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Depression is strongly associated with chronic disease; yet, the direction of this relationship is poorly understood. Allostatic load (AL) provides a framework for elucidating depression-disease pathways. We aimed to investigate bidirectional, longitudinal associations of baseline depressive symptoms or AL with 5-year AL or depressive symptoms, respectively.
Data were from baseline, 2-year, and 5-year visits of 620 adults (45–75 years) enrolled in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study. The Center for Epidemiology Studies Depression (CES-D) scale (0–60) captured depressive symptoms, which were categorized at baseline as low (<8), subthreshold (8–15), or depression-likely (⩾16) symptoms. AL was calculated from 11 parameters of biological functioning, representing five physiological systems. Baseline AL scores were categorized by the number of dysregulated parameters: low (0–2), moderate (3–5), or high (⩾6) AL. Multivariable, multilevel random intercept and slope linear regression models were used to examine associations between 3-category baseline CES-D score and 5-year continuous AL score, and between baseline 3-category AL and 5-year continuous CES-D score.
Baseline subthreshold depressive symptoms [(mean (95% CI)): 4.8 (4.5–5.2)], but not depression-likely symptoms [4.5 (4.2–4.9)], was significantly associated with higher 5-year AL scores, compared to low depressive symptoms [4.3 (3.9–4.7)]. Baseline high AL [19.4 (17.6–21.2)], but not low AL [18.5 (16.5–20.6)], was significantly associated with higher 5-year CES-D score, compared to baseline moderate AL [16.9 (15.3–18.5)].
Depressive symptoms and AL had a bi-directional relationship over time, indicating a nuanced pathway linking depression with chronic diseases among a minority population.
We study the
-spectrum of measures in the plane generated by certain nonlinear maps. In particular, we consider attractors of iterated function systems consisting of maps whose components are
and for which the Jacobian is a lower triangular matrix at every point subject to a natural domination condition on the entries. We calculate the
-spectrum of Bernoulli measures supported on such sets by using an appropriately defined analogue of the singular value function and an appropriate pressure function.
Children in armed conflict are frequently deprived of basic needs, psychologically supportive environments, educational and vocational opportunities, and other resources that promote positive psychosocial development and mental health. This article describes the mental health challenges faced by conflict-affected children and youth, the interventions designed to prevent or ameliorate the psychosocial impact of conflict-related experiences, and a case example of the challenges and opportunities related to addressing the mental health needs of Rohingya children and youth.
Suicide is a serious public health problem. In the international literature there is evidence to support the notion that certain temperaments and personality traits are often associated with suicidal behavior. In this study, 150 psychiatric inpatients were investigated using the TEMPS-A, the MMPI-2 and the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) and evaluated for suicide risk through the critical items of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Statistical analysis, including linear regression analysis and multiple regression analysis, showed that suicide risk contributed to the prediction of hopelessness. Among the temperaments, only the Hyperthymic temperament, as a protective factor, and the Dys/Cyc/Anx temperament contributed significantly to the prediction of hopelessness. Irritable temperament and Social Introversion were protective factors for suicidal risk. Hopelessness and depression were associated with higher suicidal behavior and ideation, but, unexpectedly, depression as measured by the MMPI did not contribute significant to the multiple regression.. The present study indicated that, although suicidal psychiatric patients have MMPI-2’s profiles in the pathologic range, they exhibit several differences from nonsuicidal patients. Patients at risk of suicide have specific temperaments as well as personality and defense mechanism profiles. They are more social introverted, depressed and psychasthenic, and use hysterical and schizoid mechanisms more often. Generalizability of the findings was limited by the small sample size, mix of BPD-I, BPD-II, MDD and psychotic disorder patients.
To test the prognostic value of suicidal status in depressed patients for responses to antidepressant treatment.
We evaluated treatment response and covariates in depressed patients diagnosed with DSM-IV major depressive (n=50) or bipolar disorders (n=32) treated initially in a day-hospital for 2 weeks, followed by 4 weeks of outpatient treatment with antidepressants, with or without a mood-stabilizer. Being suicidal was based on an item-3 of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS17) scored at ≥3 and verified by baseline clinical assessment; morbidity and improvement were based on the total of the remaining 16 nonsuicidal items (HDRS16).
