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In November 2016, a woman in her 30s who stayed at an insecure, temporary housing facility, a manga café in Tokyo, Japan, for a year was diagnosed with sputum smear-positive tuberculosis (TB). Since the café had 31 staff members and provided with accommodation to many people, the local health office initiated a contact investigation. This study aims to characterise the cases found in the outbreak. A TB case was defined as a person tested bacteriologically positive for TB, or was determined to have TB by a physician. A latent TB infection case was defined as a person tested positive by interferon-γ release assay. From January 2016 through November 2017, there were 31 staff members at the manga café, of which, six developed TB disease (one smear-negative, culture-positive and five smear- and culture-negative) in addition to seven LTBI. Another long-term customer was found having sputum smear-positive TB. Variable numbers tandem repeat (VNTR) test revealed that the index patient and the long-term customer had the identical type of VNTR; however, one staff member had a different VNTR. Local health authorities should intensify screening long-term customers of such facilities for TB regularly as well as once a TB outbreak occurs.
We have succeeded in synthesizing organics, ‘Quenched Nitrogen-included Carbonaceous Composite (QNCC)’, via plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, whose infrared spectral properties reproduce the characteristics of the unidentified infrared (UIR) bands observed around classical novae. Past studies have shown that the UIR bands observed around novae appear somewhat differently from those observed in other astrophysical environment and are predominantly characterized by the presence of a broad 8μm feature. The remarkable similarity between the infrared properties of QNCC and the UIR bands in novae indicates that QNCC should be considered as a strong candidate of the carriers of the UIR bands in novae. Finally, we have started a space exposure experiment of QNCC aiming to explore the evolutional link between the QNCC and the insoluble organic molecule (IOM) in carbonaceous condrite and, thus, to infer the origins of organics in our solar system.
The adsorption and desorption of cesium onto layered minerals, zeolite and geochemical reference samples were studied. 0.5 g of bentonite and mica were able to adsorb 71.2 and 51.5 mg of cesium, respectively, from 50 mL of deionized water containing 200 mg/L of cesium under neutral pH condition. These amounts of cesium adsorption were greater than those reported for vermiculites (8.9 and 5.6 mg, respectively). Additionally, the cesium adsorption on mica and vermiculite remained essentially unchanged under seawater conditions, but it decreased drastically on zeolite. The cesium desorption from the layered minerals was promoted by the addition of ammonium ions, namely trioctylmethylammonium chloride and zephiramine. These ammonium ions desorb cesium from the interlayers of the minerals without destroying the mineral structure. The cesium desorption procedure using quaternary ammonium ions would be extremely useful for decontamination of soil containing the layered minerals with adsorbed radioactive cesium.
The unidentified infrared (UIR) bands have been ubiquitously observed in various astrophysical environments and consist of a series of emission features arising from aromatic and/or aliphatic C-C and C-H bonds . Therefore, their carriers are thought to be related to interstellar organics. However, our knowledge on the true carriers of the UIR bands is still limited. Recently  has proposed Mixed Aromatic Aliphatic Organic Nanoparticles, which contains hetero atoms in addition to conventional hydrocarbon models, as a more realistic interpretation of the band carriers. The challenges toward identifying the carriers of the UIR bands are still ongoing. Past studies have shown that the UIR bands observed around classical novae, which characterized by the presence of broad feature around 8μm, are somewhat different from those observed in other astrophysical environment. Here we report the success of experimentally synthesizing the organics called Nitrogen-included Carbonaceous Compounds (NCC; ) whose infrared properties can reproduce the UIR bands observed in classical novae.
We investigated the expansion dynamics of laser-produced plasmas expanding into an axial magnetic field. Plasmas were generated by focusing 1.064 μm Nd:YAG laser pulses onto a planar tin target in vacuum and allowed to expand into a 0.5 T magnetic field where the field lines were aligned along the plume expansion direction. Gated images employing an intensified charge-coupled device showed focusing of the plasma plume, which were also compared with results, obtained using particle-in-cell modeling methods. The estimated density and temperature of the plasma plumes employing emission spectroscopy revealed significant changes in the presence and absence of the 0.5 T magnetic field. In the presence of the field, the electron temperature is increased with distance from the target, while the density showed opposite effects.
