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Adoption of healthy dietary and snacking habits could support optimum physical and mental development in children as they define health in adulthood. This study assessed parameters associated with children’s snacking such as food home availability, parenting practices, and parents’ health beliefs. In this cross-sectional study 12, 039 children, 49.4% boys 5-12 years old, participating in the European Feel4Diabetes-Study were included. Children’s weekly consumption of sweets and salty snacks, home availability of snacks, food parenting practices, and health beliefs were assessed via questionnaires. Logistic regression was applied to explore associations of a) home availability of snacks, b) food parenting practices (permissiveness and rewarding with snacks) and c) parent’s opinions on deterministic health beliefs with children’s consumption of sweets and salty snacks. Results showed that home availability (sweets: ORadj 4.76, 95%CI: 4.32, 5.23; salty snacks: ORadj: 6.56, 95%CI: 5.64, 7.61), allowing to consume (sweets: ORadj: 3.29, 95%CI: 2.95, 3.67; salty snacks: ORadj: 3.41, 95%CI: 2.98, 3.90) and rewarding with sweets/salty snacks (sweets: ORadj: 2.69, 95%CI: 2.23, 3.24; salty snacks: ORadj: 4.34, 95%CI: 3.57, 5.28) ‘sometimes/or less frequently’ compared to ‘always/or often’ were associated with lower weekly consumption of sweets and snacks. Parents’ disagreement compared to agreement with deterministic health beliefs and inattentive eating were associated with lower consumption of salty snacks and sweets in children. Overall, the findings of this study indicate that attempts to promote healthy snacking habits in children should aim to improve parental dietary habits, food parenting practices, health beliefs, and reducing home availability of unhealthy foods and snacks.
Cognitive deficits are common, clinically relevant and closely linked to poor functional outcomes in everyday functioning in patients with schizophrenia and other psychoses.
To ascertain to which extent a polydiagnostic assessment of schizophrenia is associated with clinically-derived criteria of cognitive impairment and gold-standard neuropsychological assessment.
We assessed 98 patients with a psychotic disorder. We tested if patients met criteria for schizophrenia according to five diagnostic classifications: Krapelin, Bleuler, Schneider, ICD-10 and DSM-IV. Also, we applied a set of clinically-derived criteria to assess cognitive impairment associated with psychosis (CIAPs). Gold-standard neuropsychological assessment was administered, covering the cognitive domains included in the MATRICS Cognitive Battery: attention, processing speed, verbal memory, visual memory, working memory, executive function and social cognition. MANOVAs were performed to test the association between polydiagnostic and clinically-derived criteria and neuropsychological assessment.
MANOVA profile analyses revealed that patients who met CIAPs criteria showed cognitive impairment in all the cognitive domains except for social cognition. Patients diagnosed with Kraepelin’s criteria showed significant differences in processing speed, visual memory, working memory and GCI. Patients fulfilling Bleuler and DSM-IV criteria showed significant deficits in processing speed and verbal memory, respectively. Schneider and ICD-10 diagnostic criteria did not reveal differences in cognition between patients who fulfilled these criteria.
CIAPs criteria were the most accurate classifying patients with cognitive impairment, followed by Kraepelin’s criteria, which were the ones among diagnostic criteria which better differentiated patients regarding cognitive impairment. These criteria take into consideration the outcome in addition to symptoms.
This work was supported by the Government of Navarra (grants 17/31, 18/41, 87/2014) and the Carlos III Health Institute (FEDER Funds) from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitivity (14/01621 and 16/02148). Both had no further role in the study des
The crisis caused by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is affecting the lives of billions of people across the world. Individuals with mental illness are suspected to be particularly affected by the societal consequences of the pandemic, but there is very limited data on this important aspect.
The aim of this study is to gauge the longitudinal impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the psychological well-being and symptom levels of individuals receiving treatment for mental disorder in psychiatric hospital services.
