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Parents and children are vulnerable populations following hurricanes, and evacuation is an important safety strategy. Yet, little is known about “before the storm” stressors, particularly the surrounding evacuation, affecting families. Thus, following Hurricane Irma, we evaluated both stressful and positive aspects of the evacuation process for families, and we compared perceived safety and stress before, during, and after the hurricane across evacuating and non-evacuating families.
South Florida parents of children under age 18 years (N=554; 97% mothers) completed an online survey in the months following Hurricane Irma, assessing perceptions of stress, safety, and evacuation experiences. Quantitative data and open-ended responses were gathered.
Most families (82%) residing in mandatory evacuation zones evacuated, although many not in mandatory zones (46%) also evacuated. Parents who evacuated felt significantly safer during the storm, but more stressed before and during the storm, than non-evacuees. Evacuation-related travel and multiple family issues were rated as most stressful, although some positive aspects of evacuation were offered.
Findings have implications for emergency planners (eg, pre-/post-storm traffic flow needs, emotional needs of parents arriving at shelters) and for families (eg, importance of developing family disaster plans, controlling media exposure) to reduce evacuation stress for future storms. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:63-73)
Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and viral hepatitis is associated with high morbidity and mortality in the absence of clinical management, making identification of these cases crucial. We examined characteristics of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfections by using surveillance data from 15 US states and two cities. Each jurisdiction used an automated deterministic matching method to link surveillance data for persons with reported acute and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, to persons reported with HIV infection. Of the 504 398 persons living with diagnosed HIV infection at the end of 2014, 2.0% were coinfected with HBV and 6.7% were coinfected with HCV. Of the 269 884 persons ever reported with HBV, 5.2% were reported with HIV. Of the 1 093 050 persons ever reported with HCV, 4.3% were reported with HIV. A greater proportion of persons coinfected with HIV and HBV were males and blacks/African Americans, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Persons who inject drugs represented a greater proportion of those coinfected with HIV and HCV, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Matching HIV and viral hepatitis surveillance data highlights epidemiological characteristics of persons coinfected and can be used to routinely monitor health status and guide state and national public health interventions.
Electronic dance music (EDM) festivals represent a unique subset of mass-gathering events with limited guidance through literature or legislation to guide mass-gathering medical care at these events.
Electronic dance music festivals pose unique challenges with increased patient encounters and heightened patient acuity under-estimated by current validated casualty predication models.
This was a retrospective review of three separate EDM festivals with analysis of patient encounters and patient transport rates. Data obtained were inserted into the predictive Arbon and Hartman models to determine estimated patient presentation rate and patient transport rates.
The Arbon model under-predicted the number of patient encounters and the number of patient transports for all three festivals, while the Hartman model under-predicted the number of patient encounters at one festival and over-predicted the number of encounters at the other two festivals. The Hartman model over-predicted patient transport rates for two of the three festivals.
Electronic dance music festivals often involve distinct challenges and current predictive models are inaccurate for planning these events. The formation of a cohesive incident action plan will assist in addressing these challenges and lead to the collection of more uniform data metrics.
FitzGibbonKM, NableJV, AydB, LawnerBJ, ComerAC, LichensteinR, LevyMJ, SeamanKG, BusseyI. Mass-Gathering Medical Care in Electronic Dance Music Festivals. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(5):563–567.
Hospital readmissions are a current target of initiatives to reduce healthcare costs. This study quantified the association between having a clinical culture positive for 1 of 3 prevalent hospital-associated organisms and time to hospital readmission.
Retrospective cohort study.
Patients and Setting.
Adults admitted to an academic, tertiary care referral center from January 1, 2001, through December 31, 2008.
The primary exposure of interest was a clinical culture positive for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), or Clostridium difficile obtained more than 48 hours after hospital admission during the index hospital stay. The primary outcome of interest was time to readmission to the index facility. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to model the adjusted association between positive clinical culture result and time to readmission and to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Among 136,513 index admissions, the prevalence of hospital-associated positive clinical culture result for 1 of the 3 organisms of interest was 3%, and 35% of patients were readmitted to the index facility within 1 year after discharge. Patients with a positive clinical culture obtained more than 48 hours after hospital admission had an increased hazard of readmission (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.33–1.46) after adjusting for age, sex, index admission length of stay, intensive care unit stay, Charlson comorbidity index, and year of hospital admission.
Patients with healthcare-associated infections may be at increased risk of hospital readmission. These findings may be used to impact health outcomes after discharge from the hospital and to encourage better infection prevention efforts.
A Web-based training course with embedded video clips for reducing central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) was evaluated and shown to improve clinician knowledge and retention of knowledge over time. To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate Web-based CLABSI training as a stand-alone intervention.
In February 2007 an outbreak of Nipah virus (NiV) encephalitis in Thakurgaon District of northwest Bangladesh affected seven people, three of whom died. All subsequent cases developed illness 7–14 days after close physical contact with the index case while he was ill. Cases were more likely than controls to have been in the same room (100% vs. 9·5%, OR undefined, P<0·001) and to have touched him (83% vs. 0%, OR undefined, P<0·001). Although the source of infection for the index case was not identified, 50% of Pteropus bats sampled from near the outbreak area 1 month after the outbreak had antibodies to NiV confirming the presence of the virus in the area. The outbreak was spread by person-to-person transmission. Risk of NiV infection in family caregivers highlights the need for infection control practices to limit transmission of potentially infectious body secretions.
We conducted a seroprevalence study and exposure survey of healthcare workers to assess the risk of nosocomial transmission of Nipah virus during an outbreak in Bangladesh in 2004. No evidence of recent Nipah virus infection was detected despite substantial exposures and minimal use of personal protective equipment.
To evaluate the risk of transmission of SARS coronavirus outside of the health-care setting, close household and community contacts of laboratory-confirmed SARS cases were identified and followed up for clinical and laboratory evidence of SARS infection. Individual- and household-level risk factors for transmission were investigated. Nine persons with serological evidence of SARS infection were identified amongst 212 close contacts of 45 laboratory- confirmed SARS cases (secondary attack rate 4·2%, 95% CI 1·5–7). In this cohort, the average number of secondary infections caused by a single infectious case was 0·2. Two community contacts with laboratory evidence of SARS coronavirus infection had mild or sub-clinical infection, representing 3% (2/65) of Vietnamese SARS cases. There was no evidence of transmission of infection before symptom onset. Physically caring for a symptomatic laboratory-confirmed SARS case was the only independent risk factor for SARS transmission (OR 5·78, 95% CI 1·23–24·24).
A series of PtSi on p-type Si diodes have been characterized in order to establish correlations among processing parameters, metallurgical features and electrical properties. Characterization techniques include analytical (TED, TEM), electrical (current-voltage characteristics), and optical (photoemission and absorption). The fabrication techniques involve e-beam evaporation of platinum layers at UHV levels onto VLSI grade (100) p-type silicon substrates. The silicide layers are formed via sub-eutectic solid state diffusion at 350°C. The main trends with thickness as well as possible interrelationships are described. An unexpected result is the presence of unreacted polycrystalline Pt and Pt2Si at the interface.
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