Suicidal (n=31) and nonsuicidal subjects (n=51) were similar in baseline ratings of depressive symptom-severity (HDRS16), but were depressed longer and less likely to be married. Suicidality ratings improved by 36% during 6 weeks of treatment among initially suicidal patients, but other depressive symptoms (HDRS16) improved (13%) only half as much as in nonsuicidal subjects (25%), independent of diagnosis and treatment. Fewer than half as many suicidal subjects showed ≥20% improvement in HDRS16 scores.
Findings, based on diagnostically complex and relatively treatment-resistant subjects, may not generalize.
Being suicidal may limit response to treatment in depressed major affective disorder patients, independent of diagnosis or overall symptomatic severity.
This study investigated the relationship between severe childhood abuse and cognitive functions in first-episode psychosis patients and geographically-matched controls. Reports of any abuse were associated with lower scores in the executive function domain in the control group. However, in contrast with our hypothesis, no relationships were found amongst cases.
Aberrant activity of the subcallosal cingulate (SCC) is a common theme across pharmacologic treatment efficacy prediction studies. The functioning of the SCC in psychotherapeutic interventions is relatively understudied, as are functional differences among SCC subdivisions. We conducted functional connectivity analyses (rsFC) on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, collected before and after a course of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), using seeds from three SCC subdivisions.
Resting-state data were collected from unmedicated patients with current MDD (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 > 16) before and after 14-sessions of CBT monotherapy. Treatment outcome was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Rostral anterior cingulate (rACC), anterior subcallosal cingulate (aSCC), and Brodmann’s area 25 (BA25) masks were used as seeds in connectivity analyses that assessed baseline rsFC and symptom severity, changes in connectivity related to symptom improvement after CBT, and prediction of treatment outcomes using whole-brain baseline connectivity.
Pretreatment BDI negatively correlated with pretreatment rACC ~ dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and aSCC ~ lateral prefrontal cortex rsFC. In a region-of-interest longitudinal analysis, rsFC between these regions increased post-treatment (p < 0.05FDR). In whole-brain analyses, BA25 ~ paracentral lobule and rACC ~ paracentral lobule connectivities decreased post-treatment. Whole-brain baseline rsFC with SCC did not predict clinical improvement.
rsFC features of rACC and aSCC, but not BA25, correlated inversely with baseline depression severity, and increased following CBT. Subdivisions of SCC involved in top-down emotion regulation may be more involved in cognitive interventions, while BA25 may be more informative for interventions targeting bottom-up processing. Results emphasize the importance of subdividing the SCC in connectivity analyses.
Several studies show that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may persist into adulthood, increasing the risk of antisocial behaviour, drug abuse, psychiatric comorbidities, aggressive behaviour, social impairment and suicide risk.
Analyze correlations among ADHD, substances abuse, alcoholism and suicide risk.
The aim of our study is to better understand the clinical features of ADHD during adulthood.
We analyzed the presence of ADHD symptoms, suicide risk and levels of hopelessness, alcoholism and substance abuse in a sample of 50 (40% males) in/outpatients of S. Andrea Hospital in Rome, between February and May 2016. We administered the following scales: Adult-Self Report Scale (ASRS), Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS), Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST), Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST).
In our sample of 50 adult patients, 20% had ADHD symptoms (10 subjects). We found that those with ADHD showed more frequently death desires (85.7%; χ2 = 1.31; P = 0.25) and higher levels of hopelessness (66.7%; χ2 = 0.83; P = =0.36) if compared to subjects without ADHD symptoms (respectively 63% and 45.8%). In the overall group of ADHD patients, 10% showed severe alcoholism, 20% (χ2 = 1.39; P = 0.49) had a borderline behavior, whereas 40% presented a substance abuse (χ2 = 1.75; P = 0.18).
ADHD may represent a psychiatric disorder with an increased suicide risk. It would be important to screen for suicidality and comorbid symptoms routinely in ADHD in order to improve the treatment of the patients.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Suicidal behaviour and drug and alcohol dependence represent two different aspects of self-destructive behavior.
We evaluated the relationship between suicidal behavior and substance and alcohol addiction. It was investigated the role of childhood trauma in these self-destructive behaviors and in the development of the two mental constructions of hopelessness and mentalization.
