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Old age constitutes a vulnerable stage for developing gambling-related problems. The aims of the study were to identify patterns of gambling habits in elderly participants from the general population, and to assess socio-demographic and clinical variables related to the severity of the gambling behaviours. The sample included N = 361 participants aged in the 50–90 years range. A broad assessment included socio-demographic variables, gambling profile and psychopathological state. The percentage of participants who reported an absence of gambling activities was 35.5 per cent, while 46.0 per cent reported only non-strategic gambling, 2.2 per cent only strategic gambling and 16.3 per cent both non-strategic plus strategic gambling. Gambling form with highest prevalence was lotteries (60.4%), followed by pools (13.9%) and bingo (11.9%). The prevalence of gambling disorder was 1.4 per cent, and 8.0 per cent of participants were at a problematic gambling level. Onset of gambling activities was younger for men, and male participants also reached a higher mean for the bets per gambling-episode and the number of total gambling activities. Risk factors for gambling severity in the sample were not being born in Spain and a higher number of cumulative lifetime life events, and gambling severity was associated with a higher prevalence of tobacco and alcohol abuse and with worse psychopathological state. Results are particularly useful for the development of reliable screening tools and for the design of effective prevention programmes.
Mental health-related multimorbidity can be considered as multimorbidity in the presence of a mental disorder. Some knowledge gaps on the study of mental health-related multimorbidity were identified. These knowledge gaps could be potentially addressed with real-world data.
Older subjects are susceptible to develop gambling problems, and researchers have attempted to assess the mechanisms underlying the gambling profile in later life. The objective of this study was to identify the main stressful life events (SLE) across the lifespan which have discriminative capacity for detecting the presence of gambling disorder (GD) in older adults. Data from two independent samples of individuals aged 50+ were analysed: N = 47 patients seeking treatment at a Pathological Gambling Outpatient Unit and N = 361 participants recruited from the general population. Sexual problems (p < 0.001), exposure to domestic violent behaviour (p < 0.001), severe financial problems (p = 0.002), alcohol or drug-related problems (p = 0.004) and extramarital sex (p < 0.001) were related to a higher risk of GD, while getting married (p = 0.005), moving to a new home (p = 0.003) and moving to a new city (p = 0.006) decreased the likelihood of disordered gambling. The accumulated number of SLE was not a predictor of the presence of GD (p = 0.732), but patients who met clinical criteria for GD reported higher concurrence of SLE in time than control individuals (p < 0.001). Empirical research highlights the need to include older age groups in evidence-based policies for gambling prevention, because these individuals are at high risk of onset and/or progression of behavioural addiction-related problems such as GD. The results of this study may be useful for developing reliable screening/diagnostic tools and for planning effective early intervention programmes aimed to reduce the harm related to the onset and evolution of problem gambling in older adults.
Smoking rates in people with depression and anxiety are twice as high as in the general population, even though people with depression and anxiety are motivated to stop smoking. Most healthcare professionals are aware that stopping smoking is one of the greatest changes that people can make to improve their health. However, smoking cessation can be a difficult topic to raise. Evidence suggests that smoking may cause some mental health problems, and that the tobacco withdrawal cycle partly contributes to worse mental health. By stopping smoking, a person's mental health may improve, and the size of this improvement might be equal to taking antidepressants. In this article we outline ways in which healthcare professionals can compassionately and respectfully raise the topic of smoking to encourage smoking cessation. We draw on evidence-based methods such as cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) and outline approaches that healthcare professionals can use to integrate these methods into routine care to help their patients stop smoking.
Although deficits in affective processing are a core component of anorexia nervosa (AN), we lack a detailed characterization of the neurobiological underpinnings of emotion regulation impairment in AN. Moreover, it remains unclear whether these neural correlates scale with clinical outcomes.
We investigated the neural correlates of negative emotion regulation in a sample of young women receiving day-hospital treatment for AN (n = 21) and healthy controls (n = 21). We aimed to determine whether aberrant brain activation patterns during emotion regulation predicted weight gain following treatment in AN patients and were linked to AN severity. To achieve this, participants completed a cognitive reappraisal paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Skin conductance response, as well as subjective distress ratings, were recorded to corroborate task engagement.
