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Introduction: Venipuncture is a frequent cause of pain and distress in the pediatric emergency department (ED). Distraction, which can improve patient experience, remains the most studied psychological intervention. Virtual reality (VR) is a method of immersive distraction that can contribute to the multi-modal management of procedural pain and distress. Methods: The main objectives of this study were to determine the feasibility and acceptability of Virtual Reality (VR) distraction for pain management associated with venipunctures and to examine its preliminary effects on pain and distress in the pediatric ED. Children 7-17 years requiring a venipuncture in the pediatric ED were recruited. Participants were randomized to either a control group (standard care) or intervention group (standard of care + VR). Principal clinical outcome was the mean level of procedural pain, measured by the verbal numerical rating scale (VNRS). Distress was also measured using the Child Fear Scale (CFS) and the Procedure Behavior Check List (PBCL) and memory of pain using the VNRS. Side effects were documented. Results: A total of 63 patients were recruited. Results showed feasibility and acceptability of VR in the PED and overall high satisfaction levels (79% recruitment rate of eligible families, 90% rate of VR game completion, and overall high mean satisfaction levels). There was a significantly higher level of satisfaction among healthcare providers in the intervention group, and 93% of those were willing to use this technology again for the same procedure. Regarding clinical outcomes, no significant difference was observed between groups on procedural pain. Distress evaluated by proxy (10/40 vs 13.2/40, p = 0.007) and memory of pain at 24 hours (2.4 vs 4.2, p = 0.027) were significantly lower in the VR group. Venipuncture was successful on first attempt in 23/31 patients (74%) in the VR group and 15/30 (50%) patients in the control group (p = 0.039). Five of the 31 patients (16%) in the VR group reported side effects Conclusion: The addition of VR to standard care is feasible and acceptable for pain and distress management during venipunctures in the pediatric ED. There was no difference in self-reported procedural pain between groups. Levels of procedural distress and memory of pain at 24 hours were lower in the VR group.
Étudier la qualité de vie liée à la santé (QVS) et ses déterminants chez des adolescents consultant pour syndrome de Gilles de la Tourette (SGT).
Après hétéro-évaluation par la YGTSS et la CY-BOCS, la QVS des adolescents était mesurée à l’aide de 3 questionnaires d’autoévaluation (SF-36, VSP-A, CHAQ). Des contrôles appariés sur l’âge et le sexe ont rempli les mêmes questionnaires. Les parents des patients et des contrôles ont renseigné les questionnaires sociodémographique et médical, la CBCL et deux hétéroévaluations de la QVS des adolescents (VSP P et CHAQ parents). Tous les participants avaient donné leur consentement éclairé.
Pour les 75 adolescents (14,8 ans, DS = 1,8 ; 80 % de garçons) inclus, le score YGTSS moyen était de 33,9 (DS = 20). Pour la CBCL, le score total, les scores symptômes internalisés et symptômes externalisés étaient limites/pathologiques pour 39,4 %, 52,1 % et 33,3 % des adolescents respectivement. La QVS des adolescents SGT était significativement altérée comparée aux contrôles pour toutes les dimensions de la SF-36, pour les dimensions vitalité, relations avec les pairs et loisirs de la VSP A et pour le score total de la CHAQ. On retrouvait des corrélations négatives significatives entre les scores Tics moteurs et sévérité globale de la YGTSS et les dimensions psychologiques et sociales du SF-36, une corrélation positive entre le score Tics vocaux de la YGTSS et le score total à la CHAQ. Les adolescents avec des scores CBCL total et symptômes internalisés limites/pathologiques avaient des scores significativement plus bas sur plusieurs dimensions de QVS.
Les dimensions physiques, psychologiques et sociales de la QVS sont altérées chez les adolescents SGT. La sévérité des tics, les difficultés émotionnelles et comportementales ont un impact négatif sensible sur les dimensions physiques, psychologiques et sociales de la QVS chez les adolescents SGT.
Short-term peripheral venous catheter–related bloodstream infection (PVCR-BSI) rates have not been systematically studied in resource-limited countries, and data on their incidence by number of device days are not available.
