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Compulsory admission procedures of patients with mental disorders vary between countries in Europe. The Ethics Committee of the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) launched a survey on involuntary admission procedures of patients with mental disorders in 40 countries to gather information from all National Psychiatric Associations that are members of the EPA to develop recommendations for improving involuntary admission processes and promote voluntary care.
The survey focused on legislation of involuntary admissions and key actors involved in the admission procedure as well as most common reasons for involuntary admissions.
We analyzed the survey categorical data in themes, which highlight that both medical and legal actors are involved in involuntary admission procedures.
We conclude that legal reasons for compulsory admission should be reworded in order to remove stigmatization of the patient, that raising awareness about involuntary admission procedures and patient rights with both patients and family advocacy groups is paramount, that communication about procedures should be widely available in lay-language for the general population, and that training sessions and guidance should be available for legal and medical practitioners. Finally, people working in the field need to be constantly aware about the ethical challenges surrounding compulsory admissions.
This study examined the emotional and behavioral functioning among 10–14 year-old children who were born with very low birth weight (VLBW, <1500).
Prospective and cross-sectional study of 90 VLBW (<1500 g) survivors born at the Hospital Universitario la Paz in Madrid, Spain, from 2000 to 2005 who were assessed by interviewers using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Parents also reported on their children's functioning. Children who showed an abnormal SDQ score on the total difficulties subscale or who had psychiatric history were also assessed using the K-SADS-PL.
The proportion of children with abnormal-self-rated-SDQ scores was as follows: almost 25% of children showed an abnormal score on hyperactivity, nearly 15% on emotional problems, 15% on conduct problems and 10% on peer problems. Overall, 15% of children showed an abnormal score on the total difficulties subscale. Most children (99%) showed a normal score on the prosocial subscale. These proportions were higher when the questionnaire was rated by parents. Thirty-eight percent of children were assessed using the K-SADS and very few of them meet the criteria for at least one psychiatric disorder. Biomedical variables were associated in the expected direction to children's SDQ scores such as birth weight, head circumference and Apgar scores.
To conclude, being born with very low birth weight seems to be related to the emotional and behavioral functioning that these children appear to show between 10 and 15 years later.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
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