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This paper presents wideband split-ring antenna arrays based on substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) for Ka-band (26.5–40 GHz) applications. The antenna array is fed by a 2.92 mm coaxial connector (K-connector) and the power is equally distributed to each split-ring resonator. The designed coplanar waveguide (CPW), SIW, CPW-to-SIW transition, coaxial-to-CPW transition, and two-stage SIW power divider are described in detail. By using a thin Rogers 6002 substrate with silver epoxy-filled vias, a transition prototype is designed, fabricated, and tested in a back-to-back configuration. A wideband split-ring resonator is developed as a single element and four possible arrangements of antenna arrays are introduced. By combining the designed components and routing paths, two full layouts of the antenna arrays with four split-ring resonators are addressed. As a demonstrator, a 2×2 antenna array prototype in a compact format is designed, fabricated, and tested. The fabricated antenna array achieves a measured directivity of 15.0 dBi with a fractional bandwidth of 23.0% centered at 30.5 GHz.
(1) To investigate if gut microbiota can be a predictor of remission in geriatric depression and to identify features of the gut microbiota that is associated with remission. (2) To determine if changes in gut microbiota occur with remission in geriatric depression.
Secondary analysis of a parent randomized placebo-controlled trial (NCT02466958).
Los Angeles, CA, USA (2016-2018)
Seventeen subjects with major depressive disorder, over 60 years of age, 41.2% female.
Levomilacipran (LVM) or placebo.
Remission was defined by Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score of 6 or less at 12 weeks. 16S-ribosomal RNA sequencing based fecal microbiota composition and diversity were measured at baseline and 12 weeks. Differences in fecal microbiota were evaluated between remitters and non-remitters as well as between baseline and post-treatment samples. LVM and placebo groups were combined in all the analyses.
Baseline microbiota showed no community level α-diversity or β-diversity differences between remitters and non-remitters. At the individual taxa level, a random forest classifier created with nine genera from the baseline microbiota was highly accurate in predicting remission (AUC = .857). Of these, baseline enrichment of Faecalibacterium, Agathobacter and Roseburia relative to a reference frame was associated with treatment outcome of remission. Differential abundance analysis revealed significant genus level changes from baseline to post-treatment in remitters, but not in non-remitters.
This is the first study demonstrating fecal microbiota as a potential predictor of treatment response in geriatric depression. Our findings need to be confirmed in larger prospective studies.
Establishing accurate population size estimates (PSE) is important for prioritising and planning provision of services. Multiple source capture−recapture sampling method increases PSE accuracy and reliability. In August 2018, the three-source capture−recapture (3S-CRC) method was employed with a stringent assumption of sample independence to estimate the number of female sex workers (FSW) in Rwanda. Using Rwanda 2017 FSW hotspots mapping data, street and venue-based FSW were sampled at the sector level of each province and tagged with two unique gifts. Each capture was completed within one week to minimise FSW migration between provinces and recall bias. The three captures had 1042, 1204 and 1488 FSW. There were 111 FSW recaptured between captures 1 and 2; 237 between captures 2 and 3; 203 between captures 1 and 3 and 46 captured in all three. The PSE for street and venue-based FSW in Rwanda lies within 95% credible set: 8328–22 806 with corresponding median of 13 716 FSW. The 3S-CRC technique was low-cost and relatively easy to use for PSE in hard-to-reach populations. This estimate provides the basis for determining the denominators to assess HIV programme performance towards FSW and epidemic control and warrants further PSE for home- and cyber-based FSW in Rwanda.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Our data identify a novel candidate for combination strategy in melanoma treatment, and can inform clinicians in their decision-making process regarding therapeutic intervention for melanoma patients. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a novel source of cyclic AMP (cAMP). In melanoma, nuclear sAC localization has an established diagnostic utility and we newly found that nuclear sAC functions as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting Hippo pathway, which affects treatment response. Here, we examine the effect of nuclear sAC on melanoma treatment response. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We developed a doxycycline inducible system for increasing sAC activity only in the nucleus. We assessed whether nuclear sAC activity affects treatment response, using BRAFV600 human melanoma cell lines. Using a clonogenic assay, we examined how nuclear sAC activity affects growth inhibition in the presence of a BRAF inhibitor, vemurafenib. Our findings will be confirmed in vivo using tumor xenografts. After tumor formation in NSG mice, mice will be randomized to be fed normal or doxycycline chow for nuclear sAC induction, then subdivided to receive vehicle or vemurafenib to examine the effect of nuclear sAC activity on treatment response in vivo. We will also compare melanoma biopsies collected before and after treatment with BRAF inhibitors to assess how nuclear sAC staining affects tumor morphology in vivo. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: So far, nuclear sAC activity has rendered SkMel178 and M263 cell lines more susceptible to vemurafenib. Cell viability was inversely correlated both with vemurafenib and with doxycycline concentration. Cell viability after vemurafenib treatment was dramatically reduced when nuclear sAC was activated. It appears that nuclear sAC enhances the sensitivity of BRAF mutant melanomas to vemurafenib in vitro. We anticipate that xenografts of these cells in mice will be more susceptible to vemurafenib when nuclear sAC is activated. We also anticipate that positive nuclear sAC staining will correlate with a favorable response to therapy. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Targeted therapy with BRAF inhibitors is used in late-stage melanomas, but its use is limited as patients invariably acquire resistance. Here, we identified nuclear sAC activation as a novel candidate for combination strategy. Our data will also inform clinicians how best to integrate this biomarker into their decision-making regarding therapy.
An acute gastroenteritis (AGE) outbreak caused by a norovirus occurred at a hospital in Shanghai, China, was studied for molecular epidemiology, host susceptibility and serological roles. Rectal and environmental swabs, paired serum samples and saliva specimens were collected. Pathogens were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. Histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) phenotypes of saliva samples and their binding to norovirus protruding proteins were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The HBGA-binding interfaces and the surrounding region were analysed by the MegAlign program of DNAstar 7.1. Twenty-seven individuals in two care units were attacked with AGE at attack rates of 9.02 and 11.68%. Eighteen (78.2%) symptomatic and five (38.4%) asymptomatic individuals were GII.6/b norovirus positive. Saliva-based HBGA phenotyping showed that all symptomatic and asymptomatic cases belonged to A, B, AB or O secretors. Only four (16.7%) out of the 24 tested serum samples showed low blockade activity against HBGA-norovirus binding at the acute phase, whereas 11 (45.8%) samples at the convalescence stage showed seroconversion of such blockade. Specific blockade antibody in the population played an essential role in this norovirus epidemic. A wide HBGA-binding spectrum of GII.6 supports a need for continuous health attention and surveillance in different settings.
Deaths due to opioid overdose have reached unprecedented levels in Canada; over 12,800 opioid-related deaths occurred between January 2016 and March 2019, and overdose death rates increased by approximately 50% from 2016 to 2018.1 In 2016, Health Canada declared the opioid epidemic a national public health crisis,2 and life expectancy increases have halted in Canada for the first time in decades.3 Children are not exempt from this crisis, and the Chief Public Health Officer of Canada has recently prioritized the prevention of problematic substance use among Canadian youth.4
To determine if a global mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) cut-off can be established to classify underweight in adults (men and non-pregnant women).
We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis (IPDMA) to explore the sensitivity (SENS) and specificity (SPEC) of various MUAC cut-offs for identifying underweight among adults (defined as BMI < 18·5 kg/m2). Measures of diagnostic accuracy were determined every 0·5 cm across MUAC values from 19·0 to 26·5 cm. A bivariate random effects model was used to jointly estimate SENS and SPEC while accounting for heterogeneity between studies. Various subgroup analyses were performed.
Twenty datasets from Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia, North America and South America were included.
All eligible participants from the original datasets were included.
The total sample size was 13 835. Mean age was 32·6 years and 65 % of participants were female. Mean MUAC was 25·7 cm, and 28 % of all participants had low BMI (<18·5 kg/m2). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the pooled dataset was 0·91 (range across studies 0·61–0·98). Results showed that MUAC cut-offs in the range of ≤23·5 to ≤25·0 cm could serve as an appropriate screening indicator for underweight.