We also assessed how a high level of hopelessness could affect suicidal ideation and how low or absent capacity of mentalization could influence the development of substance and/or alcohol addiction.
This naturalistic, observational study included 50 patients (mean age = 46.54; S.D = 14.57) recruited from the department of psychiatry (n = 18) and the centre for suicide prevention (n = 32) of Sant’Andrea Hospital (Rome). Different questionnaires were administered to each patient from February to May 2016.
There was not a statistically significant relationship between suicidal behavior and addict behavior. Childhood trauma resulted a risk factor for alcohol abuse with a relationship that tended to significance (P = 0.07). Physical and sexual abuses were significantly associated with addiction (respectively P = 0.014; P = 0.033). It was showed a statistically significant interaction between high level of hopelessness and suicidal ideation (P = 0.037). The absence of mentalization was related to the absence of alcohol abuse (P = 0.061). Finally, trauma experienced during childhood was associated with high level of hopelessness (P = 0.005).
Suicidal behavior is influenced indirectly by a childhood traumatic experience that conditioning the level of hopelessness. Childhood trauma affected directly the development of drug abuse and alcoholism. The capacity of mentalization was not related with childhood trauma.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) increased monthly Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits and expanded SNAP eligibility, yet limited evidence exists on the potential impact of ARRA on dietary intake among at-risk individuals. We aimed to examine pre-/post-ARRA differences in food insecurity (FI) and dietary intake by SNAP participation status.
Boston, MA, USA.
Data were from the longitudinal Boston Puerto Rican Health Study (2007–2015). The US Department of Agriculture ten-item adult module assessed FI. A validated FFQ assessed dietary intake. Diet quality was assessed using the Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010). Self-reported pre-/post-ARRA household SNAP participation responses were categorized as: sustained (n 249), new (n 95) or discontinued (n 58). We estimated differences in odds of FI and in mean nutrient intakes and AHEI-2010 scores post-ARRA.
Compared with pre-ARRA, OR (95 % CI) of FI post-ARRA were lower for all participants (0·69 (0·51, 0·94)), and within sustained (0·63 (0·43, 0·92)) but not within new (0·94 (0·49, 1·80)) or discontinued (0·63 (0·25, 1·56)) participants. Post-ARRA, total carbohydrate intake was higher, and alcohol intake was lower, for sustained and new participants, and dietary fibre was higher for sustained participants, compared with discontinued participants. Scores for AHEI-2010 and its components did not differ post-ARRA, except for lower alcohol intake for sustained v. discontinued participants.
Post-ARRA, FI decreased for sustained participants and some nutrient intakes were healthier for sustained and new participants. Continuing and expanding SNAP benefits and eligibility likely protects against FI and may improve dietary intake.
A theoretically based relationship for the Darcy–Weisbach friction factor
for rough-bed open-channel flows is derived and discussed. The derivation procedure is based on the double averaging (in time and space) of the Navier–Stokes equation followed by repeated integration across the flow. The obtained relationship explicitly shows that the friction factor can be split into at least five additive components, due to: (i) viscous stress; (ii) turbulent stress; (iii) dispersive stress (which in turn can be subdivided into two parts, due to bed roughness and secondary currents); (iv) flow unsteadiness and non-uniformity; and (v) spatial heterogeneity of fluid stresses in a bed-parallel plane. These constitutive components account for the roughness geometry effect and highlight the significance of the turbulent and dispersive stresses in the near-bed region where their values are largest. To explore the potential of the proposed relationship, an extensive data set has been assembled by employing specially designed large-eddy simulations and laboratory experiments for a wide range of Reynolds numbers. Flows over self-affine rough boundaries, which are representative of natural and man-made surfaces, are considered. The data analysis focuses on the effects of roughness geometry (i.e. spectral slope in the bed elevation spectra), relative submergence of roughness elements and flow and roughness Reynolds numbers, all of which are found to be substantial. It is revealed that at sufficiently high Reynolds numbers the roughness-induced and secondary-currents-induced dispersive stresses may play significant roles in generating bed friction, complementing the dominant turbulent stress contribution.