Prospective, surveillance study on PVCR-BSI conducted from September 1, 2013, to May 31, 2019, in 727 intensive care units (ICUs), by members of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC), from 268 hospitals in 141 cities of 42 countries of Africa, the Americas, Eastern Mediterranean, Europe, South East Asia, and Western Pacific regions. For this research, we applied definition and criteria of the CDC NHSN, methodology of the INICC, and software named INICC Surveillance Online System.
We followed 149,609 ICU patients for 731,135 bed days and 743,508 short-term peripheral venous catheter (PVC) days. We identified 1,789 PVCR-BSIs for an overall rate of 2.41 per 1,000 PVC days. Mortality in patients with PVC but without PVCR-BSI was 6.67%, and mortality was 18% in patients with PVC and PVCR-BSI. The length of stay of patients with PVC but without PVCR-BSI was 4.83 days, and the length of stay was 9.85 days in patients with PVC and PVCR-BSI. Among these infections, the microorganism profile showed 58% gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli (16%), Klebsiella spp (11%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6%), Enterobacter spp (4%), and others (20%) including Serratia marcescens. Staphylococcus aureus were the predominant gram-positive bacteria (12%).
PVCR-BSI rates in INICC ICUs were much higher than rates published from industrialized countries. Infection prevention programs must be implemented to reduce the incidence of PVCR-BSIs in resource-limited countries.
BMI, waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) can be used for discriminating children and adolescents at risk of CVD. However, consensus on how to use these anthropometric indicators is lacking for children and adolescents in Asia. Discrete criteria are promoted internationally, but continuous variables could be used. Data from a survey of 10 949 Vietnamese school-aged children (6–18 years) were used to evaluate the performance of anthropometric indicators to identify elevated blood pressure (BP), dyslipidaemia or at least three cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF). Weight, height, WC and BP were measured using standardised protocols; 1009 participants who had blood lipids were analysed. AUC was used to assess the performance, and the Youden index to identify optimal cut-offs. The prevalence of elevated BP, dyslipidaemia and CVRF was 26·5, 49·3 and 12·2 %, respectively. BMI, WC and WHtR had low capacity to identify elevated BP and dyslipidaemia (AUC range 0·61–0·66) but moderate capacity to identify CVRF (0·72–0·74). Optimal BMIZ cut-offs to identify elevated BP, dyslipidaemia and CVRF were 0·40, 1·01 and 1·1 sd; for WC z-score, they were 0·06, 0·49 and 0·62 sd; for WHtR, optimal cut-offs were close to 0·5. A BMIZ cut-off of 1·0 sd and a WHtR cut-off of 0·5 would, therefore, be useful criteria to identify Vietnamese children who are likely to have CVRF. However, further validation of these criteria in other studies of Asian children and adolescents is needed.
Limited data exist for management of hyperuricemia in non-oncologic patients, particularly in paediatric cardiac patients. Hyperuricemia is a risk factor for acute kidney injury and may prompt treatment in critically ill patients. The primary objective was to determine if rasburicase use was associated with greater probability normalisation of serum uric acid compared to allopurinol. Secondary outcomes included percent reduction in uric acid, changes in serum creatinine, and cost of therapy.
A single-centre retrospective chart review.
A 20-bed quaternary cardiovascular ICU in a university-based paediatric hospital in California.
Patients admitted to cardiovascular ICU who received rasburicase or intravenous allopurinol between 2015 and 2016.
Measurements and main results:
Data from a cohort of 14 patients receiving rasburicase were compared to 7 patients receiving IV allopurinol. Patients who were administered rasburicase for hyperuricemia were more likely to have a post-treatment uric acid level less than 8 mg/dl as compared to IV allopurinol (100 versus 43%; p = 0.0058). Patients who received rasburicase had a greater absolute reduction in post-treatment day 1 uric acid (−9 mg/dl versus −1.9 mg/dl; p = 0.002). There were no differences in post-treatment day 3 or day 7 serum creatinine or time to normalisation of serum creatinine. The cost of therapy normalised to a 20 kg patient was greater in the allopurinol group ($18,720 versus $1928; p = 0.001).
In a limited paediatric cardiac cohort, the use of rasburicase was associated with a greater reduction in uric acid levels and associated with a lower cost compared to IV allopurinol.