MUAC is highly discriminatory in its ability to distinguish adults with BMI above and below 18·5 kg/m2. This IPDMA is the first step towards determining a global MUAC cut-off for adults. Validation studies are needed to determine whether the proposed MUAC cut-off of 24 cm is associated with poor functional outcomes.
Immigration has changed the United States from having a predominantly white to a more ethnically diverse population. People who move to the U.S. may initially have diets unlike native-born Americans but gradually adopt eating patterns more like them. Using NHANES data and a censored gamma regression model, this study estimated the daily consumption of major food products among groups of immigrants and the corresponding groups born in the U.S. Results show that immigrants had lower consumption of meat and higher consumption of fruits and vegetables, and immigrants’ consumption converged towards a less healthy American diet after five years in the U.S.
Given a large number of community-based older adults with mild cognitive impairment, it is essential to better understand the relationship between unmet palliative care (PC) needs and mild cognitive impairment in community-based samples.
Participants consisted of adults ages 60+ receiving services at senior centers located in New York City. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Unmet Palliative Care Needs screening tool were used to assess participants’ cognitive status and PC needs.
Our results revealed a quadratic relationship between unmet PC needs and mild cognitive impairment, controlling for gender, living status, and age. Participants with either low or high MoCA scores reported lower PC needs than participants with average MoCA scores, mean difference of the contrast (low and high vs. middle) = 2.15, P = 0.08.
Significance of results
This study is a first step toward elucidating the relationship between cognitive impairment and PC needs in a diverse community sample of older adults. More research is needed to better understand the unique PC needs of older adults with cognitive impairment living in the community.
We examined whether change in added sugar intake is associated with change in δ13C, a novel sugar biomarker, in thirty-nine children aged 5–10 years selected from a Colorado (USA) prospective cohort of children at increased risk for type 1 diabetes. Reported added sugar intake via FFQ and δ13C in erythrocytes were measured at two time points a median of 2 years apart. Change in added sugar intake was associated with change in the δ13C biomarker, where for every 1-g increase in added sugar intake between the two time points, there was an increase in δ13C of 0⋅0082 (P = 0⋅0053), independent of change in HbA1c and δ15N. The δ13C biomarker may be used as a measure of compliance in an intervention study of children under the age of 10 years who are at increased risk for type 1 diabetes, in which the goal was to reduce dietary sugar intake.
Introduction: Patients who present to the Emergency Department (ED) with a drug overdose often require long periods of monitoring. After their initial assessment and stabilization, they spend a significant amount of time in a high cost acute care bed in the ED for monitoring until they are medically cleared for psychiatric care or to be discharged. The shift length at this ED is a maximum of 8 hours; meaning any patients staying over 8 hours must be handed over between physicians, increasing the chance of medical errors. The objective of this study is to examine the total ED length of stay (LOS) of this patient group after physician initial assessment (PIA) to determine if there is there justification for the creation of a toxicology observation or short-stay unit for these patients. Methods: A single-centre, blinded retrospective chart review was conducted examining all adult patients presenting to the ED at an urban academic tertiary care centre with a drug overdose in 2018. Variables examined include: Disposition (home, admitted to acute care setting, admitted to non-acute care setting), time from PIA to disposition and total length of stay from PIA to discharge home or admission to hospital. The primary outcome is total length of stay in the ED after PIA.M Results: A total of 1006 patients presenting with an overdose were included. A total of 388 patients were admitted with 44% (172) having an ED LOS greater than 8 hours and 36% (138) staying 8 hours after PIA. The median [IQR] LOS in the ED for all patients was 343 minutes [191-565] while the median [IQR] time to PIA was 37 minutes [15-97]. The majority of these patients (54%) were discharged with no consulting services involved, 23% received a consult to psychiatry, 22% were consulted to internal medicine and 5% of patients were consulted to Critical Care Medicine. Conclusion: This demonstrates patients presenting to the ED with an overdose are seen in the ED by a physician quickly, however many stay in the department over 5 hours from their initial assessment in a monitored setting. While a majority of these patients are able to go home, 44% of admitted patients wait greater than 8 hours in the ED on monitors. The creation of a toxicology observation unit would be helpful for this population to increase patient safety and ease ED bed congestion.