An overview of the Czech national R&D project HiLASE (High average power pulsed laser) is presented. The project focuses on the development of advanced high repetition rate, diode pumped solid state laser (DPSSL) systems with energies in the range from mJ to 100 J and repetition rates in the range from 10 Hz to 100 kHz. Some applications of these lasers in research and hi-tech industry are also presented.
During the development of oocytes from early antral follicles (EAFs) to antral follicles (AFs), the mitochondrial DNA copy number (Mt DNA number) increases, and granulosa cells markedly proliferate. This study examined the effect of supplementation of culture medium with estradiol-17β (E2) on the in vitro growth of oocytes, and increases in the Mt DNA number, and telomere length during the in vitro culture of oocytes derived from EAFs (0.4–0.7 mm in diameter). The E2 supplementation improved antrum formation and the ratio of oocytes reaching the metaphase II (MII) stage, and there was a significant difference in these values between addition E2 concentrations of 10 μg/ml and 0.1 μg/ml. When the oocytes were cultured in the medium containing 10 μg/ml E2, the Mt DNA number determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) significantly increased, and the ratio of the Mt DNA number at the end of culture to the Mt DNA number at the beginning of the culture was greatly different among cows, and could be predicted by the degree of the difference between the Mt DNA number of oocytes derived from EAFs and that of oocytes derived from AFs (3–6 mm in diameter). When oocytes were cultured for 16 days in a medium containing 10 μg/ml E2 or 0.1 μg/ml E2, the Mt DNA number of oocytes grown in vitro did not differ, but the telomere length of the granulosa cells was significantly greater in the 10 μg/ml E2 group than in the 0.1 μg/ml group. In conclusion, E2 supplementation in culture medium improved the growth of oocytes derived from EAFs, and a high E2 concentration increased the telomere length of the granulosa cells.
Sb2O3, Sb-metal, Bi2O3 or Bi-metal, powders were mixed with MgB2 powder. Starting compositions were ((MgB2)(M2O3)x, x = 0.0025, 0.005, 0.015, and (MgB2)(M)y, y = 0.01, M = Sb, Bi. Mixtures were processed by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) technique. As obtained composite samples show high density, above 94% of the theoretical density. While the secondary phases indicate on similar reactions, samples show different behavior vs. addition type and amount. This does not directly correlate with the melting temperature of the addition. From the critical current density (Jc) and irreversibility field (Hirr) enhancement viewpoints, optimum additions are oxides for x=0.025, 0.005. Both oxides are improving Jc at high fields, but Sb2O3 is effective up to 10 K, while Bi2O3 is up to 30 K. Metal additions are decreasing Jc and Hirr when compared to pristine MgB2sample.
In this work, reactive magnetron-sputtered Pb(Zr,Ti)O3thin films were used to fabricate well-ordered nanodot arrays by means of nanosphere lithography (NSL). NSL is based on a two-step etch process by means of, firstly adjusting the diameter of polystyrene spheres in the self-assembled polymeric nanosphere mask using reactive ion etching, and secondly transferring the mask to the substrate by ion milling with adjusted heights. Hence, structures with different aspect ratios can be fabricated.
Piezoresponse force microscopy was used as the inspection tool on both non-patterned and patterned films. Both the topography and polarization out of plane and in plane was deduced in this mode. Grains of nanodots with low aspect ratio form domain structures comparable to domains in non-patterned films. In contrast to that, nanodots with a higher aspect ratio form particular structures. The in-plane amplitude images show mostly a bisectioned domain assembly, while the out-of-plane amplitude images show in some cases more complex structures like “c”-shaped domains or multi-domains around a center domain.
The patterning of the ferroelectric material was shown to affect the formation of ferroelectric domains. The initial polycrystalline, randomly-ordered films are re-oriented and show domain structures depending on nanodisc diameter and aspect ratio. This may enable tailoring of ferroelectric materials in their piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties by patterning.