Compared to controls, patients with AN showed reduced activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) during cognitive reappraisal [pFWE<0.05, threshold-free cluster enhancement (TFCE) corrected]. Importantly, psycho–physiological interaction analysis revealed reduced functional connectivity between the dlPFC and the amygdala in AN patients during emotion regulation (pFWE<0.05, TFCE corrected), and dlPFC-amygdala uncoupling was associated with emotion regulation deficits (r = −0.511, p = 0.018) and eating disorder severity (r = −0.565, p = .008) in the AN group. Finally, dlPFC activity positively correlated with increases in body mass index (r = 0.471, p = 0.042) and in body fat mass percentage (r = 0.605, p = 0.008) following 12 weeks of treatment.
Taken together, our findings indicate that individuals with AN present altered fronto-amygdalar response during cognitive reappraisal and that this response may serve as a predictor of response to treatment and be linked to clinical severity.
Large population-based cohort studies of neuropsychological factors that characterise or precede depressive symptoms are rare. Most studies use small case-control or cross-sectional designs, which may cause selection bias and cannot test temporality. In a large UK population-based cohort, we investigated cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between inhibitory control of positive and negative information and adolescent depressive symptoms.
Cohort study of 2328 UK adolescents who completed an affective go/no-go task at age 18. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Clinical Interview Schedule Revised (CIS-R) and short Mood and Feeling Questionnaire (sMFQ) at age 18, and with the sMFQ 1 year later (age 19). Analyses were multilevel and traditional linear regressions, before and after adjusting for confounders.
Cross-sectionally, we found little evidence that adolescents with more depressive symptoms made more inhibitory control errors [after adjustments, errors increased by 0.04% per 1 s.d. increase in sMFQ score (95% confidence interval 0.02–0.06)], but this association was not observed for the CIS-R. There was no evidence for an influence of valence. Longitudinally, there was no evidence that reduced inhibitory control was associated with future depressive symptoms.
Inhibitory control of positive and negative information does not appear to be a marker of current or future depressive symptoms in adolescents and would not be a useful target in interventions to prevent adolescent depression. Our lack of convincing evidence for associations with depressive symptoms suggests that the affective go/no-go task is not a promising candidate for future neuroimaging studies of adolescent depression.
Less is known about the relationship between conduct disorder (CD), callous–unemotional (CU) traits, and positive and negative parenting in youth compared to early childhood. We combined traditional univariate analyses with a novel machine learning classifier (Angle-based Generalized Matrix Learning Vector Quantization) to classify youth (N = 756; 9–18 years) into typically developing (TD) or CD groups with or without elevated CU traits (CD/HCU, CD/LCU, respectively) using youth- and parent-reports of parenting behavior. At the group level, both CD/HCU and CD/LCU were associated with high negative and low positive parenting relative to TD. However, only positive parenting differed between the CD/HCU and CD/LCU groups. In classification analyses, performance was best when distinguishing CD/HCU from TD groups and poorest when distinguishing CD/HCU from CD/LCU groups. Positive and negative parenting were both relevant when distinguishing CD/HCU from TD, negative parenting was most relevant when distinguishing between CD/LCU and TD, and positive parenting was most relevant when distinguishing CD/HCU from CD/LCU groups. These findings suggest that while positive parenting distinguishes between CD/HCU and CD/LCU, negative parenting is associated with both CD subtypes. These results highlight the importance of considering multiple parenting behaviors in CD with varying levels of CU traits in late childhood/adolescence.
Commonly used measures of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) do not capture activities for a technologically advancing society. This study aimed to adapt the proxy/informant-based Amsterdam IADL Questionnaire (A-IADL-Q) for use in the UK and develop a self-report version.
An iterative mixed method cross-cultural adaptation of the A-IADL-Q and the development of a self-report version involving a three-step design: (1) interviews and focus groups with lay and professional stakeholders to assess face and content validity; (2) a questionnaire to measure item relevance to older adults in the U.K.; (3) a pilot of the adapted questionnaire in people with cognitive impairment.