Introduction: Despite an overall decline in opioid prescriptions in Canada, healthcare visits, hospitalizations, and deaths due to opioid-related harms continue to rise for children. Clinicians urgently require high quality synthesized evidence to inform personalized decisions regarding opioid use for children. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the association between short-term therapeutic exposure to opioids and development of opioid use disorder. Methods: A medical librarian conducted a comprehensive search of 10 databases from inception to May 2019. Two authors independently assessed studies for inclusion. Studies were eligible if they reported primary research in English or French, and study participants had short (<14 days) or non-specific duration of therapeutic exposure to opioids before age 18 years. Primary outcome was the development of an opioid use disorder; secondary outcomes included opioid addiction, dependence, misuse, and abuse. Data extraction involved two independent reviewers utilizing a standardized form. Methodological quality was assessed using the NIH tools for observational studies. Results are described narratively. Results: The search identified 4,072 unique citations; 82 were selected for review, and 17 were included (3 retrospective cohort, 4 prospective cohort, and 10 cross-sectional). All studies took place in the USA. A total of 1,562,503 participants were analyzed. Nine studies were administered in schools, 3 used administrative data. While most settings were non-specific, 1 study examined opioid use in dentistry, 1 in trauma, and 1 in organized sports. One comparative study showed an association between short-term therapeutic use and opioid misuse. Two studies showed opioid related adverse events (e.g., overdose) among cohorts exposed to short-term use. The remaining 14 studies did not specify duration of exposure; therefore, confirming whether misuse was due to short-term therapeutic exposure was not possible. Conclusion: A small number of studies in this review suggest an association between short-term opioid use and opioid misuse; however, further analysis is underway with consideration of methodological limitations of the individual studies (final results pending). Careful consideration of the risk and benefits of short-term opioid use should be undertaken prior to prescribing opioids. PROSPERO Registration Number: 122681.
Background: Since January 1, 2016 2358 people have died from opioid poisoning in Alberta. Buprenorphine/naloxone (bup/nal) is the recommended first line treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD) and this treatment can be initiated in emergency departments and urgent care centres (EDs). Aim Statement: This project aims to spread a quality improvement intervention to all 107 adult EDs in Alberta by March 31, 2020. The intervention supports clinicians to initiate bup/nal for eligible individuals and provide rapid referrals to OUD treatment clinics. Measures & Design: Local ED teams were identified (administrators, clinical nurse educators, physicians and, where available, pharmacists and social workers). Local teams were supported by a provincial project team (project manager, consultant, and five physician leads) through a multi-faceted implementation process using provincial order sets, clinician education products, and patient-facing information. We used administrative ED and pharmacy data to track the number of visits where bup/nal was given in ED, and whether discharged patients continued to fill any opioid agonist treatment (OAT) prescription 30 days after their index ED visit. OUD clinics reported the number of referrals received from EDs and the number attending their first appointment. Patient safety event reports were tracked to identify any unintended negative impacts. Evaluation/Results: We report data from May 15, 2018 (program start) to September 31, 2019. Forty-nine EDs (46% of 107) implemented the program and 22 (45% of 49) reported evaluation data. There were 5385 opioid-related visits to reporting ED sites after program adoption. Bup/nal was given during 832 ED visits (663 unique patients): 7 visits in the 1st quarter the program operated, 55 in the 2nd, 74 in the 3rd, 143 in the 4th, 294 in the 5th, and 255 in the 6th. Among 505 unique discharged patients with 30 day follow up data available 319 (63%) continued to fill any OAT prescription after receiving bup/nal in ED. 16 (70%) of 23 community clinics provided data. EDs referred patients to these clinics 440 times, and 236 referrals (54%) attended their first follow-up appointment. Available data may under-report program impact. 5 patient safety events have been reported, with no harm or minimal harm to the patient. Discussion/Impact: Results demonstrate effective spread and uptake of a standardized provincial ED based early medical intervention program for patients who live with OUD.
