 were extracted from the Medicare database, stratified by clinician type: general practitioner (GP), psychiatrist, and allied health. We used triple exponential smoothing to model attendances between January 2017 and December 2019. Observed and predicted attendances between January and June 2020 were compared with 95% confidence (p<0.05).
Our models showed decreased mental health attendances in March and April, consistent with all healthcare services during this time. While uptake of telehealth was significant, it only partially covered the reduction in mental health attendances.
Our modelling highlights the significant impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health services in Australia, with telehealth only partially compensating for the reduction in face-to-face attendances. These results suggest that telehealth services may not be suitable for all individuals (e.g. those without reliable internet access). Given that telehealth will likely remain a feature of mental health service provision, outreach and face-to-face services should be considered for vulnerable groups
Objectification theory argues that self-objectification confers risk for disordered eating (DE) both directly, and indirectly through a cascade of negative psychological consequences (e.g. low mood and self-conscious body monitoring). Robust cross-sectional evidence supports these relationships. However, these cross-sectional studies do not provide evidence for the complex intraindividual psychological processes outlined in objectification theory which purportedly contribute to DE.
Using an ecological momentary assessment design, the current study investigated the direct within-person effect between state self-objectification and DE and examined the indirect within-person effect of negative mood and body comparisons, on the relationship between state self-objectification and DE.
Two-hundred female participants (M=20.43 years, SD=4.60) downloaded a smartphone app which assessed momentary experiences of self-objectification, mood, body comparisons, and DE six times per day at random intervals for seven days.
Indicated that self-objectification significantly predicted DE behaviours [95% CI 0.01, 0.03] and body comparisons [95% CI 0.32, 0.41]. However, the indirect effect of body comparisons on the relationship between state self-objectification and DE was not significant [95% CI -0.01, 0.00]. In the second mediation model, self-objectification significantly predicted DE behaviours [95% CI 0.01, 0.03], but did not significantly predict mood [95% CI -0.06, 0.03]. Similarly, the indirect effect of mood on the relationship between state self-objectification and DE was not significant [95% CI -0.00, 0.00].
These results enhance our understanding of objectification theory and suggest that self-objectification confers risk to DE directly. However, our findings do not support the indirect effect of self-objectification on DE through low mood or body comparisons.
The DSM-5 introduced severity indicies for the first time.
We conducted a systematic review and synthesis the frequency of each DSM-5 severity categories (i.e., mild, moderate, severe and extreme severe) for Anorexia Nervosa (AN), Bulimia Nervosa (BN) and Binge Eating Disorders (BED), and to evaluate studies that assess the clinical utility of these severity specifiers for all eating disorders (ED) subtypes.
Five databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, and ProQuest) were used to identify for both academic and grey literature published from 2013 until July 8, 2020. Twenty-five studies were retrieved for the systematic review based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and up to six studies were qualified for meta-analysis
We found limited support for the current DSM-5 severity ratings for all ED indices, as the majority of ED severity groups were not significantly distinguishable in overall ED psychopathology (mean effect size ranged from .02 to .5). The value of the DSM-5 severity ratings was further devalued as 56.91% to 80.52% of individuals with AN, BN, and BED were categorized into mild and moderate groups. However, there was significant heterogeneity between the studies (p< .001), and some of these heterogeneities were explained by differences in study settings and measurement of eating disorder psychopathology.
Overall, the current study provided little support for the DSM-5 severity ratings for EDs, thus it is suggested that further exploration in alternative severity classification approach is needed.
This study examined the association between methamphetamine use and psychotic symptoms in a New Zealand general population birth cohort (n = 1265 at birth).
At age 18, 21, 25, 30, and 35, participants reported on their methamphetamine use and psychotic symptoms in the period since the previous interview. Generalized estimating equations modelled the association between methamphetamine use and psychotic symptoms (percentage reporting any symptom, and number of symptoms per participant). Confounding factors included childhood individual characteristics, family socioeconomic circumstances and family functioning. Long term effects of methamphetamine use on psychotic symptoms were assessed by comparing the incidence of psychotic symptoms at age 30–35 for those with and without a history of methamphetamine use prior to age 30.
