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There has been increasing interest in identifying individuals with pathological healthy eating behaviours, or orthorexia nervosa (ON). This study aimed to investigate the validity (construct- and criterion-related) and reliability (internal consistency) of the Eating Habits Questionnaire (EHQ) as a measure of ON. A secondary aim was to examine how the EHQ would predict a distinct feature of ON, adequate dietary intake.
Cross-sectional online questionnaire incorporating existing measures of ON and dietary intake.
Participants were recruited online via social media and a university’s research webpage.
Women (n 286) ranging in age from 17 to 73 years.
Exploratory factor analysis established that the EHQ represented four ON dimensions (Healthy Eating Cognitions, Dietary Restriction, Diet Superiority and Social Impairment), inconsistent with the scale’s original three dimensions (Problems, Knowledge and Feelings). Cronbach’s α coefficients ranged from 0·72 to 0·80 for the four subscales and was 0·89 for the total EHQ scale. Criterion-related validity revealed a significant moderate to strong correlation (r = −0·54, P < 0·001) between the EHQ and ORTO-10 (a ten-item version of ORTO-15). The EHQ, particularly the EHQ–Diet superiority subscale, was found to be predictive of better, as opposed to, poorer dietary adequacy.
Findings suggest that improvements still need to be made to the EHQ for it to be a valid and reliable measure of ON. Ideally, new assessment tools based on established diagnostic criteria are needed to advance our understanding of ON.
We present a detailed overview of the cosmological surveys that we aim to carry out with Phase 1 of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA1) and the science that they will enable. We highlight three main surveys: a medium-deep continuum weak lensing and low-redshift spectroscopic HI galaxy survey over 5 000 deg2; a wide and deep continuum galaxy and HI intensity mapping (IM) survey over 20 000 deg2 from
$z = 0.35$
to 3; and a deep, high-redshift HI IM survey over 100 deg2 from
$z = 3$
to 6. Taken together, these surveys will achieve an array of important scientific goals: measuring the equation of state of dark energy out to
$z \sim 3$
with percent-level precision measurements of the cosmic expansion rate; constraining possible deviations from General Relativity on cosmological scales by measuring the growth rate of structure through multiple independent methods; mapping the structure of the Universe on the largest accessible scales, thus constraining fundamental properties such as isotropy, homogeneity, and non-Gaussianity; and measuring the HI density and bias out to
$z = 6$
. These surveys will also provide highly complementary clustering and weak lensing measurements that have independent systematic uncertainties to those of optical and near-infrared (NIR) surveys like Euclid, LSST, and WFIRST leading to a multitude of synergies that can improve constraints significantly beyond what optical or radio surveys can achieve on their own. This document, the 2018 Red Book, provides reference technical specifications, cosmological parameter forecasts, and an overview of relevant systematic effects for the three key surveys and will be regularly updated by the Cosmology Science Working Group in the run up to start of operations and the Key Science Programme of SKA1.
The concept of compressions only cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CO-CPR) evolved from a perception that lay rescuers may be less likely to perform mouth-to-mouth ventilations during an emergency. This study hopes to describe the efficacy of bystander compressions and ventilations cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CV-CPR) in cardiac arrest following drowning.
The aim of this investigation is to test the hypothesis that bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) utilizing compressions and ventilations results in improved survival for cases of cardiac arrest following drowning compared to CPR involving compressions only.
The Cardiac Arrest Registry for Enhanced Survival (CARES) was queried for patients who suffered cardiac arrest following drowning from January 1, 2013 through December 31, 2017, and in whom data were available on type of bystander CPR delivered (ie, CV-CPR CO-CPR). The primary outcome of interest was neurologically favorable survival, as defined by cerebral performance category (CPC).
Neurologically favorable survival was statistically significantly associated with CV-CPR in pediatric patients aged five to 15 years (aOR = 2.68; 95% CI, 1.10–6.77; P = .03), as well as all age group survival to hospital discharge (aOR = 1.54; 95% CI, 1.01–2.36; P = .046). There was a trend with CV-CPR toward neurologically favorable survival in all age groups (aOR = 1.35; 95% CI, 0.86–2.10; P = .19) and all age group survival to hospital admission (aOR = 1.29; 95% CI, 0.91–1.84; P = .157).
In cases of cardiac arrest following drowning, bystander CV-CPR was statistically significantly associated with neurologically favorable survival in children aged five to 15 years and survival to hospital discharge.