We are in the process of conducting a two-wave, questionnaire-based survey among patients with mental disorders receiving treatment in the psychiatric hospital services of the Central Denmark Region. The first wave was conducted in July 2020 and had 1180 respondents representing all major diagnostic categories. The main finding was that the majority of the respondents reported that their mental health had deteriorated during the COVID-19 pandemic. We are currently planning the second wave of the survey, which will be fielded in the fall of 2020. Here, we will reassess the mental health of the respondents from wave 1.
Will be presented at the meeting.
Longitudinal studies of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic of mental health are lacking. We therefore expect that the findings of this study will be of significant interest to the field.
Worse sleep quality and increased inflammatory markers in women with schizophrenia (Sch) have been reported (Lee et al. 2019). However, the physiological mechanisms underlying the interplay between sleep and the inflammatory pathways are not yet well understood (Fang et al. 2016).
Analyze the relationship between Neutrophil/Lymphocyte (NLR), Monocyte/Lymphocyte (MLR) and Platelet/Lymphocyte (PLR) ratios, and insomnia in Sch stratified by sex.
Final sample included 176 Sch patients (ICD-10 criteria) [mean age: 38.9±13.39; males: 111(63.1%)]. Assessment: PANSS, Calgary Depression Scale (CDSS), and Oviedo Sleep Questionnaire (OSQ) to identify a comorbid diagnosis of insomnia based on ICD-10. Fasting counting blood cell were performed to calculate ratios. Statistics: U Mann-Whitney, logistic regression.
Insomnia as comorbid diagnosis was present in 22 Sch (12.5%) with no differences between sex [14 males (12.6%), 8 females (12.3%)], neither in their age. Female patients with insomnia showed increased NLR [2.44±0.69 vs. 1.88±0.80, U=122.00 (p=0.034)]. However, no differences in PLR and MLR were found, neither in any ratio in males. Regression models using insomnia as dependent variable and covariates (age, PANSS-positive, PANSS-negative, CDSS) were estimated. Females: presence of insomnia was associated with NLR [OR=3.564 (p=0.032)], PANSS-positive [OR=1.263 (p=0.013)] and CDSS [OR=1.198 (p=0.092)]. Males: only PANSS-positive [OR=1.123 (p=0.027)] and CDSS scores [OR=1.220 (p=0.005)] were associated with insomnia.
NLR represent an inflammatory marker of insomnia in Sch but only in female patients. Improving sleep quality in these patients could help to decrease their inflammatory response.
Orexins are involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms which play an important role in mood regulation(1,2), and are hypothesised to be associated with major depressive disorder(3). However, scarce studies analyse their relationship with bipolar disorder (BD).
To evaluate the relationship of orexin-A and the clinical course of BD
95 BD patients were tested for serum orexin-A. The clinical course was analysed through number of depressive, manic/mixed episodes. HDRS and YMRS were used to assess severity of current episode. Statistics: Spearman correlations, U Mann-Whitney, linear regression analysis.
Mean age was 50.03 (SD=12.87) and 64.2% were women. 63.2% had BD-type I. Mean number of manic, depressive and mixed episodes was 2.32 (SD=3.07), 7.28 (SD=12.37), and 3.01 (SD=9.06), respectively. Mean age of onset was 26.09 (SD=10.50). Mean concentration of orexin-A was 21.78 pg/ml (SD=15.41), with no differences in sex, body mass index, age at onset or presence of insomnia(ICD-10). A correlation with age was observed; r=0.24 (p=0.019). No association was identified between orexin-A and severity of current episode. In relation to clinical course, no correlation was found with manic or mixed episodes. However, a negative correlation was identified between orexin-A levels and number of depressive episodes; r=-0.36 (p=0.001). When linear regression (orexin-A as dependent variable) was used to control for age, only this covariate (B=0.304) entered in the model (R2=0.067, F=6.045, p=0.015).
No relationship between orexin-A and number of manic/mixed episodes were detected. The association of orexin-A with number of depressive episodes dissappeared when age was controlled.
The PSP has been implemented in Catalonia in 2006 in an attempt to improve the Primary Care treatment of the most common mental disorders and addictions. It’s based on a collaborative model, made up between Primary Care and Mental Health professionals.
To identify the strengths and limitations of the PSP from the perspective of Primary Care and Mental Health professionals.