The house mouse (Mus musculus) and the black rat (Rattus rattus) are reservoir hosts for zoonotic pathogens, several of which cause neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Studies of the prevalence of these NTD-causing zoonotic pathogens, in house mice and black rats from tropical residential areas are scarce. Three hundred and two house mice and 161 black rats were trapped in 2013 from two urban neighbourhoods and a rural village in Yucatan, Mexico, and subsequently tested for Trypanosoma cruzi, Hymenolepis diminuta and Leptospira interrogans. Using the polymerase chain reaction we detected T. cruzi DNA in the hearts of 4·9% (8/165) and 6·2% (7/113) of house mice and black rats, respectively. We applied the sedimentation technique to detect eggs of H. diminuta in 0·5% (1/182) and 14·2% (15/106) of house mice and black rats, respectively. Through the immunofluorescent imprint method, L. interrogans was identified in 0·9% (1/106) of rat kidney impressions. Our results suggest that the black rat could be an important reservoir for T. cruzi and H. diminuta in the studied sites. Further studies examining seasonal and geographical patterns could increase our knowledge on the epidemiology of these pathogens in Mexico and the risk to public health posed by rodents.
One view of major Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events is that these (proton-dominated) fluxes are accelerated in heliospheric shock sources created by Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs), and then travel mainly along interplanetary magnetic field lines connecting the shock(s) to the observer(s). This places a particular emphasis on the role of the heliospheric conditions during the event, requiring a realistic description of the latter to interpret and/or model SEP events. The well-known ENLIL heliospheric simulation with cone model generated ICME shocks is used together with the SEPMOD particle event modeling scheme to demonstrate the value of applying these concepts at multiple inner heliosphere sites.
Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) effectively optimize antibiotic use for inpatients; however, the extent of emergency department (ED) involvement in ASPs has not been described.
To determine current ED involvement in children’s hospital ASPs and to assess beliefs and preferred methods of implementation for ED-based ASPs.
A cross-sectional survey of 37 children’s hospitals participating in the Sharing Antimicrobial Resistance Practices collaboration was conducted. Surveys were distributed to ASP leaders and ED medical directors at each institution. Items assessed included beliefs regarding ED antibiotic prescribing, ED prescribing resources, ASP methods used in the ED such as clinical decision support and clinical care guidelines, ED participation in ASP activities, and preferred methods for ED-based ASP implementation.
A total of 36 ASP leaders (97.3%) and 32 ED directors (86.5%) responded; the overall response rate was 91.9%. Most ASP leaders (97.8%) and ED directors (93.7%) agreed that creation of ED-based ASPs was necessary. ED resources for antibiotic prescribing were obtained via the Internet or electronic health records (EHRs) for 29 hospitals (81.3%). The main ASP activities for the ED included production of antibiograms (77.8%) and creation of clinical care guidelines for pneumonia (83.3%). The ED was represented on 3 hospital ASP committees (8.3%). No hospital ASPs actively monitored outpatient ED prescribing. Most ASP leaders (77.8%) and ED directors (81.3%) preferred implementation of ED-based ASPs using clinical decision support integrated into the EHR.
Although ED involvement in ASPs is limited, both ASP and ED leaders believe that ED-based ASPs are necessary. Many children’s hospitals have the capability to implement ED-based ASPs via the preferred method: EHR clinical decision support.
Introduction: Multiples barriers to appropriate analgesia are reported in the paediatric emergency department (PED), including limited accessibility to effective strategies. Our objective: was to evaluate the improvement in the accessibility of pain and anxiety management strategies in Canadian PEDs, after the creation of a national pediatric pain Quality Improvement Collaborative (QIC), through Pediatric Emergency Research Canada (PERC). Methods: In 2013, the TRAPPED 1 survey was administered to Canadian PEDs, in order to evaluate what resources were in place for pain and anxiety management. A pain QIC was then created to stimulate the implementation of new strategies, through information sharing between PEDs. In 2015, the TRAPPED 2 cross sectional survey was administered. Its focus was to evaluate the improvement in the accessibility of specific strategies reported by each centre, after participating in this QIC, and working to implement change within their own PEDs. Results: All 15/15 Canadian PEDs responded to the TRAPPED 1 survey in 2013 and 11 agreed to participate in the national pain QIC. In-person, phone meetings, follow up surveys and email communications were employed for information sharing. Strategies identified by the QIC to be newly introduced in individual centres were educational initiatives, distraction options, nurse-initiated protocols and intranasal (IN) medications. All 15 PEDs completed the TRAPPED 2 survey. Compared to 2013, an increased number of PEDs used face-based pain scales (14/15 vs 6/15) and behavioural scales (5/15 vs 1/15) for pain assessment in 2015. Use of reminder posters on pain management at triage increased from 4/15 to 6/15 PEDs. Availability of tablets for distraction increased from 4/15 to 10/15 PEDs. Nurse-initiated protocols for topical anesthetic and oral sucrose (for needle procedures) increased from 10/15 to 12/15 sites and from 12/15 to 14/15 sites respectively. Availability of IN medications increased; fentanyl from 9/15 to 14/15 sites and midazolam from 8/15 to 10/15 sites. Ten of the 11 PEDs involved in the QIC strategy reported the implementation of at least one of their own identified strategies. Conclusion: This study suggests that the use of a QIC may improve the introduction of new strategies to reduce pain and anxiety in EDs. QICs may also be helpful to other centres when introducing new strategies.