In this study we sought to identify profiles of talk during Head Start preschool mealtime conversations involving teachers and students. Videos of 44 Head Start classrooms’ lunch interactions were analyzed for the ratio of teacher–child talk and amount of academic vocabulary, and then coded for instances of academic/food, social/personal, and management talk to highlight the degree of hybridity of talk within this unique setting. Cluster analysis revealed four distinct patterns of teacher–child mealtime interactions in 44 Head Start preschool classrooms: classroom discourse, home discourse, hybrid-low, and hybrid-high. Multilevel models further demonstrated a relationship among these clusters of teacher–child interactions and children's end-of-year expressive vocabulary scores controlling for ratio of teacher–child talk and pre-test scores. Children in classrooms displaying a hybrid style of mealtime discourse made the greatest gains on measures of expressive vocabulary in contrast to their peers in classrooms displaying other discourse styles.
Reliably dated surficial deposits for reconstructing palaeoclimate are rare in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica. While many tephra have been found and dated, none is well characterized. In the Wright Valley, the Hart Ash is poorly dated and described. This paper reports profiles through tephra, the chemical signature of the glass shards and new high-precision multi-crystal laser fusion of 40Ar/39Ar ages. Major and trace element analyses of glass shards indicate the tephra are phonolitic and most probably sourced from Mount Discovery in the Erebus volcanic province. Two chemically distinct and stratigraphically separate tephra layers within the Hart Ash were found in three closely spaced soil profiles. The complex stratigraphy between these profiles could not be delineated without the geochemistry of the tephra. Importantly, our data suggest that only one tephra may be an in situ fall-out deposit, which gave a robust age of 2.97 ± 0.02 Ma. This new age for the Hart Ash tephra, which is 10 cm thick and is preserved at the current surface, provides a maximum age for surface deposits in the lower Wright Valley. This study highlights that well-characterized tephra enhance stratigraphic correlations in the Dry Valleys and improve the accuracy of palaeoenvironmental interpretations.
Nutrient profiling (NP) is a method for evaluating the healthfulness of foods. Although many NP models exist, most have not been validated. This study aimed to examine the content and construct/convergent validity of five models from different regions: Australia/New Zealand (FSANZ), France (Nutri-Score), Canada (HCST), Europe (EURO) and Americas (PAHO). Using data from the 2013 UofT Food Label Information Program (n15342 foods/beverages), construct/convergent validity was assessed by comparing the classifications of foods determined by each model to a previously validated model, which served as the reference (Ofcom). The parameters assessed included associations (Cochran–Armitage trend test), agreement (κ statistic) and discordant classifications (McNemar’s test). Analyses were conducted across all foods and by food category. On the basis of the nutrients/components considered by each model, all models exhibited moderate content validity. Although positive associations were observed between each model and Ofcom (all Ptrend<0·001), agreement with Ofcom was ‘near perfect’ for FSANZ (κ=0·89) and Nutri-Score (κ=0·83), ‘moderate’ for EURO (κ=0·54) and ‘fair’ for PAHO (κ=0·28) and HCST (κ=0·26). There were discordant classifications with Ofcom for 5·3 % (FSANZ), 8·3 % (Nutri-Score), 22·0 % (EURO), 33·4 % (PAHO) and 37·0 % (HCST) of foods (all P<0·001). Construct/convergent validity was confirmed between FSANZ and Nutri-Score v. Ofcom, and to a lesser extent between EURO v. Ofcom. Numerous incongruencies with Ofcom were identified for HCST and PAHO, which highlights the importance of examining classifications across food categories, the level at which differences between models become apparent. These results may be informative for regulators seeking to adapt and validate existing models for use in country-specific applications.
Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84–88) presented a critique of our recently published paper in Cell Reports entitled ‘Large-Scale Cognitive GWAS Meta-Analysis Reveals Tissue-Specific Neural Expression and Potential Nootropic Drug Targets’ (Lam et al., Cell Reports, Vol. 21, 2017, 2597–2613). Specifically, Hill offered several interrelated comments suggesting potential problems with our use of a new analytic method called Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS (MTAG) (Turley et al., Nature Genetics, Vol. 50, 2018, 229–237). In this brief article, we respond to each of these concerns. Using empirical data, we conclude that our MTAG results do not suffer from ‘inflation in the FDR [false discovery rate]’, as suggested by Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84–88), and are not ‘more relevant to the genetic contributions to education than they are to the genetic contributions to intelligence’.