We introduce the Galaxy IFU Spectroscopy Tool (GIST), a convenient, all-in-one and multi-purpose tool for the analysis and visualisation of already reduced (integral-field) spectroscopic data. In particular, the pipeline performs all steps from read-in and preparation of data to its scientific analysis and visualisation in publication-quality plots. The code measures stellar kinematics and non-parametric star formation histories using the pPXF routine (Cappellari & Emsellem 2004; Cappellari 2017), performs an emission-line analysis with the GandALF procedure (Sarzi et al. 2006; Falcón-Barroso et al. 2006), and determines absorption line-strength indices and their corresponding single stellar population equivalent population properties (Kuntschner et al.2006; Martín-Navarro et al. 2018). The dedicated visualisation routine Mapviewer facilitates the access of all data products in a sophisticated graphical user interface with fully interactive plots.
Introduction: Insufficient analgesia affects around 50% of emergency department patients. The use of a protocol helps to reduce the risk of oligoanalgesia in this context. Our objective was to describe the feasibility and efficacy of a multimodal analgesia protocol (combining paracetamol, oxycodone, and inhaled low-dose methoxyflurane) initiated by triage nurse. Methods: We performed a prospective, observational study in the emergency department at Grenoble Alpes University Hospital (Grenoble, France) between October 2017 and April 2018. Non severe adult trauma patients with a numerical pain rating scale (NRS) score ≥4 and receiving MEOF were included. The primary efficacy criterion was the proportion of patients with an NRS score ≤3 at 15min post-administration. Pain intensity was measured for 60 min as well as during radiography. Data on adverse events and satisfaction were also recorded. Data are presented as median [interquartile (IQR)] and were compared using non parametric tests. Results: A total of 200 adult patients were included (age: 32 [IQR: 23–49] years; 126 men (63%)). Patients presented at triage with a pain score of 7 [IQR: 6-8]. Sixty-six patients (33%) reported an NRS score ≤3 at 15 min post-administration. The time required to achieve a decrease of at least 2 points in the NRS score was 10 [IQR 5–20] min. The pain intensity was 4 [IQR: 2–5] before radiography and 4 [IQR: 2–6] during radiography. Adverse events were frequent (n = 128, 64%), mainly dizziness. No serious adverse events were reported and 89% of minor adverse events resolved at one hour. Both patients and health care providers reported good levels of satisfaction. Conclusion: The administration of a nurse-driven multimodal analgesia protocol combining paracetamol, oxycodone, and low-dose methoxyflurane was feasible on triage. It rapidly produced long-lasting analgesia in adult trauma patients.
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for many patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD), but predictors of treatment outcome are lacking, and little is known about its neural mechanisms. We recently identified longitudinal changes in neural correlates of conscious emotion regulation that scaled with clinical responses to CBT for MDD, using a negative autobiographical memory-based task.
We now examine the neural correlates of emotional reactivity and emotion regulation during viewing of emotionally salient images as predictors of treatment outcome with CBT for MDD, and the relationship between longitudinal change in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses and clinical outcomes. Thirty-two participants with current MDD underwent baseline MRI scanning followed by 14 sessions of CBT. The fMRI task measured emotional reactivity and emotion regulation on separate trials using standardized images from the International Affective Pictures System. Twenty-one participants completed post-treatment scanning. Last observation carried forward was used to estimate clinical outcome for non-completers.
Pre-treatment emotional reactivity Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent (BOLD) signal within hippocampus including CA1 predicted worse treatment outcome. In contrast, better treatment outcome was associated with increased down-regulation of BOLD activity during emotion regulation from time 1 to time 2 in precuneus, occipital cortex, and middle frontal gyrus.
CBT may modulate the neural circuitry of emotion regulation. The neural correlates of emotional reactivity may be more strongly predictive of CBT outcome. The finding that treatment outcome was predicted by BOLD signal in CA1 may suggest overgeneralized memory as a negative prognostic factor in CBT outcome.
Jumping to conclusions (JTC), which is the proneness to require less information before forming beliefs or making a decision, has been related to formation and maintenance of delusions. Using data from the National Institute of Health Research Biomedical Research Centre Genetics and Psychosis (GAP) case–control study of first-episode psychosis (FEP), we set out to test whether the presence of JTC would predict poor clinical outcome at 4 years.