After 21 years the Parkes radio telescope has undergone a major refit. A new VAX-11/750 running VMS has replaced the aged Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-9 computer. Other new equipment includes two systems not previously available — the Mk II RING communication system (Willing and Abies 1983) and the ‘observer workstations’.
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Ross River virus (RRV) of the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae are mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and the symptoms they cause in patients are similar to dengue. A chikungunya (CHIK) outbreak re-emerged in several Asian countries during 2005–2006. This study aimed to clarify the prevalence of CHIKV infection in suspected dengue patients in six countries in South Asia and Southeast Asia. Seven hundred forty-eight serum samples were from dengue-suspected patients in South Asia and Southeast Asia, and 52 were from patients in Fiji. The samples were analysed by CHIKV IgM capture ELISA, CHIKV IgG indirect ELISA and focus reduction neutralization test against CHIKV or RRV. CHIK-confirmed cases in South Asia, particularly Myanmar and Sri Lanka, were 4·6%, and 6·1%, respectively; and in Southeast Asia, particularly Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam, were 27·4%, 26·8% and 25·0%, respectively. It suggests that CHIK was widely spread in these five countries in Asia. In Fiji, no CHIK cases were confirmed; however, RRV-confirmed cases represented 53·6% of suspected dengue cases. It suggests that RRV is being maintained or occasionally entering from neighbouring countries and should be considered when determining a causative agent for dengue-like illness in Fiji.
Abuse or unintended overdose (OD) of opiates and heroin may result in prehospital and emergency department (ED) care. Prehospital naloxone use has been suggested as a surrogate marker of community opiate ODs. The study objective was to verify externally whether prehospital naloxone use is a surrogate marker of community opiate ODs by comparing Emergency Medical Services (EMS) naloxone administration records to an independent database of ED visits for opiate and heroin ODs in the same community.
A retrospective chart review of prehospital and ED data from July 2009 through June 2013 was conducted. Prehospital naloxone administration data obtained from the electronic medical records (EMRs) of a large private EMS provider serving a metropolitan area were considered a surrogate marker for suspected opiate OD. Comparison data were obtained from the regional trauma/psychiatric ED that receives the majority of the OD patients. The ED maintains a de-identified database of narcotic-related visits for surveillance of narcotic use in the metropolitan area. The ED database was queried for ODs associated with opiates or heroin. Cross-correlation analysis was used to test if prehospital naloxone administration was independent of ED visits for opiate/heroin ODs.
Naloxone was administered during 1,812 prehospital patient encounters, and 1,294 ED visits for opiate/heroin ODs were identified. The distribution of patients in the prehospital and ED datasets did not differ by gender, but it did differ by race and age. The frequency of naloxone administration by prehospital providers varied directly with the frequency of ED visits for opiate/heroin ODs. A monthly increase of two ED visits for opiate-related ODs was associated with an increase in one prehospital naloxone administration (cross-correlation coefficient [CCF]=0.44; P=.0021). A monthly increase of 100 ED visits for heroin-related ODs was associated with an increase in 94 prehospital naloxone administrations (CCF=0.46; P=.0012).
Frequency of naloxone administration by EMS providers in the prehospital setting varied directly with frequency of opiate/heroin OD-related ED visits. The data correlated both for short-term frequency and longer term trends of use. However, there was a marked difference in demographic data suggesting neither data source alone should be relied upon to determine which populations are at risk within the community.
