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Brain imaging studies have shown altered amygdala activity during emotion processing in children and adolescents with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) compared to typically developing children and adolescents (TD). Here we aimed to assess whether aggression-related subtypes (reactive and proactive aggression) and callous-unemotional (CU) traits predicted variation in amygdala activity and skin conductance (SC) response during emotion processing.
We included 177 participants (n = 108 cases with disruptive behaviour and/or ODD/CD and n = 69 TD), aged 8–18 years, across nine sites in Europe, as part of the EU Aggressotype and MATRICS projects. All participants performed an emotional face-matching functional magnetic resonance imaging task.
Differences between cases and TD in affective processing, as well as specificity of activation patterns for aggression subtypes and CU traits, were assessed. Simultaneous SC recordings were acquired in a subsample (n = 63). Cases compared to TDs showed higher amygdala activity in response to negative faces (fearful and angry) v. shapes. Subtyping cases according to aggression-related subtypes did not significantly influence on amygdala activity; while stratification based on CU traits was more sensitive and revealed decreased amygdala activity in the high CU group. SC responses were significantly lower in cases and negatively correlated with CU traits, reactive and proactive aggression.
Our results showed differences in amygdala activity and SC responses to emotional faces between cases with ODD/CD and TD, while CU traits moderate both central (amygdala) and peripheral (SC) responses. Our insights regarding subtypes and trait-specific aggression could be used for improved diagnostics and personalized treatment.
The aim of this study was to update the literature on interventions for carers of people with dementia published between 2006 and 2016 and evaluate the efficacy of psychoeducational programs and psychotherapeutic interventions on key mental health outcomes (depression, anxiety, burden, and quality of life).
A meta-analysis was carried out of randomized controlled trials of carer interventions using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials.
The majority of studies were conducted in Western and Southern Europe or the United States and recruited carers of people with Alzheimer's disease or dementia grouped as a whole. The most commonly used outcome measures were depression and burden across studies. The updated evidence suggested that psychoeducation-skill building interventions delivered face-to-face can better impact on burden. Psychotherapeutic interventions underpinned by Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) models demonstrated strong empirical support for treating anxiety and depression and these effects were not affected by the mode of delivery (i.e. face-to-face vs. technology). A modern CBT approach, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), seemed to be particularly beneficial for carers experiencing high levels of anxiety.
Future research needs to explore the efficacy of interventions on multiple clinical outcomes and which combination of interventions (components) would have the most significant effects when using CBT. The generalization of treatment effects in different countries and carers of different types of dementia also need to be addressed. More research is needed to test the efficacy of modern forms of CBT, such as ACT.
The Dark Energy Survey is undertaking an observational programme imaging 1/4 of the southern hemisphere sky with unprecedented photometric accuracy. In the process of observing millions of faint stars and galaxies to constrain the parameters of the dark energy equation of state, the Dark Energy Survey will obtain pre-discovery images of the regions surrounding an estimated 100 gamma-ray bursts over 5 yr. Once gamma-ray bursts are detected by, e.g., the Swift satellite, the DES data will be extremely useful for follow-up observations by the transient astronomy community. We describe a recently-commissioned suite of software that listens continuously for automated notices of gamma-ray burst activity, collates information from archival DES data, and disseminates relevant data products back to the community in near-real-time. Of particular importance are the opportunities that non-public DES data provide for relative photometry of the optical counterparts of gamma-ray bursts, as well as for identifying key characteristics (e.g., photometric redshifts) of potential gamma-ray burst host galaxies. We provide the functional details of the DESAlert software, and its data products, and we show sample results from the application of DESAlert to numerous previously detected gamma-ray bursts, including the possible identification of several heretofore unknown gamma-ray burst hosts.
We have investigated the electrical properties of a ZnO microwire grown by carbo-thermal evaporation, a ZnO thin film grown by pulsed-laser deposition on an a-plane sapphire, and a hydrothermally grown Zn-face ZnO single crystal (Tokyo Denpa Co. Ltd.). The samples were investigated by means of current-voltage measurements, capacitance-voltage measurements, and deep-level transient spectroscopy.