Psychopathy is characterized by superficial charm, untruthfulness, lack of remorse, antisocial behavior, egocentricity as well as poverty in major affective reactions. This clinical profile has been empirically conceptualized and validated. Recent brain imaging studies suggest abnormal brain activity underlying psychopathic behavior. However, no reliable pattern of altered neural activity has been disclosed so far.
To identify consistent changes of brain activity in psychopaths and to investigate whether these could explain known psychopathology.
First, we used activation likelihood estimation to meta-analyze brain activation changes in psychopaths across 28 functional magnetic resonance imaging studies reporting 753 foci from 155 analyses (P < 0.05, corrected). Second, we functionally characterized the ensuing regions employing meta-data of a large-scale neuroimaging database (P < 0.05, corrected).
Psychopathy was consistently associated with decreased brain activity in the right amygdala, the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), and bilaterally in the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC). Consistently increased activity was observed bilaterally in the fronto-insular cortex (FIC) (Fig. 1). Moreover, we found that the physiological functional role of the candidate regions related to social cognition (DMFPC), cognitive speech and semantic processing (left FIC/LPFC), emotional and cognitive reward processing (right amygdala/FIC) as well as somesthesis and executive functions (RLPFC).
Psychopathy is characterized by abnormal brain activity of bilateral prefrontal cortices and the right amygdala, which mediate psychological functions known to be impaired in psychopaths. Hence, aberrant neural activity can account for pertinent psychopathology in psychopathy.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Competence committees play a key role in a competency-based system of assessment. These committees are tasked with reviewing and synthesizing clinical performance data to make judgments regarding residents’ competence. Canadian emergency medicine (EM) postgraduate training programs recently implemented competence committees; however, a paucity of literature guides their work.
The objective of this study was to develop consensus-based recommendations to optimize the function and decisions of competence committees in Canadian EM training programs.
Semi-structured interviews of EM competence committee chairs were conducted and analyzed. The interview guide was informed by a literature review of competence committee structure, processes, and best practices. Inductive thematic analysis of interview transcripts was conducted to identify emerging themes. Preliminary recommendations, based on themes, were drafted and presented at the 2019 CAEP Academic Symposium on Education. Through a live presentation and survey poll, symposium attendees representing the national EM community participated in a facilitated discussion of the recommendations. The authors incorporated this feedback and identified consensus among symposium attendees on a final set of nine high-yield recommendations.
The Canadian EM community used a structured process to develop nine best practice recommendations for competence committees addressing: committee membership, meeting processes, decision outcomes, use of high-quality performance data, and ongoing quality improvement. These recommendations can inform the structure and processes of competence committees in Canadian EM training programs.
The analysis of the aerodynamic environment of the re-entry vehicle attaches great importance to the design of the novel drag reduction strategies, and the combinational spike and jet concept has shown promising application for the drag reduction in supersonic flows. In this paper, the drag force reduction mechanism induced by the combinational spike and lateral jet concept with the freestream Mach number being 5.9332 has been investigated numerically by means of the two-dimensional axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the shear stress transport (SST) k-ω turbulence model, and the effects of the lateral jet location and its number on the drag reduction of the blunt body have been evaluated. The obtained results show that the drag force of the blunt body can be reduced more profoundly when employing the dual lateral jets, and its maximum percentage is 38.81%, with the locations of the first and second lateral jets arranged suitably. The interaction between the leading shock wave and the first lateral jet has a great impact on the drag force reduction. The drag force reduction is more evident when the interaction is stronger. Due to the inclusion of the lateral jet, the pressure intensity at the reattachment point of the blunt body decreases sharply, as well as the temperature near the walls of the spike and the blunt body, and this implies that the multi-lateral jet is beneficial for the drag reduction.