After adjusting for confounding factors and time-varying covariate factors including concurrent cannabis use, methamphetamine use was associated with a modest increase in psychosis risk over five waves of data (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03–1.72 for the percentage measure; and IRR 1.24, 95% CI 1.02–1.50 for the symptom count measure). The increased risk of psychotic symptoms was concentrated among participants who had used at least weekly at any point (adjusted OR 2.85, 95% CI 1.21–6.69). Use of methamphetamine less than weekly was not associated with increased psychosis risk. We found no evidence for a persistent vulnerability to psychosis in the absence of continuing methamphetamine use.
Methamphetamine use is associated with increased risk of psychotic symptoms in the general population. Increased risk is chiefly confined to people who ever used regularly (at least weekly), and recently.
Chest radiography compares left ventricular decompression in the same patient supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation with atrial septal fenestration and subsequently supported with left ventricular assist device with apical cannulation.
To examine associations between diet and risk of developing gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD).
Prospective cohort with a median follow-up of 15·8 years. Baseline diet was measured using a FFQ. GERD was defined as self-reported current or history of daily heartburn or acid regurgitation beginning at least 2 years after baseline. Sex-specific logistic regressions were performed to estimate OR for GERD associated with diet quality scores and intakes of nutrients, food groups and individual foods and beverages. The effect of substituting saturated fat for monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fat on GERD risk was examined.
A cohort of 20 926 participants (62 % women) aged 40–59 years at recruitment between 1990 and 1994.
For men, total fat intake was associated with increased risk of GERD (OR 1·05 per 5 g/d; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·09; P = 0·016), whereas total carbohydrate (OR 0·89 per 30 g/d; 95 % CI 0·82, 0·98; P = 0·010) and starch intakes (OR 0·84 per 30 g/d; 95 % CI 0·75, 0·94; P = 0·005) were associated with reduced risk. Nutrients were not associated with risk for women. For both sexes, substituting saturated fat for polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat did not change risk. For both sexes, fish, chicken, cruciferous vegetables and carbonated beverages were associated with increased risk, whereas total fruit and citrus were associated with reduced risk. No association was observed with diet quality scores.
Diet is a possible risk factor for GERD, but food considered as triggers of GERD symptoms might not necessarily contribute to disease development. Potential differential associations for men and women warrant further investigation.
We summarize some of the past year's most important findings within climate change-related research. New research has improved our understanding about the remaining options to achieve the Paris Agreement goals, through overcoming political barriers to carbon pricing, taking into account non-CO2 factors, a well-designed implementation of demand-side and nature-based solutions, resilience building of ecosystems and the recognition that climate change mitigation costs can be justified by benefits to the health of humans and nature alone. We consider new insights about what to expect if we fail to include a new dimension of fire extremes and the prospect of cascading climate tipping elements.
A synthesis is made of 10 topics within climate research, where there have been significant advances since January 2020. The insights are based on input from an international open call with broad disciplinary scope. Findings include: (1) the options to still keep global warming below 1.5 °C; (2) the impact of non-CO2 factors in global warming; (3) a new dimension of fire extremes forced by climate change; (4) the increasing pressure on interconnected climate tipping elements; (5) the dimensions of climate justice; (6) political challenges impeding the effectiveness of carbon pricing; (7) demand-side solutions as vehicles of climate mitigation; (8) the potentials and caveats of nature-based solutions; (9) how building resilience of marine ecosystems is possible; and (10) that the costs of climate change mitigation policies can be more than justified by the benefits to the health of humans and nature.
Social media summary
How do we limit global warming to 1.5 °C and why is it crucial? See highlights of latest climate science.
