To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Atypical antipsychotics and some other psychotropic drugs such as valproate, lithium or mirtazapine are known to induce several metabolic complications. However there is an inter-individual variability in developing metabolic features which may be explained by clinical and genetic factors.
To determine whether weight gain and/or appetite change after one month are predictors for a weight gain after 3 and 12 months of treatment.
A longitudinal clinical and pharmacogenetic study is presently ongoing in the Department of Psychiatry-CHUV. Several clinical data have been recorded over one year following the introduction of psychotropic treatment. 406 patients with weight at baseline, after one month and with at least a third weight measure during the first year of treatment were included in the present study.
Using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analyses, an initial weight increase of 5% was found to be a good predictor for a consequent weight gain at 3 months (ROCAUC=77) and one year (ROCAUC=68). By using a generalized linear mixed model corrected by several confounders, this weight change of 5% was found to be significantly associated (p-value<0.0001) with an important weight change (10 to 20% increase from baseline value) over one year. Appetite was not found to be good a predictor of weight gain over one year.
An initial weight gain of 5% during the first month following an introduction of atypical antipsychotics, lithium, valproate and/or mirtazapine is a predictor for further weight gain and should be a warning sign to introduce weight lowering strategies.
Weight gain and obesity are serious problems associated with psychiatric diseases, in which psychotropic treatments play an important role. The CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 3 (CRTC3) gene was linked to energy balance in animal models, and in humans CRTC3 rs8033595 polymorphism was associated with obesity markers only in Mexican-Americans, a population with a high prevalence of obesity.
To determine whether polymorphisms within the CRTC3 gene are associated with adiposity markers in Caucasian psychiatric patients, a population with also a high prevalence of obesity.
The association of the CRTC3 rs8033595 and 2 other selected CRTC3 polymorphisms (rs3743401 and rs3902286) was investigated in three independent groups of Caucasian psychiatric patients taking weight gain-inducing psychotropic drugs such as atypical antipsychotics, lithium and valproate (n1=168, n2=188, and n3=448). Body mass index (BMI) was chosen as a marker for obesity. Generalized Additive Mixed Model (GAMM) was used to test the association of CRTC3 polymorphisms with BMI.
Obesity prevalence was high in the three psychiatric populations (n1:40%, n2:28% and n3:19%). The three CRTC3 polymorphisms did not deviate from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and the minor allelic frequency (MAF) was 44%, 25% and 19% for CRTC3 rs8033595, rs3743401 and rs3902286, respectively. None of the CRTC3 polymorphisms were found to be associated with BMI in any of the three psychiatric samples and when analyzing the combined samples together.
CRTC3 polymorphisms seem not to have an influence on adiposity markers (BMI) in Caucasian psychiatric patients receiving drugs inducing weight gain.
There has been increasing evidence that chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with mood disorders. However, the findings have been inconsistent because of heterogeneity across studies and methodological limitations. Our aim is to prospectively evaluate the bi-directional associations between inflammatory markers including interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) with mood disorders.
The sample consisted of 3118 participants (53.7% women; mean age: 51.0, s.d. 8.8 years), randomly selected from the general population, who underwent comprehensive somatic and psychiatric evaluations at baseline and follow-up (mean follow-up duration = 5.5 years, s.d. 0.6). Current and remitted mood disorders including bipolar and major depressive disorders (MDD) and its subtypes (atypical, melancholic, combined atypical and melancholic, and unspecified) were based on semi-structured diagnostic interviews. Inflammatory biomarkers were analyzed in fasting blood samples. Associations were tested by multiple linear and logistic regression models.
Current combined MDD [β = 0.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.03–0.55] and current atypical MDD (β = 0.32, 95% CI 0.10–0.55) at baseline were associated with increased levels of hsCRP at follow-up. There was little evidence for inflammation markers at baseline predicting mood disorders at follow-up.
The prospective unidirectional association between current MDD subtype with atypical features and hsCRP levels at follow-up suggests that inflammation may be a consequence of this condition. The role of inflammation, particularly hsCRP that is critically involved in cardiovascular diseases, warrants further study. Future research that examines potential influences of medications on inflammatory processes is indicated.
Evidence suggests a relationship between exposure to trauma during childhood and functional impairments in psychotic patients. However, the impact of age at the time of exposure has been understudied in early psychosis (EP) patients.
Two hundred and twenty-five patients aged 18–35 years were assessed at baseline and after 2, 6, 18, 24, 30 and 36 months of treatment. Patients exposed to sexual and/or physical abuse (SPA) were classified according to age at the time of first exposure (Early SPA: before age 11 years; Late SPA: between ages 12 and 15 years) and then compared to patients who were not exposed to such trauma (Non-SPA). The functional level in the premorbid phase was measured with the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS) and with the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale and the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS) during follow-up.
There were 24.8% of patients with a documented history of SPA. Late SPA patients were more likely to be female (p = 0.010). Comparison with non-SPA patients revealed that: (1) both Early and Late SPA groups showed poorer premorbid social functioning during early adolescence, and (2) while patients with Early SPA had poorer functional level at follow-up with lower GAF (p = 0.025) and lower SOFAS (p = 0.048) scores, Late SPA patients did not.
Our results suggest a link between exposure to SPA and the later impairment of social functioning before the onset of the disease. EP patients exposed to SPA before age 12 may present long-lasting functional impairment, while patients exposed at a later age may improve in this regard and have a better functional outcome.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.