LindstromHA, ClemencyBM, SnyderR, ConsiglioJD, MayPR, MoscatiRM. Prehospital Naloxone Administration as a Public Health Surveillance Tool: A Retrospective Validation Study. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015;30(4):1–5.
Needle thoracostomy is the prehospital treatment for tension pneumothorax. Sufficient catheter length is necessary for procedural success. The authors of this study determined minimum catheter length needed for procedural success on a percentile basis.
A meta-analysis of existing studies was conducted. A Medline search was performed using the search terms: needle decompression, needle thoracentesis, chest decompression, pneumothorax decompression, needle thoracostomy, and tension pneumothorax. Studies were included if they published a sample size, mean chest wall thickness, and a standard deviation or confidence interval. A PubMed search was performed in a similar fashion. Sample size, mean chest wall thickness, and standard deviation were found or calculated for each study. Data were combined to create a pooled dataset. Normal distribution of data was assumed. Procedural success was defined as catheter length being equal to or greater than the chest wall thickness.
The Medline and PubMed searches yielded 773 unique studies; all study abstracts were reviewed for possible inclusion. Eighteen papers were identified for full manuscript review. Thirteen studies met all inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. Pooled sample statistics were: n=2,558; mean=4.19 cm; and SD=1.37 cm. Minimum catheter length needed for success at the 95th percentile for chest wall size was found to be 6.44 cm.
A catheter of at least 6.44 cm in length would be required to ensure that 95% of the patients in this pooled sample would have penetration of the pleural space at the site of needle decompression, and therefore, a successful procedure. These findings represent Level III evidence.
ClemencyBM, TanskiCT, RosenbergM, MayPR, ConsiglioJD, LindstromHA. Sufficient Catheter Length for Pneumothorax Needle Decompression: A Meta-Analysis. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015;30(3):15
Eighty-two hospitals of 66 cities in 30 countries (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Greece, India, Kosovo, Lebanon, Lithuania, Macedonia, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Salvador, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, Slovakia, Sudan, Thailand, Turkey, Uruguay, and Vietnam) from 4 continents (America, Asia, Africa, and Europe).
Patients undergoing surgical procedures (SPs) from January 2005 to December 2010.
Data were gathered and recorded from patients hospitalized in INICC member hospitals by using the methods and definitions of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC-NHSN) for SSI. SPs were classified into 31 types according to International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, criteria.
We gathered data from 7,523 SSIs associated with 260,973 SPs. SSI rates were significantly higher for most SPs in INICC hospitals compared with CDC-NHSN data, including the rates of SSI after hip prosthesis (2.6% vs 1.3%; relative risk [RR], 2.06 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.8–2.4]; P<.001), coronary bypass with chest and donor incision (4.5% vs 2.9%; RR, 1.52 [95% CI, 1.4–1.6]; P<.001); abdominal hysterectomy (2.7% vs 1.6%; RR, 1.66 [95% CI, 1.4–2.0]; P<.001); exploratory abdominal surgery (4.1 % vs 2.0%; RR, 2.05 [95% CI, 1.6–2.6]; P<.001); ventricular shunt, 12.9% vs 5.6% (RR, 2.3 [95% CI, 1.9–2.6]; P<.001), and others.
SSI rates were higher for most SPs in INICC hospitals compared with CDC-NHSN data.
The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether temporal variation in environmental factors such as rainfall or temperature influence long-term fluctuations in the prevalence and mean abundance of the nematode Mexiconema cichlasomae in the cichlid fish Cichlasoma uropthalmus and its crustacean intermediate host, Argulus yucatanus. The study was undertaken in a tropical coastal lagoon in the Yucatan Peninsula (south-eastern Mexico) over an 8-year period. Variations in temperature, rainfall and monthly infection levels for both hosts were analysed using time series and cross-correlations to detect possible recurrent patterns. Infections of M. cichlasomae in A. yucatanus showed annual peaks, while in C. urophthalmus peaks were bi-annual. The latter appear to be related to the accumulation of several generations of this nematode in C. urophthalmus. Rainfall and temperature appear to be key environmental factors in influencing temporal variation in the infection of M. cichlasomae over periods longer than a year together with the accumulation of larval stages throughout time.