We summarize some of the past year's most important findings within climate change-related research. New research has improved our understanding of Earth's sensitivity to carbon dioxide, finds that permafrost thaw could release more carbon emissions than expected and that the uptake of carbon in tropical ecosystems is weakening. Adverse impacts on human society include increasing water shortages and impacts on mental health. Options for solutions emerge from rethinking economic models, rights-based litigation, strengthened governance systems and a new social contract. The disruption caused by COVID-19 could be seized as an opportunity for positive change, directing economic stimulus towards sustainable investments.
A synthesis is made of ten fields within climate science where there have been significant advances since mid-2019, through an expert elicitation process with broad disciplinary scope. Findings include: (1) a better understanding of equilibrium climate sensitivity; (2) abrupt thaw as an accelerator of carbon release from permafrost; (3) changes to global and regional land carbon sinks; (4) impacts of climate change on water crises, including equity perspectives; (5) adverse effects on mental health from climate change; (6) immediate effects on climate of the COVID-19 pandemic and requirements for recovery packages to deliver on the Paris Agreement; (7) suggested long-term changes to governance and a social contract to address climate change, learning from the current pandemic, (8) updated positive cost–benefit ratio and new perspectives on the potential for green growth in the short- and long-term perspective; (9) urban electrification as a strategy to move towards low-carbon energy systems and (10) rights-based litigation as an increasingly important method to address climate change, with recent clarifications on the legal standing and representation of future generations.
Social media summary
Stronger permafrost thaw, COVID-19 effects and growing mental health impacts among highlights of latest climate science.
Before October 2012 there was no service level agreement for psychiatry cover in Whiston Hospital, an acute trust in the UK. The Crisis team would visit on goodwill to assess patients. This changed when a Liaison Psychiatry (LP) service was commissioned to provide 24 hour cover, Monday to Sunday for the Emergency Department (ED) for adults.
To quantify waiting times to be assessed by psychiatry, comparing the new LP Service (intervention group) to its predecessor (control). The null hypothesis being that the waiting time for the control and intervention group are the same.
The authors prospectively collected data on all referrals received by the LP service in the first three months of operation n=305 and retrospectively collected data on a random sample of 50 patients referred from ED in the same months 2011 (control).
The median time from referral to the time of psychiatric assessment in the control group was 162.5 minutes [IQR 130–330], the mean time was 246.16 [95% CI 180 to 312]. The median time from referral to the time of psychiatric assessment following the introduction of the LP service was 30 minutes [IQR 15-90], the mean time was 79.63 [95% CI 65 to 93]. When the two samples were compared using an independent t test they were significantly different p<0.002.
The new LP service has decreased the median wait for a psychiatry assessment by 132 minutes. The team currently seeS 82% of referrals within 60 minutes. This improves patient safety and encourages appropriate and timely discharge.
The Department of Health in the UK wants the National Health Service to make £20 Billion worth of efficiency savings by 2015 to reinvest.
In the UK the General Hospitals use paper records which are then scanned to create electronic records while Psychiatric Hospitals require that information to be typed on to their electronic records and these electronic records are not available to each other.
Therefore liaison psychiatry assessments require a written entry to be made in the Medical notes and a second entry typed on to the psychiatric electronic patient record which requires a full psychiatric history.
This duplication in typing information was consuming a considerable amount of this Teams time and resources which could have instead been spent with patients.
To identify how much time is spent by Staff typing information on to the psychiatric electronic patient records.
We electronically checked for the preceding three months the amount of time spent typing information on to the electronic records after every liaison psychiatry assessment.
We were then able to obtain the average for every week.
On average about 36 to 40 hours were spent every week typing information on to the electronic records.
Liaison Psychiatry should dispense with the requirement for information to be duplicated on to the electronic patient records and should instead scan the written entry made in the Medical notes.
This should lead to a saving of about £50,000, enough to employ an additional member of Staff every week.
In this chapter, we present some of the common comorbidities frequently encountered in persons with epilepsy (PWE). We begin by examining the cognitive and behavioral issues, then focus on sleep disorders, headaches, and bone health, and end by discussing the topic of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). We hope that this chapter will assist physicians in providing better care to PWE.