Qualitative, exploratory and interpretive study based on Grounded Theory, made between 2018 and 2019 with Primary Care and Mental Health professionals. Group interviews were conducted with triangulated analysis. The study got the approval from the Research Ethics Committee of the Sant Joan de Deu’s foundation.
11 group interviews were conducted in 6 primary care centers and 5 mental health centers in Barcelona. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors impacting the programme functioning were detected. Within the extrinsic factors, elements related to professionals, patients and public health system have been observed. All the professionals agree that the PCSP has a favorable impact on inter-professional relationships and patients, facilitating the management of cases. In contrast the heterogeneity implementation, the lack of training, and the health care burden in is considered to negatively influence an optimal development of the programme. Professionals suggest communication and inter-professional collaboration would be improved by creating more a horizontal structure that eliminates vertical lines of command and disagreements in clinical judgement, thus facilitating shared decisions.
PrimaryCare and MentalHealth professionals value the PSP positively, but conclude there are communication and organizative barriers that should be addressed in order to improve the overall programme’s efficiency.
Cognitive impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders and executive deficits are within the most impaired cognitive functions The Wisconsin Card Sorting test (WCST) has been extensively used in literature on schizophrenia and psychosis. The underlying structure of executive impairment may have important implications for our understanding of the complex connections between executive dysfunction and the psychopathology and neurofunctional basis of psychosis.
The objective was to empirically validate the dimensions of the WCST network structure of patients regarding antecedent, concurrent and outcome variables.
Subjects were 298 patients with a DSM 5 diagnosis of psychotic disorder. To assess the empirical validation of network structure of the WCST antecedent, concurrent and outcome variables were selected from the CASH interview and other scales of patients.
Pearson coefficient correlations between the 4 network loadings (NL) of WCST, namely perseveration, inefficient sorting, failure to maintain the set and learning, and antecedent, concurrent and outcome validators are shown in the table. PER and IS showed common and strong associations with antecedent, concurrent and outcome validators. LNG dimension was also moderately associated and FMS did not show significant associations.
‘Perseveration’ and ‘Inefficient sorting’ dimensions achieve and share common antecedent, concurrent and outcome validators. While ‘Learning’ dimension achieves partial validation in terms of antecedent and outcome validators and ‘Failure to maintain the set’ dimension was not associated with external validators. These four underlying dysfunctions might help to disentangle the neurofunctional basis of executive deficits in psychosis.
Even though cognitive impairment is considered a hallmark of schizophrenia, it has not been included as a criterion into major diagnostic systems.
To test whether a set of clinical-defined cognitive impairment criteria can have utility in the assessment of psychosis patients in clinical practice.
We assessed 98 patients with a psychotic disorder, diagnosed using DSM 5 criteria. We developed a set of cognitive impairment associated with psychosis (CIAPs) criteria following the format of current DSM criteria and based on previous literature. The CIAPs criteria include: A) criterion for evidence of cognitive impairment after the beginning of illness; B) cognitive impairment clinically evidenced, affecting functioning in everyday activities in at least two out of six cognitive domains; C) and D) exclusion criterion for either delirium or other neurocognitive disorders, respectively, as causal agents of the cognitive impairment. The psychosis patients dichotomized by the CIAPs criteria were tested regarding the neuropsychological performance in attention, speed of processing, verbal memory, visual memory, working memory, executive function and social cognition tasks. Also a Global Cognitive Index was calculated.
Forty-three patients with psychosis fulfilled the CIAPs criteria (43.9%). MANOVA profile analyses revealed a pattern of statistically significant deficits in all the cognitive dimensions except for social cognition in CIAPs+ patients regarding CIAPS-, with prominent deficits in processing speed and memory functions.
The CIAPs criteria could be an auxiliary method for clinicians to assess cognitive impairment. It may also permit clinical estimation of the influence of cognitive deficits on the ecological functioning of patients.