The defects T2 [1,2] and E3 [1,3,4] were identified in all three sample types. Additionally, in the single crystal and thin film samples E64  and E4  were detected. These findings support the common opinion that T2 is an intrinsic defect since it is found in all the samples investigated and thus its occurrence is not related to any growth technique.
Repeated Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) observations were carried out at 50 surface markers in the Vostok Subglacial Lake (East Antarctica) region between 2001 and 2011. The horizontal ice flow velocity vectors were derived with accuracies of 1 cm a−1 and 0.5°, representing the first reliable information on ice flow kinematics in the northern part of the lake. Within the lake area, ice flow velocities do not exceed 2 m a−1. The ice flow azimuth is southeast in the southern part of the lake and turns gradually to east-northeast in the northern part. In the northern part, as the ice flow enters the lake at the western shore, the velocity decreases towards the central lake axis, then increases slightly past the central axis. In the southern part, a continued acceleration is observed from the central lake axis across the downstream grounding line. Based on the observed flow velocity vectors and ice thickness data, mean surface accumulation rates are inferred for four surface segments between Ridge B and Vostok Subglacial Lake and show a steady increase towards the north.
Using a statistical model for the effects of decoherence , we show that in linear tight-binding samples ohmic conductance (resistance proportional to length) is reached for any finite density p of decoherence sites, if the chemical potential μ of the contacts is within a conducting band. If μ is outside a band, or if due to disorder, no bands form, for high decoherence densities p>p* still ohmic conductance is reached, where p* is a critical decoherence density. For p<p*, the sample resistance increases exponentially with the length.
While characterization of the MBH–σ* relationship in AGNs has improved due to the increase in available data and the improvement in accuracy of both MBH and σ* measurements, additional data at the high-luminosity end of the distribution of quasars are needed, as recent studies indicate that perhaps the relation steepens in this regime. To this end, we present three new measurements in objects at the high-luminosity end of the relation.
The microscopic and macroscopic behaviours of a linear reflex discharge in the presence of low-frequency turbulence are investigated under the action of moderate lower-hybrid wave power. The frequency and wavenumber spectra of both the low-frequency fluctuations and the high-frequency waves are measured using a correlation-analysis technique with two probes. The low-frequency fluctuations may be attributed to drift-wave turbulence. The fluctuation level is raised when RF power is coupled to the plasma, thus leading to considerably enhanced radial transport. The coupling between low-frequency fluctuations and high-frequency waves can be seen clearly from the spectra. The high-frequency wavenumber spectra measured inside the antenna are in reasonable agreement with the lower-hybrid wave dispersion. However, the wavenumbers observed in the lower-hybrid resonance region outside the antenna are – in contrast with expectation – not larger than in the plasma edge region. From the electric-field energy-density spectra and from measurements of the density and the temperatures, a detailed energy balance can be performed. The calculated heating rates are anomalously large for both the electrons and the ions. The absorption processes, relevant for the present experiment, are discussed.
OLED with non-constant dopant concentration profiles have been processed by means of organic vapour phase deposition (OVPD) and were compared with regard to their luminous current efficiencies. Especially when driven at ultra-high luminance (>10,000 cd/A), OLED with a dopant concentration profile starting with a rather high dopant concentration on the anode side of the emissive layer showed improved luminous current efficiencies compared to their conventional counterparts.
To further investigate this effect, the width and location of the recombination zone have been simulated for all investigated concentration profiles by numerical solution of the semiconductor device equations using experimentally determined doping-dependent charge carrier mobilities. The obtained theoretical results are discussed with regard to the accomplished experiments.
Excitons in semiconductor alloys feel a random disorder potential leading to inhomogeneous line broadening and a lack of knowledge about the dominating recombination processes. Nevertheless, we demonstrate competing localization effects due to disorder (random potential fluctuations) and shallow point defects. We were able to spectrally separate donor-bound and quasi-free excitons within the whole wurtzite-type composition range of MgxZn1-xO (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.33) using spectrally resolved (x ≤ 0.06) and time-resolved photoluminescence (x ≥ 0.08). We found out that donor-bound excitons dominate photoluminescence spectra even for Mg-contents up to x = 0.18 and still appear for x = 0.33.