Objectives: Visual-spatial neglect is a common attentional disorder after right-hemisphere stroke and is associated with poor rehabilitation outcomes. The presence of neglect symptoms has been reported to vary across personal, peripersonal, and extrapersonal space. Currently, no measure is available to assess neglect severity equally across these spatial regions and may be missing subsets of symptoms or patients with neglect entirely. We sought to provide initial construct validity for a novel assessment tool that measures neglect symptoms equally for these spatial regions: the Halifax Visual Scanning Test (HVST). Methods: In Study I, the HVST was compared to conventional measures of neglect and functional outcome scores (wheelchair navigation) in 15 stroke inpatients and 14 healthy controls. In Study II, 19 additional controls were combined with the control data from Study I to establish cutoffs for impairment. Patterns of neglect in the stroke group were examined. Results: In Study I, performance on all HVST subtests were correlated with the majority of conventional subtests and wheelchair navigation outcomes. In Study II, neglect-related deficits in visual scanning showed dissociations across spatial regions. Four inpatients exhibited symptoms of neglect on the HVST that were not detected on conventional measures, one of which showed symptoms in personal and extrapersonal space exclusively. Conclusions: The HVST appears a useful measure of neglect symptoms in different spatial regions that may not be detected with conventional measures and that correlates with functional wheelchair performance. Preliminary control data are presented and further research to add to this normative database appears warranted. (JINS, 2019, 25, 490–500)
Natural disasters are increasing in frequency and severity. They cause widespread hardship and are associated with detrimental effects on mental health.
Our aim is to provide the best estimate of the effects of natural disasters on mental health through a systematic review and meta-analysis of the rates of psychological distress and psychiatric disorder after natural disasters.
This systematic review and meta-analysis is limited to studies that met predetermined quality criteria. We required included studies to make comparisons with pre-disaster or non-disaster exposed controls, and sample representative populations. Key studies were identified through a comprehensive search of PubMed, EMBASE and PsycINFO from 1980 to 3 March 2017. Random effects meta-analyses were performed for studies that reported key outcomes with appropriate statistics.
Forty-one studies were identified by the literature search, of which 27 contributed to the meta-analyses. Continuous measures of psychological distress were increased after natural disasters (combined standardised mean difference 0.63, 95% CI 0.27–0.98, P = 0.005). Psychiatric disorders were also increased (combined odds ratio 1.84, 95% CI 1.43–2.38, P < 0.001). Rates of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression were significantly increased after disasters. Findings for anxiety and alcohol misuse/dependence were not significant. High rates of heterogeneity suggest that disaster-specific factors and, to a lesser degree, methodological factors contribute to the variance between studies.
Increased rates of psychological distress and psychiatric disorders follow natural disasters. High levels of heterogeneity between studies suggest that disaster variables and post-disaster response have the potential to mitigate adverse effects.
To test the hypothesis that more frequent consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks would be associated with increased risk of obesity-related cancers. Associations for artificially sweetened soft drinks were assessed for comparison.
Prospective cohort study with cancers identified by linkage to cancer registries. At baseline, participants completed a 121-item FFQ including separate questions about the number of times in the past year they had consumed sugar-sweetened or artificially sweetened soft drinks. Anthropometric measurements, including waist circumference, were taken and questions about smoking, leisure-time physical activity and intake of alcoholic beverages were completed.
The Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS) is a prospective cohort study which recruited 41 514 men and women aged 40–69 years between 1990 and 1994. A second wave of data collection occurred in 2003–2007.
Data for 35 593 participants who developed 3283 incident obesity-related cancers were included in the main analysis.
Increasing frequency of consumption of both sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks was associated with greater waist circumference at baseline. For sugar-sweetened soft drinks, the hazard ratio (HR) for obesity-related cancers increased as frequency of consumption increased (HR for consumption >1/d v. <1/month=1·18; 95 % CI 0·97, 1·45; P-trend=0·007). For artificially sweetened soft drinks, the HR for obesity-related cancers was not associated with consumption (HR for consumption >1/d v. <1/month=1·00; 95 % CI 0·79, 1·27; P-trend=0·61).