Community settings in the UK.
One hundred and forty-eight participants took part across the three steps: (1) 14 dementia professionals; 8 people with subjective cognitive decline (SCD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease; and 6 relatives of people with MCI or dementia; (2) 92 older adults without cognitive impairment; and (3) 28 people with SCD or MCI.
The cultural relevance and applicability of the A-IADL-Q scale items were assessed using a 6-point Likert scale. Cognitive and functional performance was measured using a battery of cognitive and functional measures.
Iterative modifications to the scale resulted in a 55-item adapted version appropriate for UK use (A-IADL-Q-UK). Pilot data revealed that the new and revised items performed well. Four new items correlated with the weighted average score (Kendall’s Tau −.388, −.445, −.497, −.569). An exploratory analysis of convergent validity found correlations in the expected direction with cognitive and functional measures.
The A-IADL-Q-UK provides a measurement of functional decline for use in the UK that captures culturally relevant activities. A new self-report version has been developed and is ready for testing. Further evaluation of the A-IADL-Q-UK for construct validity is now needed.
Hyponatraemia occurs in 4% of schizophrenic patients. Dilutional hyponatraemia, due to inappropriate retention of water and excretion of sodium, occurs with different psychotropic medications and could lead to hippocampal dysfunction. This complication is usually asymptomatic but can cause severe problems, as lethargy and confusion, difficult to diagnose in mentally ill patients.
To describe a case of a patient with psychotropic poli-therapy, admitted three times due to hyponatremia and the pharmacological changes that improved his condition.
To broadcast the intermittent hyponatraemia and polydipsia (PIP), a not rare condition, suffered by treated schizophrenic patients and discuss its physiopathology and treatment thorough a case report.
A 56-year schizophrenic male was admitted for presenting disorganized behavior, agitation, auditory hallucinations, disorientation, ataxia, vomits and urinary retention. He was on clomipramine, haloperidol and clotiapine (recently added), quetiapine, fluphenazine and clonazepam. After water restriction his symptoms improved and he was discharged. Twenty-five days later, he was readmitted for presenting the same symptoms and after water restriction, he was discharged. Five days later, he was again admitted and transferred to the psychiatric ward.
Haloperidol, fluphenazine and clomipramine were replaced by clozapine. These changes lead him to normalize the hypoosmolality and reduce his water-voracity. Endocrinology team did not label this episode of SIADH due to its borderline blood and urine parameters.
Hyponatremia is frequent in schizophrenic patients and may have severe consequences. Therefore, a prompt recognition and treatment is warranted.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Sexual disinhibition is uncommon in patients with schizophrenia and are included within the behavioral disorders along with others such as agitation, aggression, sleep disorders and circadian rhythm, due to multiple reasons: isolation, rejection, difficulty in personal relationships.
We report the case of a male patient aged 58 with multiple previous admissions for behavioral alteration symptoms, including exhibitionism. He is referred as irritable, uninhibited and sleeping disorders. There is a risk of flight as he is difficult to be held so it is feared that he can be run over by a car. He shows a marked self-referentiality.
The patient is admitted. He properly gets used to the rules of the Ward. Pharmacological adjustment is performed. During his admittance he shows no behavior disorders neither episodes of self or hetero aggression and poor impulse. He properly makes comments of what happened during his stay. He responds well to treatment prescribed. Sleep pattern is restored.