Conflict of interest
This work was supported by the Government of Navarra (grants 17/31, 18/41, 87/2014) and the Carlos III Health Institute (FEDER Funds) from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitivity (14/01621 and 16/02148). Both had no further role in the study des
Psychopathological symptoms and cognitive impairment are core features of patients with psychotic disorders. Executive dysfunctions are within the most commonly observed deficits and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) is the test most extensively used for their assessment. Yet, the structure of executive deficits remains unclear, as there may be different underlying processes.
The study’s aims were to explore and compare the network structure of the WCST measures in psychosis and their unaffected siblings.
Subjects were 298 patients with a DSM 5 diagnosis of psychotic disorder and 89 of their healthy siblings. The dimensionality and network structure of the 13 WCST measures were examined by means of the Exploratory Graph Analysis (EGA) and centrality parameters.
The WCST network structure comprised 4 dimensions: Perseveration (PER), Inefficient sorting (IS), Failure to maintain set (FMS) and Learning (LNG). Patient and sibling groups showed a similar network structure and in both cases the network structure was reliably estimated.
Perseveration measures reflect the inability to switch sorting rules when necessary. Scores for the IS dimension can occur when the subject ineffectively tries to test different sorting hypotheses, changing at random the response. FMS reflects the subject’s strategy when he/she is able to find out the sorting rule, but is unable to keep applying that rule long enough. LNG comprised conceptual ability and learning items. The lack of significant difference between network structures is in keeping with results from exploratory and confirmatory studies demonstrating an invariant cognitive factor structure between schizophrenia patients and their unaffected siblings.
COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown have provoked a considerable psychological impact in Spain. Some studies have reported greater psychological impact in the younger population. To date, no previous study has focused on depressive disorder (DD) patients based on their age.
To describe the psychological impact on DD according to age.
Cross-sectional study of an online survey available from 19 to 26 March 2020. Out of a total of 21207 respondents, 608 (2.9%) reported suffering from DD (mean age ±SD = 41.2 years±14.07 [18-82], 80.6% women). The subsample (608) was divided according to age, “youngsters” <45 (57.4%)/ “elders” ≥45. DASS-21 and IES scales were employed. Statistical analyses: Chi-square, t-Student test.
Both groups did not differ (p>0.05) in sex, having COVID-19 symptoms, having family/friends infected, or income changes. While youngsters were single more frequently (68.8% vs 14.3%, χ² = 179.7, p<0.001), elders had somatic illness more frequently (64.8% vs 39.7% χ² =30.401, p<0.001). Youngsters obtained higher scores in depression (4.69 vs 4.1, T=5.413, p<0.001), anxiety (2.86 vs 1.97, T=5.249, p<0.001) and stress (4.48 vs 3.17, T=6.355, p<0.001) DASS-21 subscales, as in intrusive (3.42 vs 3.05, T=1.984, p=0.048) and avoidant (4.64 vs 4.11, T=3.056, p=0.002) IES scores.
Despite the group of elders with depression being more vulnerable to severe COVID-19 disease and presenting more frequently somatic comorbidities, younger depressive patients suffered more from depressive, anxiety, stress and avoidant symptoms and intrusive thoughts, in line with previous reports in the general population.
Islamic population constitute more than 20% of the world population and is growing rapidly. Nevertheless, data concerning informal caregiving to older Muslim patients diagnosed with cancer are scarce. Improving the well-being of caregivers is a vital step to optimal care for the patients themselves throughout the Muslim community and the world. This study focuses on a sample of Palestinian caregivers of older Muslim patients diagnosed with cancer living in East Jerusalem, the West Bank, and Gaza. The study aims to describe the socio-demographic characteristics of the caregivers and to understand their social support, and identify predictors of caregivers’ depression.
A cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of 99 dyads of Palestinian patients (age ≥65) and their informal caregivers. Depression and social support were measured using the five items of the Geriatric Depression Scale and the Cancer Perceived Agents of Social Support questionnaire.
Caregivers were most frequently adult children (52%) or spouses (32%), with male patients cared for by spouses (47.5%) or sons (32%), and female patients by daughters (50%). Clinical levels of depression were reported by 76% of the caregivers and 85% of patients. The significant predictors of caregiver depression were female gender, lower education, lower perceived social support from spouse and family, and higher perceived support from faith.