The Tengchong Block within the Sanjiang Tethys belt in the southeastern part of the Tibetan plateau experienced a widespread intrusion of a felsic magmatic suite of granites in its central domain during Late Cretaceous times. Here, we investigate the Guyong and Xiaolonghe plutons from this suite in terms of their petrological, geochemical, and Sr–Nd, zircon U–Pb and Lu–Hf–O isotopic features to gain insights into the evolution of the Neo-Tethys. The Guyong pluton (76 Ma) is composed of metaluminous monzogranites, and the Xiaolonghe pluton (76 Ma) is composed of metaluminous to peraluminous medium- and fine-grained syenogranite. A systematic decrease in Eu, Ba, Sr, P and Ti concentrations; a decrease in Zr/Hf and LREE/HREE ratios; and an increase in the Rb/Ba and Ta/Nb ratios from the Guyong to Xiaolonghe plutons suggest fractional crystallization of biotite, plagioclase, K-feldspar, apatite, ilmenite and titanite. They also show the characteristics of I-type granites. The negative zircon εHf(t) isotopic values (−10.04 to −5.22) and high δ18O values (6.69 to 8.58 ‰) and the negative whole-rock εNd(t) isotopic values (−9.7 to −10.1) and high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7098–0.7099) of the Guyong monzogranite suggest that these rocks were generated by partial melting of the Precambrian basement without mantle input. The zircon εHf(t) isotopic values (−10.63 to −3.04) and δ18O values (6.54 to 8.69 ‰) of the Xiaolonghe syenogranite are similar to the features of the Guyong monzogranite, and this similarity suggests a cogenetic nature and magma derivation from the lower crust that is composed of both metasedimentary and meta-igneous rocks. The Xiaolonghe fine-grained syenogranite shows an obvious rare earth element tetrad effect and lower Nb/Ta ratios, which indicate its productive nature with respect to ore formation. In fact, we discuss that the Sn mineralization in the region was possible due to Sn being scavenged from these rocks by exsolved hydrothermal fluids. We correlate the Late Cretaceous magmatism in the central Tengchong Block with the northward subduction of the Neo-Tethys beneath the Burma–Tengchong Block.
People make comprehension easier by predicting upcoming language. We might therefore expect prediction to occur during the extremely difficult task of simultaneous interpreting. This paper examines the theoretical and empirical foundations of this premise. It reviews accounts of prediction during comprehension in both monolinguals and bilinguals, and discusses these theories in light of experimental data (e.g., using the visual-world paradigm). It considers how these accounts may be applied to the unique and ecologically valid context of simultaneous interpreting, when two languages are used concurrently, one overtly engaging the comprehension system, and the other overtly engaging the production system. It then posits a role for the production system in prediction during comprehension and develops a theoretical framework for prediction-by-production in simultaneous interpreting that has implications for our understanding of prediction during language comprehension.
The search for life in the Universe is a fundamental problem of astrobiology and modern science. The current progress in the detection of terrestrial-type exoplanets has opened a new avenue in the characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres and in the search for biosignatures of life with the upcoming ground-based and space missions. To specify the conditions favourable for the origin, development and sustainment of life as we know it in other worlds, we need to understand the nature of global (astrospheric), and local (atmospheric and surface) environments of exoplanets in the habitable zones (HZs) around G-K-M dwarf stars including our young Sun. Global environment is formed by propagated disturbances from the planet-hosting stars in the form of stellar flares, coronal mass ejections, energetic particles and winds collectively known as astrospheric space weather. Its characterization will help in understanding how an exoplanetary ecosystem interacts with its host star, as well as in the specification of the physical, chemical and biochemical conditions that can create favourable and/or detrimental conditions for planetary climate and habitability along with evolution of planetary internal dynamics over geological timescales. A key linkage of (astro)physical, chemical and geological processes can only be understood in the framework of interdisciplinary studies with the incorporation of progress in heliophysics, astrophysics, planetary and Earth sciences. The assessment of the impacts of host stars on the climate and habitability of terrestrial (exo)planets will significantly expand the current definition of the HZ to the biogenic zone and provide new observational strategies for searching for signatures of life. The major goal of this paper is to describe and discuss the current status and recent progress in this interdisciplinary field in light of presentations and discussions during the NASA Nexus for Exoplanetary System Science funded workshop ‘Exoplanetary Space Weather, Climate and Habitability’ and to provide a new roadmap for the future development of the emerging field of exoplanetary science and astrobiology.