To examine dietary Na and K intake at eating occasions in Australian adults and identify the contribution of major food sources to Na and K at different eating occasions.
Secondary analysis of 24 h recall diet data from the Australian Health Survey (2011–2013).
Nationally representative survey in Australia.
Male and female Australians aged 18–84 years (n 7818).
Dinner contributed the greatest proportion to total daily Na intake (33 %) and K intake (35 %). Na density was highest at lunch (380 mg/MJ) and K density highest at between-meal time eating occasions (401 mg/MJ). Between-meal time eating occasions provided 20 % of daily Na intake and 26 % of daily K intake. The major food group sources of Na were different at meal times (breads and mixed dishes) compared with between-meal times (cakes, muffins, scones, cake-type desserts). The top food group sources of K at meal times were potatoes and unprocessed meat products and dishes.
Foods which contributed to Na and K intake differed according to eating occasion. Major food sources of Na were bread and processed foods. Major food sources of K were potatoes and meat products and dishes. Public health messages that emphasise meal-based advice and diet patterns high in vegetables, fruits and unprocessed foods may also aid reduction in dietary Na intake and increase in dietary K intake.
Intensity mapping (IM) is a new observational technique to survey the large-scale structure of matter using spectral emission lines. IM observations are contaminated by instrumental noise and astrophysical foregrounds. The foregrounds are at least three orders of magnitude larger than the searched signals. In this work, we apply the Generalized Needlet Internal Linear Combination (GNILC) method to subtract radio foregrounds and to recover the cosmological HI and CO signals within the IM context. For the HI IM case, we find that GNILC can reconstruct the HI plus noise power spectra with 7.0% accuracy for z = 0.13 − 0.48 (960 − 1260 MHz) and ℓ ≲ 400, while for the CO IM case, we find that it can reconstruct the CO plus noise power spectra with 6.7% accuracy for z = 2.4 − 3.4 (26 − 34 GHz) and ℓ ≲ 3000.
Theists typically believe that God knows all truths. However, accounts of divine omniscience almost always focus on the scope of God's knowledge or perhaps on whether certain kinds of facts are there to be known by God, such as counterfactuals of creaturely freedom or future contingent facts. Very rarely do these accounts include for analysis the nature of God's knowledge. In this article, I develop an acquaintance theory of God's knowledge where acquaintance with an epistemic relation that guarantees that the truth of God's beliefs is necessary for knowledge. I argue that this view achieves an ideal way of knowing, worthy of the divine being.
Intrauterine or fetal growth restriction (IUGR) is a major complication of pregnancy and leads to significant perinatal morbidities and mortality. Typically, induction of IUGR in animals involves the complete occlusion or ablation of vessels to the uterus or placenta, acutely impairing blood flow and fetal growth, usually with high fetal loss. We aimed to produce a model of reduced fetal growth in the spiny mouse with minimal fetal loss. At 27 days gestational age (term is 38–39 days), a piece of silastic tubing was placed around the left uterine artery to prevent the further increase of uterine blood flow with advancing gestation to induce IUGR (occluded). Controls were generated from sham surgeries without placement of the tubing. Dams were humanely euthanized at 37 days gestational age and all fetuses and placentas were weighed and collected. Of the 17 dams that underwent surgery, 15 carried their pregnancies to 37 days gestational age and 95% of fetuses survived to this time. The difference in fetal body weight between occluded and control was ~21% for fetuses in the left uterus side: there were no differences for fetuses in the right uterus side. Offspring from the occluded group had significantly lower brain, liver, lung, kidney and carcass weights compared with shams. Preventing the gestation-related increase of uterine blood flow induced significant growth restriction in the fetal spiny mouse, with minimal fetal loss. This technique could be readily adapted for other small animal.
Epidemiology formed the basis of ‘the Barker hypothesis’, the concept of ‘developmental programming’ and today’s discipline of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Animal experimentation provided proof of the underlying concepts, and continues to generate knowledge of underlying mechanisms. Interventions in humans, based on DOHaD principles, will be informed by experiments in animals. As knowledge in this discipline has accumulated, from studies of humans and other animals, the complexity of interactions between genome, environment and epigenetics, has been revealed. The vast nature of programming stimuli and breadth of effects is becoming known. As a result of our accumulating knowledge we now appreciate the impact of many variables that contribute to programmed outcomes. To guide further animal research in this field, the Australia and New Zealand DOHaD society (ANZ DOHaD) Animals Models of DOHaD Research Working Group convened at the 2nd Annual ANZ DOHaD Congress in Melbourne, Australia in April 2015. This review summarizes the contributions of animal research to the understanding of DOHaD, and makes recommendations for the design and conduct of animal experiments to maximize relevance, reproducibility and translation of knowledge into improving health and well-being.