Significance of results
Healthcare providers serving the study population should determine the position and role of the caregiver within the social and family structure surrounding the patients’ families. This understanding may facilitate overcoming barriers to effective and meaningful social support.
During the first months of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic in 2020, Spain implemented an initial lockdown period on 15 March followed by a strengthened lockdown period on 30 March when only essential workers continued to commute to work. However, little is known about the epidemic dynamics in different age groups during these periods.
We used the daily number of coronavirus 2019 cases (by date of symptom onset) reported to the National Epidemiological Surveillance Network among individuals aged 15–19 years through 65–69 years. For each age group g, we computed the proportion PrE(g) of individuals in age group g among all reported cases aged 15–69 years during the pre-lockdown period (1−10 March 2020) and the corresponding proportion PrL(g) during two lockdown periods (initial: 25 March−3 April; strengthened: 8–17 April 2020). For each lockdown period, we computed the proportion ratios PR(g) = PrL(g)/PrE(g). For each pair of age groups g1, g2, PR(g1)>PR(g2) implies a relative increase in the incidence of detected SARS-CoV-2 infection in the age group g1 compared with g2 for the lockdown period vs. the pre-lockdown period.
For the initial lockdown period, the highest PR values were in age groups 50–54 years (PR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.12,1.30) and 55–59 years (PR = 1.19; 1.11,1.27). For the second lockdown period, the highest PR values were in age groups 15–19 years (PR = 1.26; 0.95,1.68) and 50–54 years (PR = 1.20; 1.09,1.31).
Our results suggest that different outbreak control measures led to different changes in the relative incidence by age group. During the initial lockdown period, when non-essential work was allowed, individuals aged 40–64 years, particularly those aged 50–59 years, had a higher relative incidence compared with the pre-lockdown period. Younger adults/older adolescents had an increased relative incidence during the later, strengthened lockdown. The role of different age groups during the epidemic should be considered when implementing future mitigation efforts.
This paper proposes a differential sensor based on a pair of open split ring resonators (OSRR) operating in reflection. The output signal is thus the differential reflection coefficient of both resonators, intimately related to their dielectric loading. Thus, for identical loads in both sensing resonators, the individual reflection coefficients are equal, thereby providing an ideally null output signal. By contrast, when unequal dielectric loads truncate the symmetry, the reflection coefficients are different, resulting in a differential output signal related to the level of asymmetry. In order to ease the measurement of the output signal, a rat-race hybrid coupler is used. The OSRR sensing loads are connected to the coupled ports of the hybrid coupler, whereas the input signal is injected to the Δ-port, and the output signal is collected at the isolated port (Σ-port). By this means, the output signal, i.e. the differential reflection coefficient between both sensing loads, is obtained from the transmission coefficient of a simple two-port structure. For experimental validation purposes, the sensor is applied to the measurement of isopropanol content in aqueous solutions, and for that purpose, the sensitive regions are equipped with microfluidic channels.
In this paper, a differential microfluidic sensor and comparator based on a pair of microstrip lines loaded with dumbbell-shaped defected ground structure resonators is applied to the characterization of electrolyte concentration in samples of horse urine. Since variations in the total electrolyte content in urine may be indicative of certain pathologies, the interest is to use the device as a comparator, in order to determine changes in the electrolyte concentration as compared to a reference level. To validate the approach, we have made differential measurements of a set of urine samples with different electrolyte concentrations (which have been previously obtained by means of electrochemical methods). The obtained results correlate with the nominal electrolyte concentrations of the samples, thereby pointing out the potential of the approach as a low-cost pre-screening method (or complementary diagnosis system) to detect potential pathologies or diseases in horses and other animals.
Functional brain activity has been only studied marginally in schizoaffective disorder (SAD), a disorder whose nosological status is controversial. The present study investigated the prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity of schizomanic patients during performance of a working memory task.
13 schizoaffective patients, with current schizomanic episode (Young> 18); and 26 sex- and age-matched healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing baseline, 1-back and 2-back versions of the n-back task. Linear models were used to obtain maps of activations and deactivations in the groups.