This is unusual case because it is normal that the sexual function of such patients is adversely affected, not finding numerous cases of disinhibition in our medical consultation. This is due to the different aspects that are affected, biological (drugs), psychological and social levels. We have different therapeutic alternatives to address this problem. However, they may hinder sociability and patient rehabilitation.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Evidence linking fasting plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T genotype with hypertension is inconsistent. Differences in B vitamin status, other lifestyle factors or their consideration in analyses might explain this. We investigated these associations in the absence of mandatory fortification with folic acid and B vitamin supplement use. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 788 adults, aged 18–75 years, randomly selected from three Catalonian town population registers. Fasting plasma folate, cobalamin, tHcy, erythrocyte folate, erythrocyte glutathione reductase activation coefficient (EGRAC, functional riboflavin status indicator; increasing EGRAC indicates worsening riboflavin status), MTHFR 677C>T and solute carrier family 1 (SLC19A1) 80 G>A genotypes were determined. Medical history and lifestyle habits were recorded. Principal tHcy determinants differed between women (age, plasma folate, plasma cobalamin, cigarettes/d) and men (MTHFR 677TT genotype, plasma folate, plasma cobalamin and CT genotype). The MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism–tHcy association (β standardised regression coefficients) was stronger in male smokers (0·52, P < 0·001) compared with non-smokers (0·21, P = 0·001) and weaker in participants aged >50 years (0·19, P = 0·007) compared with ≤50 years (0·31, P < 0·001). Hypertension was more probable in the third tHcy tertile compared with other tertiles (OR 1·9; 95 % CI 1·2, 3·0), and in participants aged ≤50 years, for the MTHFR 677TT genotype compared with the CC genotype (OR 4·1; 95 % CI 1·0, 16·9). EGRAC was associated with increased probability of hypertension in participants aged >50 years (OR 6·2; 95 % CI 1·0, 38·7). In conclusion, moderately elevated tHcy and the MTHFR 677CT genotype were associated with hypertension. The MTHFR 677C>T genotype–hypertension association was confined to adults aged ≤50 years.
DSM-5 proposed a new operational system by using the number of fulfilled criteria as an indicator of gambling disorder severity. This method has proven to be controversial among researchers and clinicians alike, due to the lack of studies indicating whether severity, as measured by these criteria, is clinically relevant in terms of treatment outcome. Additionally, numerous studies have highlighted the associations between gambling disorder and impulsivity, though few have examined the impact of impulsivity on long-term treatment outcomes.
In this study, we aimed to assess the predictive value of DSM-5 severity levels on response to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in a sample of male adults seeking treatment for gambling disorder (n = 398). Furthermore, we explored longitudinal predictors of CBT treatment response at a follow-up, considering UPPS-P impulsivity traits.
Our study failed to identify differences in treatment outcomes between patients categorized by DSM-5 severity levels. Higher baseline scores in negative urgency predicted relapse during CBT treatment, and higher levels of sensation seeking were predictive of drop-out from short-term treatment, as well as of drop-out at 24-months.
These noteworthy findings raise questions regarding the clinical utility of DSM-5 severity categories and lend support to the implementation of dimensional approaches for gambling disorder.
Impulsivity and cognitive distortions are hallmarks of gambling disorder (GD) but it remains unclear how they contribute to clinical phenotypes. This study aimed to (1) compare impulsive traits and gambling-related distortions in strategic versus non-strategic gamblers and online versus offline gamblers; (2) examine the longitudinal association between impulsivity/cognitive distortions and treatment retention and relapse.
Participants seeking treatment for GD (n = 245) were assessed for gambling modality (clinical interview), impulsive traits (Urgency, Premeditation, Perseverance and Sensation Seeking [UPPS] scale) and cognitive distortions (Gambling Related Cognitions Scale) at treatment onset, and for retention and relapse (as indicated by the clinical team) at the end of treatment. Treatment consisted of 12-week standardized cognitive behavioral therapy, conducted in a public specialized clinic within a general public hospital.
Strategic gamblers had higher lack of perseverance and gambling-related expectancies and illusion of control than non-strategic gamblers, and online gamblers had generally higher distortions but similar impulsivity to offline gamblers. Lack of perseverance predicted treatment dropout, whereas negative urgency and distortions of inability to stop gambling and interpretative bias predicted number of relapses during treatment.
Individuals with online and strategic GD phenotypes have heightened gambling related biases associated with premature treatment cessation and relapse. Findings suggest that these GD phenotypes may need tailored treatment approaches to reduce specific distortions and impulsive facets.
To estimate trajectories of the gambling disorder (GD) severity for 12 months following a manualized cognitive-behavior-therapy (CBT) program, and to identify the main variables associated with each trajectory.
Latent Class Growth Analysis examined the longitudinal changes of n = 603 treatment-seeking patients with GD.