The evidence underpinning the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) is overwhelming. As the emphasis shifts more towards interventions and the translational strategies for disease prevention, it is important to capitalize on collaboration and knowledge sharing to maximize opportunities for discovery and replication. DOHaD meetings are facilitating this interaction. However, strategies to perpetuate focussed discussions and collaborations around and between conferences are more likely to facilitate the development of DOHaD research. For this reason, the DOHaD Society of Australia and New Zealand (DOHaD ANZ) has initiated themed Working Groups, which convened at the 2014–2015 conferences. This report introduces the DOHaD ANZ Working Groups and summarizes their plans and activities. One of the first Working Groups to form was the ActEarly birth cohort group, which is moving towards more translational goals. Reflecting growing emphasis on the impact of early life biodiversity – even before birth – we also have a Working Group titled Infection, inflammation and the microbiome. We have several Working Groups exploring other major non-cancerous disease outcomes over the lifespan, including Brain, behaviour and development and Obesity, cardiovascular and metabolic health. The Epigenetics and Animal Models Working Groups cut across all these areas and seeks to ensure interaction between researchers. Finally, we have a group focussed on ‘Translation, policy and communication’ which focusses on how we can best take the evidence we produce into the community to effect change. By coordinating and perpetuating DOHaD discussions in this way we aim to enhance DOHaD research in our region.
A K-band (18-25 GHz) reflected-wave ruby maser (Moore and Clauss 1979) has been borrowed from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory for radio astronomy use on the NASA 64-m antenna of the Deep Space Network at the Tidbinbilla Tracking Station, near Canberra. The purpose of the installation is to provide additional sensitive spectral line, continuum, and VLBI capabilities in the southern hemisphere. Previous measurements at 22.3 GHz (λ = 13.5 mm) determined that the Tidbinbilla 64-m antenna has a peak aperture efficiency of ˜22%, a well-behaved beam shape and consistent pointing (Fourikis and Jauncey 1979). Before installing the maser on the antenna a cooled (circulator) switch was added to provide a beam-switching capability, and a spectral line receiver following the maser was incorporated. The system was assembled and tested at JPL in late 1980 and installed at Tidbinbilla early in 1981. We give here a brief description and present some of the first line observations made in February and March 1981. Extensive line and continuum observations are planned with the present system and a program is under way to determine the telescope pointing characteristics.
To assess alcoholic beverage intake among Australian adults and its contribution to dietary energy intake.
Secondary analysis of a national dietary survey using 24 h dietary recall.
Australian National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (NNPAS) conducted from May 2011 to June 2012.
Adults (n 9341) aged 19 years and over.
On the day preceding the survey, 32·8% of Australian adults consumed one or more alcoholic drinks. The median contribution to total energy intake for consumers did not differ significantly between males and females (13·7% and 12·9%, respectively; P=0·10). The prevalence of consumption of alcoholic drinks on Friday, Saturday and Sunday was 38·8 (95% CI 37·1, 40·5)%, higher than the other days (28·6 (95% CI 27·5, 29·8)%). Consumers had a median daily intake of 4·0 standard drinks on the weekend compared with 3·0 standard drinks during the week (P<0·001). Beer was the most commonly consumed alcoholic beverage for men and white wine for women. The highest prevalence of alcoholic beverage intake occurred in the highest quintile of adjusted household income (42·7 (95% CI 40·4, 45·0)%) and the ‘overweight’ BMI category (40·3 (95% CI 38·5, 42·0)%). Alcoholic beverage intake among consumers was significantly different by household income quintile (median 3·84 (highest) v. 3·05 standard drinks (lowest); P<0·05) and by waist circumference category (median 4·09 standard drinks (highest)).
Alcoholic drinks contribute substantially to the dietary energy intake of Australian adults. The type and pattern of consumption of alcoholic beverage intake should be considered in the development of strategies to improve dietary intake.