In the Nd-Ba-Cu-O system, a directional structure produced by a peritectic reaction has been observed. On heating, the sintered Nd1Ba2Cu3O6+δ (Ndl23) precursor formed a rod-like directional structure of Nd4Ba2Cu2O10 (Nd422) phase. These Nd422 rods became thicker from the melting interface to the solidified interface. The  direction of Nd422 crystal is parallel to the axis of Nd422 rod and the sample pulling direction. Moreover, Nd422 rod spacing was observed as a function of growth rate and decreased with an increase of growth rate. In addition, with an increase of growth rate, Ndl23 solidified interface morphologies changed from planar, cellular to equiaxed.