A study of the ferroelectric and magnetic properties and of the magnetoelectric coupling effects of Pb(Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3 (PFN) thin films, grown on SrRuO3/Si [(100) or (111)] substrates by the rf-magnetron sputtering technique, is presented. Structural, morphological, and compositional characterization was realized using the XRD, AFM, XPS, and TEM techniques. Highly textured single phase films with different thickness (from 45 to 270 nm) were successfully grown without Fe2+ presence. A vertically  oriented grainy structure was observed. Polarization vs. electric field (P-E) hysteresis loops exhibit excellent and almost constant values of the maximum (∼ 60 μC/cm2) and remanent (∼ 22 μC/cm2) polarizations in the temperature range from 4 K to room temperature; small values of the coercive field, characteristic of soft ferroelectric materials, are observed in these samples. Measurements of the zero-field cooled (ZFC) and field cooled (FC) magnetization behavior and magnetic (M-H) hysteresis loops were realized at different temperatures between 5 and 300 K. Proof of the existence of ferromagnetic order in the low temperature region (below to 50 K) is discussed and reported for the first time. Values of the maximum (∼ 3 emu/g) and remanent (∼ 1.5 emu/g) magnetizations were obtained. dc magnetic field dependence of the ferroelectric hysteresis loops are shown as evidence of the magnetoelectric coupling.
A Mg(OH)2–C transparent conductive film was prepared using the sputtering method by the initial formation of a Mg-C film generated by the alternate layering of Mg and C on a rotating substrate and subsequent exposure of the film to atmospheric water vapor. To examine the influence exerted by the Mg/C layers of the starting film sample on semiconductivity,evaluations of the electrical conductivity properties of the film during the hydroxylation process and the optical properties after the hydroxylation process were carried out. As a result, although no effects on the characteristics of the electrical conductivity properties associated with the composition or number of layers in the films could be confirmed, it was determined that the films possessed the characteristics of semiconductors. On the other hand, the optical properties were found to be affected by the composition and number of layers of the Mg/C films.
We briefly review our data on MOCVD growth problems of sandwich stacked heterostructures based on Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O and YBa2Cu3O7 high temperature superconductors. Non-superconducting layers were (Ca, Sr)CuO2, (Ca, Ba)CuO2 and Bi4Ti3O12. Structures were with c-axis normal or inclined with about 45° vs. the surface of the substrate. Film-substrate lattice relationship, growth mechanism and the resulting morphology controlling roughness and uniformity, stability domain of the phases and inter diffusion are all important aspects toward significant progress in the field. Our analysis indicates that requirements are more severe for non-c-axis heterostructures, and suggest some ideas for further improvements.
The crystal structure of thermoelectric rhenium silicide with an ordered arrangement of vacancies is investigated by utilizing spherical aberration (Cs) corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) combined with synchrotron X-ray diffraction and conventional transmission electron microscopy. By STEM Cs corrected imaging, we can clearly observe Si vacancies in rhenium silicide, which is impossible without Cs correction. In addition, significantly reduced contrast levels are noted in STEM images for particular Si sites near vacancies. From the STEM image simulation, the reduced contrast levels are concluded to be due to anomalously large local thermal vibration of these Si atoms. The crystal structure of rhenium silicide can be successfully refined by the synchrotron X-ray diffraction starting with the deduced structure model from the STEM images and the occurrence of large local thermal vibration can be qualitatively confirmed. Furthermore, we confirm the validity of the refined crystal structure of rhenium silicide by comparing experimental images with simulated image generating with the refined crystal structure parameters.
This chapter examines object-oriented bimanual coordination and reviews studies which have furthered our understanding of how the central nervous system coordinates the movement of the two hands. Each section deals with different aspects of bimanual coordination and the relevant underpinning neurobiology. First, we describe how bimanual behavior is inherently constrained by the sensorimotor system which preferentially processes and executes symmetrical movements. Second, we discuss how the dynamics of the two hands are integrated to maintain the equilibrium of bimanual performance using anticipatory mechanisms. The third section deals with handedness and how the inherent laterality of our motor system influences bimanual behavior. In the final section, we show how some of the lateral preferences may be over-ridden according to the demands of certain tasks.
One hand affords reaching, grasping and manipulation of objects of various shapes and sizes. However, two hands dramatically increase the capacity and range of human dexterity to include larger, heavier objects and to permit greater relative motions of manipulated parts. To achieve coordinated bimanual actions, the kinematics and dynamics of each hand need to be temporally and spatially orchestrated. We consider a number of bimanual manipulative tasks, both in terms of behavioral control issues and also in terms of the underlying neuroanatomy and physiology. A key issue in object manipulation is the use of an appropriate grip force (GF) to maintain stability of the grasped object. Prior to considering bimanual coordination of grasping, we briefly review relevant work on unimanual manipulation of objects.