Our results add to the justification to minimise intake of sugar-sweetened soft drinks.
The Virtual Environment for Radiotherapy Training (VERT) is a high-fidelity simulation hardware and software resource that replicates the expensive and high-pressure clinical environment of a radiotherapy treatment machine. The simulation allows students to gain confidence with clinical techniques in a safe and unpressured academic environment before clinical placement. The aim of this study was to establish the current and future role of VERT and explore the potential for collaborative resource development and research.
An anonymous online survey was made available to all users of the software internationally (n=52). A mixture of fixed and open response questions gathered usage data and user feedback.
The study had a 90% response rate (n=47). Most participants (78·5%) used the resource 1 day/week or less; around 8,000 hours worldwide. It was clear that most participants used the simulation resource to help student to either gain understanding of concepts and techniques or to gain practice with techniques and practical skills. There was good support for collaborative resource development, deployment and evaluation to help VERT users to fully exploit its range of pedagogical uses.
This audit demonstrated high levels of engagement and enthusiasm for collaborative resource development and ongoing research among the radiotherapy simulation community. Adoption of an international Academic Community of Practice for collaborative simulation resource deployment and support may be of significant value and is worthy of further discussion and consideration.
Personality disorders commonly coexist with alcohol use disorders (AUDs), but there is conflicting evidence on their association with treatment outcomes.
To determine the size and direction of the association between personality disorder and the outcome of treatment for AUD.
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials and longitudinal studies.
Personality disorders were associated with more alcohol-related impairment at baseline and less retention in treatment. However, during follow-up people with a personality disorder showed a similar amount of improvement in alcohol outcomes to that of people without such disorder. Synthesis of evidence was hampered by variable outcome reporting and a low quality of evidence overall.
Current evidence suggests the pessimism about treatment outcomes for this group of patients may be unfounded. However, there is an urgent need for more consistent and better quality reporting of outcomes in future studies in this area.
Orderic Vitalis does not present his Historia ecclesiastica, or for that matter his additions to William of Jumièges, as works of theology or of obvious theological interest. Indeed he indicates on occasion that he saw his work in a very different light, though he did so perhaps more as a reflection on his times than by his own inclination. Towards the beginning of Book V, written about 1128, Orderic recounts the appetite of his fellow monks for the history of their own house and their reluctance to set any of it down in writing:
They were only too willing to read the deeds of their abbots and of the brethren of their house, and to learn of the building of its modest property, first given by its poor but pious founders and patiently augmented by the continual care of its father abbots; but they shrank from bending their minds to the task of composing or writing down their traditions.
This record Orderic set himself to complete, as far as he was able. A significant disappointment in this process, if not an impediment, was the deterioration he observed in the behaviour of his contemporary society:
The altercations of prelates and bloody wars of princes provide more material for the historian's pen than the treatises of theologians or the fasts and prophecies of ascetics.
In these prefatory remarks Orderic contrasts the abundance of miracles performed through God's will by the Fathers of older times, and the plentiful record of these miracles in books, with the spiritual decadence and poverty of his own time. Miracles have dried up, and been replaced by ‘a growing frenzy of vices in those who give themselves up to fleshly lusts’, which was taken to indicate the proximity of the time of Antichrist. Theological treatises might be better and more useful material for a writer to set down for posterity, but Orderic is confined to what he has at his disposal: history will have to suffice.
The theological revolution of the later eleventh and twelfth centuries was well underway during the course of Orderic's writing career. However, its appearance within Orderic's narrative is patchy.
Most of the recent advances in X-ray astronomy have resulted from satellite observations in the low energy (< 20 keV) range. The Einstein X-ray Observatory in particular has been responsible for a dramatic increase in our knowledge of the X-ray sky, in that all major classes of astronomical objects have been detected.