Five separate empirical trajectories were identified: T1 (n = 383, 63.5%) was characterized by the most highest baseline gambling severity levels and positive progress to recovery during the follow-up period; T2 (n = 154, 25.5%) featured participants with high baseline gambling severity and good progress to recovery; T3 (n = 30, 5.0%) was made up of patients with high gambling baseline severity and slow progress to recovery; T4 (n = 13, 2.2%) and T5 (n = 23, 3.8%) contained participants with high baseline gambling severity and moderate (T4) and poor (T5) progress in GD severity during the follow-up. Psychopathological state and personality traits discriminated between trajectories. Poor compliance with the therapy guidelines and the presence of relapses also differed between the trajectories.
Our findings show that patients seeking treatment for GD are heterogeneous and that trends in progress following treatment can be identified considering sociodemographic features, psychopathological state and personality traits. These results could be useful in developing more efficient interventions for GD patients.
Depressive symptoms show different trajectories throughout childhood and adolescence that may have different consequences for adult outcomes.
To examine trajectories of childhood depressive symptoms and their association with education and employment outcomes in early adulthood.
We estimated latent trajectory classes from participants with repeated measures of self-reported depressive symptoms between 11 and 24 years of age and examined their association with two distal outcomes: university degree and those not in employment, education or training at age 24.
Our main analyses (n = 9399) yielded five heterogenous trajectories of depressive symptoms. The largest group found (70.5% of participants) had a stable trajectory of low depressive symptoms (stable–low). The other four groups had symptom profiles that reached full-threshold levels at different developmental stages and for different durations. We identified the following groups: childhood–limited (5.1% of participants) with full-threshold symptoms at ages 11–13; childhood–persistent (3.5%) with full-threshold symptoms at ages 13–24; adolescent onset (9.4%) with full-threshold symptoms at ages 17–19; and early-adult onset (11.6%) with full-threshold symptoms at ages 22–24. Relative to the majority ‘stable–low’ group, the other four groups all exhibited higher risks of one or both adult outcomes.
Accurate identification of depressive symptom trajectories requires data spanning the period from early adolescence to early adulthood. Consideration of changes in, as well as levels of, depressive symptoms could improve the targeting of preventative interventions in early-to-mid adolescence.
Smoking prevalence is higher amongst individuals with schizophrenia and depression compared with the general population. Mendelian randomisation (MR) can examine whether this association is causal using genetic variants identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS).
We conducted two-sample MR to explore the bi-directional effects of smoking on schizophrenia and depression. For smoking behaviour, we used (1) smoking initiation GWAS from the GSCAN consortium and (2) we conducted our own GWAS of lifetime smoking behaviour (which captures smoking duration, heaviness and cessation) in a sample of 462690 individuals from the UK Biobank. We validated this instrument using positive control outcomes (e.g. lung cancer). For schizophrenia and depression we used GWAS from the PGC consortium.
There was strong evidence to suggest smoking is a risk factor for both schizophrenia (odds ratio (OR) 2.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.67–3.08, p < 0.001) and depression (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.71–2.32, p < 0.001). Results were consistent across both lifetime smoking and smoking initiation. We found some evidence that genetic liability to depression increases smoking (β = 0.091, 95% CI 0.027–0.155, p = 0.005) but evidence was mixed for schizophrenia (β = 0.022, 95% CI 0.005–0.038, p = 0.009) with very weak evidence for an effect on smoking initiation.
These findings suggest that the association between smoking, schizophrenia and depression is due, at least in part, to a causal effect of smoking, providing further evidence for the detrimental consequences of smoking on mental health.