One-hundred and twenty-three FEP patients were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and the probabilistic reasoning ‘Beads’ Task at the time of recruitment. The sample was split into two groups based on the presence of JTC bias. Follow-up data over an average of 4 years were obtained concerning clinical course and outcomes (remission, intervention of police, use of involuntary treatment – the Mental Health Act (MHA) – and inpatient days).
FEP who presented JTC at baseline were more likely during the follow-up period to be detained under the MHA [adjusted OR 15.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.92–83.54, p = 0.001], require intervention by the police (adjusted OR 14.95, 95% CI 2.68–83.34, p = 0.002) and have longer admissions (adjusted IRR = 5.03, 95% CI 1.91–13.24, p = 0.001). These associations were not accounted for by socio-demographic variables, IQ and symptom dimensions.
JTC in FEP is associated with poorer outcome as indicated and defined by more compulsion police intervention and longer periods of admission. Our findings raise the question of whether the implementation of specific interventions to reduce JTC, such as Metacognition Training, may be a useful addition in early psychosis intervention programmes.
Understanding the peculiar properties of Ultra Diffuse Galaxies (UDGs) via spectroscopic analysis is a challenging task that is now becoming feasible. The advent of 10m-class telescopes and high sensitivity instruments is enabling the gathering of high quality spectra even for the faintest systems. In addition, advances in the modelling of stellar populations, stellar libraries, and full-spectral fitting codes are allowing the recovery of the stellar content shaping those spectra with unprecedented reliability. In this contribution we report on the extensive tests we have carried out using the inversion code STECKMAP. The similarities between the Star Formation Histories (SFH) recovered from STECKMAP (applied to high-quality spectra) and deep Colour-Magnitude diagrams fitting (resolved stars) in two Local Group dwarf galaxies (LMC and LeoA) are remarkable, demonstrating the impressive performance of STECKMAP. We exploit the capabilities of STECKMAP and perform one of the most complete and reliable characterisations of the stellar component of UDGs to date using deep spectroscopic data. We measure radial and rotation velocities, SFHs and mean population parameters, such as ages and metallicities, for a sample of five UDG candidates in the Coma cluster. From the radial velocities, we confirm the Coma membership of these galaxies. We find that their rotation properties, if detected at all, are compatible with dwarf-like galaxies. The SFHs of the UDG are dominated by old (∼ 7 Gyr), metal-poor ([M/H] ∼ -1.1) and alpha-enhanced ([Mg/Fe]∼ 0.4) populations followed by a smooth or episodic decline which halted ∼ 2 Gyr ago, possibly a sign of cluster-induced quenching. We find no obvious correlation between individual SFH shapes and any UDG morphological properties. The recovered stellar properties for UDGs are similar to those found for DDO 44, a local UDG analogue resolved into stars. We conclude that the UDGs in our sample are extended dwarfs whose properties are likely the outcome of both internal processes, such as bursty SFHs and/or high-spin haloes, as well as environmental effects within the Coma cluster.
We study experimentally the dynamics and statistics of capillary waves forced by random steep gravity waves mechanically generated in the laboratory. Capillary waves are produced here by gravity waves from nonlinear wave interactions. Using a spatio-temporal measurement of the free surface, we characterize statistically the random regimes of capillary waves in the spatial and temporal Fourier spaces. For a significant wave steepness (0.2–0.3), power-law spectra are observed both in space and time, defining a turbulent regime of capillary waves transferring energy from the large scale to the small scale. Analysis of temporal fluctuations of the spatial spectrum demonstrates that the capillary power-law spectra result from the temporal averaging over intermittent and strong nonlinear events transferring energy to the small scale in a fast time scale, when capillary wave trains are generated in a way similar to the parasitic capillary wave generation mechanism. The frequency and wavenumber power-law exponents of the wave spectra are found to be in agreement with those of the weakly nonlinear wave turbulence theory. However, the energy flux is not constant through the scales and the wave spectrum scaling with this flux is not in good agreement with wave turbulence theory. These results suggest that theoretical developments beyond the classic wave turbulence theory are necessary to describe the dynamics and statistics of capillary waves in a natural environment. In particular, in the presence of broad-scale viscous dissipation and strong nonlinearity, the role of non-local and non-resonant interactions should be reconsidered.