During performance of the n-back task, controls showed activation in a cluster of frontal areas and de-activation in the medial orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex. The SAD patients showed significantly less activation in prefrontal areas than the controls. They also showed a marked failure to de-activate in medial frontal cortex. The SAD patients’ impaired task performance was associated with both reduced activation of the dorsolateral PFC and reduced de-activation of the medial frontal areas.
Schizomanic patients show failure of activation in a network of cortical regions, and also a failure to de-activate the ventromedial PFC and anterior cingulate cortex. This latter area corresponds to the one of the components of the 'default mode network´. This pattern of abnormality is similar to that found by our group to characterise schizophrenia (failure to activate and failure to de-activate), but different from that which characterises manic patients (failure to de-activate only).
To describe validation process of the new apathy scale for institutionalized dementia patients (APADEM-NH).
100 elderly, institutionalized patients with diagnosis of probable Alzheimer Disease (AD) (57%), possible AD (13%), AD with cerebral vascular disease (CVD) (17%), Lewy Bodies Dementia (11%) and Parkinson associated to dementia (PDD) (2%). All stages of the disease severity according to the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS) and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) were assessed. The Apathy Inventory (AI), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Cornell scale for depression, and the tested scale were applied. Re-test and inter-rater reliability was carried out in 50 patients. The feasibility and acceptability, reliability, validity, and measurement precision were analyzed.
APADEM-NH final version consists of 26 items and 3 dimensions: Deficit of Thinking and Self-Generated behaviors (DT): 13 items, Emotional Blunting (EB): 7 items, and Cognitive Inertia (CI): 6 items. Mean application time was 9.56 minutes and 74% of applications were fully computable. All subscales showed floor and ceiling effect lower than 15%. Internal consistency was excellent for each dimension (Cronbach’s α DT = 0.88, α EB = 0.83, α CI= 0.88);Test-retest reliability for the items was kW=0,48-0,92; Inter-rater reliability reached kW values 0.84-1.00; The APADEM-NH total score showed a low/moderate correlation with apathy scales (Spearman ρ, AI =0.33; NPI-Apathy= 0,31), no correlation with depression scales (NPI-Dementia = -0.003; Cornell= 0,10), and high internal validity (ρ =0.69 0.80).
APADEM-NH is a brief, psychometrically acceptable, and valid scale to assess apathy in patients from mild to severe dementia and discerning between apathy and depression.
The prevalence of cerebro-vascular disease in patients with Alzheimer disease varies widely among studies depending on being autopsy-based or clinical-pathology or neuro-image based.
AD+CVD patients may show some degree of variability on the diagnoses and therapeutic approach across different clinical specialists.
To observe potential differences among physicians on the diagnosis and therapeutic approach of patients with AD+CVD.
This was a cross-sectional, multi-center, nation-wide study performed in Spain.
The investigators participants worked in three clinical specialties: neurologists, geriatricians and psychiatrists.
A total of 107 investigators were involved in this study. Three out of four doctors (76%) were neurologists (81), 14% were geriatricians (15), and 8.4% were psychiatrists (9). The investigators included 720 patients diagnosed with AD+CVD.
Neuro-image techniques (NIT) and medical history (MH) were the most common methods of diagnosis. The scanner was performed in 69% AD+CVD patients, and magnetic resonance image was performed in 45%.
There were significant differences among physicians on the frequency of use of MH (98% of neurologists/geriatricians used MH vs. 85% of psychiatrists (p<0,04)), and also on the use of NIT (99% of neurologists/geriatricians vs. 84% of psychiatrists (p<0,0001)).
Galantamine (60%) and memantine+donepezil (19%)were the most common prescribed drugs by psychiatrists.
Psychiatrists used primarily MH to diagnose patients with AD+CVD, while neurologists used more frequently NIT. Geriatricians used both methods and vascular risk factors for the diagnosis of AD+CVD.
More than a half of physicians used galantamine as first-election treatment in patients with AD+CVD.