Childhood obesity is a common concern across global cities and threatens sustainable urban development. Initiatives to improve nutrition and encourage physical exercise are promising but are yet to exert significant influence on prevention. Childhood obesity in London is associated with distinct ethnic and socio-economic patterns. Ethnic inequalities in health-related behaviour endure, underpinned by inequalities in employment, housing, access to welfare services, and discrimination. Addressing these growing concerns requires a clearer understanding of the socio-cultural, environmental and economic contexts of urban living that promote obesity. We explore opportunities for prevention using asset based-approaches to nutritional health and well-being, with a particular focus on adolescents from diverse ethnic backgrounds living in London. We focus on the important role that community engagement and multi-sectoral partnership play in improving the nutritional outcomes of London's children. London's children and adolescents grow up in the rich cultural mix of a global city where local streets are characterised by diversity in ethnicities, languages, religions, foods, and customs, creating complex and fluid identities. Growing up with such everyday diversity we argue can enhance the quality of life for London's children and strengthen their social capital. The Determinants of young Adult Social well-being and Health longitudinal study of about 6500 of London's young people demonstrated the positive impact of cultural diversity. Born to parents from over a hundred countries and exposed to multi-lingual households and religious practices, they demonstrated strong psychological resilience and sense of pride from cultural straddling, despite material disadvantage and discrimination. Supporting the potential contribution of such socio-cultural assets is in keeping with the values of social justice and equitable and sustainable development. Our work signals the importance of community engagement and multisectoral partnerships, involving, for example, schools and faith-based organisations, to improve the nutrition of London's children.
Antimicrobial stewardship programs are effective in optimizing antimicrobial prescribing patterns and decreasing the negative outcomes of antimicrobial exposure, including the emergence of multidrug-resistant organisms. In dialysis facilities, 30%–35% of antimicrobials are either not indicated or the type of antimicrobial is not optimal. Although antimicrobial stewardship programs are now implemented nationwide in hospital settings, programs specific to the maintenance dialysis facilities have not been developed.
To quantify the effect of an antimicrobial stewardship program in reducing antimicrobial prescribing.
Study design and setting
An interrupted time-series study in 6 outpatient hemodialysis facilities was conducted in which mean monthly antimicrobial doses per 100 patient months during the 12 months prior to the program were compared to those in the 12-month intervention period.
Implementation of the antimicrobial stewardship program was associated with a 6% monthly reduction in antimicrobial doses per 100 patient months during the intervention period (P=.02). The initial mean of 22.6 antimicrobial doses per 100 patient months decreased to a mean of 10.5 antimicrobial doses per 100 patient months at the end of the intervention. There were no significant changes in antimicrobial use by type, including vancomycin. Antimicrobial adjustments were recommended for 30 of 145 antimicrobial courses (20.6%) for which there were sufficient clinical data. The most frequent reasons for adjustment included de-escalation from vancomycin to cefazolin for methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus infections and discontinuation of antimicrobials when criteria for presumed infection were not met.
Within 6 hemodialysis facilities, implementation of an antimicrobial stewardship was associated with a decline in antimicrobial prescribing with no negative effects.
The aim of the present study was to determine if the enzyme Aspergillus niger prolyl endoprotease (ANPEP), which degrades the immunogenic proline-rich residues in gluten peptides, can be used in the development of new wheat products, suitable for gluten-sensitive (GS) individuals. We have carried out a double-blind, randomised, cross-over trial with two groups of adults; subjects, self-reporting benefits of adopting a gluten-free or low-gluten diet (GS, n 16) and a control non-GS group (n 12). For the trial, volunteers consumed four wheat breads: normal bread, bread treated with 0·8 or 1 % ANPEP and low-protein bread made from biscuit flour. Compared with controls, GS subjects had a favourable cardiovascular lipid profile – lower LDL (4·0 (sem 0·3) v. 2·8 (sem 0·2) mmol/l; P=0·008) and LDL:HDL ratio (3·2 (sem 0·4) v. 1·8 (sem 0·2); P=0·005) and modified haematological profile. The majority of the GS subjects followed a low-gluten lifestyle, which helps to reduce the gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms severity. The low-gluten lifestyle does not have any effect on the quality of life, fatigue or mental state of this population. Consumption of normal wheat bread increased GI symptoms in GS subjects compared with their habitual diet. ANPEP lowered the immunogenic gluten in the treated bread by approximately 40 %. However, when compared with the control bread for inducing GI symptoms, no treatment effects were apparent. ANPEP can be applied in the production of bread with taste, texture and appearance comparable with standard bread.