Given the capacity of the adult brain to generate new neurons (a process called neurogenesis), adult neuronal stem cells have been proposed as an endogenous source of healthy cells for the treatment of certain neurodegenerative diseases. However, it is not completely understood to what extent this process is altered in neurodegenerative conditions such as Huntington's Disease (HD). An increase in neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of HD patients has been previously reported. On the other hand, we and others found a dramatic decrease in neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus of the most studied HD transgenic mouse models, the R6/2 and R6/1 lines. We are now examining neurogenesis in a transgenic model that expresses the full-length huntingtin gene with 128 CAG repeats, the YAC128 mice. We are analysing how disease progression in the YAC128 model affects each stage of the neurogenic process (i.e., proliferation, survival, migration, and differentiation) in the two neurogenic regions (SVZ and DG). Proliferation will be evaluated in end-stage, symptomatic, early-symptomatic and pre-symptomatic YAC128 mice by immunohistochemistry for a variety of exogenous and endogenous cell cycle markers. Cell survival, migration and differentiation will be assessed by immuno-labelling of immature and mature neurons. Since hippocampal neurogenesis is thought to be involved in cognitive processes, a reduction in it might contribute to the cognitive deficits and/or depression in HD. Furthermore, these results will ascertain how well the HD brain might sustain neuronal transplant therapies.
Depression occurs in a quarter of general practice attendees, relapse is frequent five to 10 years from first presentation and residual disability is common. Estimating overall risk across a range of putative risk factors is fundamental to prevention of depression.
This is a prospective study. As part of the European Predict study, in Málaga (Spain), 9 general practices were recruited. Consecutive attendees aged 18 to 75 were recruited and undertook a detailed interview. Subjects were administered the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) depression subscale allowing diagnoses using ICD-10 criteria for depressive episode. For risk factors the interviews included individual-level risk factors and environmental risk factors. All participants completed baseline and follow up assessments at six and 12 months.
A total of 1276 patients were interviewed in the first assessment of the PREDICT study, in Málaga, (Spain) and the response rate of the study one year later was 88%. Out of 1276, 70.5% of the sample is women whilst only 29.5% were men. The sample's mean age was 49 years (SD=15.3). Depression was common amongst this sample of primary care attendees, although point prevalence values varied slightly according to the diagnostic criteria used. The prevalence of ICD-10 Depressive Episode was 38.2% while ICD-10 depressive episode of mild was 3.4% moderate 12% and severe intensity 22.8%.
The high prevalence we found shows that the depressive disorders are a very common problem with the primary care attendees in our area.
Paranoid Schizophrenia (PS), yet included within the same nosological category than Non-Paranoid Schizophrenia (NPS), may in fact constitute a different disorder. In this study, the above both schizophrenia subtypes are compared with Delusional Disorder (DD). We hypothesized that, phenomenologically PS could either be a half-way category between DD and NPS or part of a phenomenological continuum of psychotic and cognitive symptoms between these three psychotic categories.
102 patients fulfilling DSM-IV-TR criteria of schizophrenia (with 56 PS and 46 with NPS) and 80 DD patients were included in this study (n=182). We compared outcome groups (DD vs. PS vs. NPS) on clinical dimensions, global functioning and sociodemographics. Clinical dimensions were extracted from the PANSS and neuropsychological scales using Principal-Component-Analysis and, subsequently, cluster analysis to assign subjects to empirically emerging clinical groups. The associations between such groups and DSM-IV-TR groups were explored using polynomial regression.
We found lineal associations demonstrating empirically that, from the psychopathological, neuropsychological and functioning perspectives, it is reasonable to consider PS as an intermediate and independent category right in between DD and NPS. Thus, the distribution of subjects assigned to three empirically emerging clinical groups (Paranoid-Affective, Paranoid-Hostile and Negative) associated, significantly and preferentially, with DSM-IV categories along the following fashion: The proportion of paranoid-hostile and, particularly, paranoid-affective subjects decreased progressively along DD, PS and NPS categories; On the contrary, the proportion of negative subjects increased lineally along those categories (Mante-Haenszel-X2= 18.02;p=0.0001). Our results question, on the bases of an empirical study, the current categorical division of paranoid psychoses.