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Food insecurity is a structural barrier to HIV care in peri-urban areas in South Africa (SA), where approximately 80 % of households are moderately or severely food insecure. For people with HIV (PWH), food insecurity is associated with poor antiretroviral therapy adherence and survival rates. Yet, measurement of food insecurity among PWH remains a challenge.
The current study examines the factor structure of the nine-item Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS, isiXhosa-translated) among PWH in SA using a restrictive bifactor model.
Primary care clinics in Khayelitsha, a peri-urban settlement in Cape Town, SA.
Participants (n 440) were PWH who received HIV care in Khayelitsha screening for a clinical trial. Most were categorised as severely (n 250, 56·82 %) or moderately (n 107, 24·32 %) food insecure in the past 30 d.
Revised parallel analysis suggested a three-factor structure, which was inadmissible. A two-factor structure was examined but did not adequately fit the data. A two-factor restrictive bifactor model was examined, such that all items loaded on a general factor (food insecurity) and all but two items loaded on one of two specific additional factors, which adequately fit the data (comparative fit index = 0·995, standardised root mean square residual = 0·019). The two specific factors identified were: anxiety/insufficient quality and no food intake. Reliability was adequate (ω = 0·82).
Results supported the use of a total score, and identified two specific factors of the HFIAS, which may be utilised in future research and intervention development. These findings help identify aspects of food insecurity that may drive relationships between the construct and important HIV-related variables.
The rapid warming observed in the western Antarctic Peninsula gives rise to a fast disintegration of ice shelves and thinning and retreat of marine-terminating continental glaciers, which is likely to raise global sea levels in the near future. In order to understand the contemporary changes in context and to provide constraints for hindcasting models, it is important to understand the Late Quaternary history of the region. Here, we build on previous work on the deglacial history of the western Antarctic Peninsula and we present four new cosmogenic 10Be exposure ages from Horseshoe Island in Marguerite Bay, which has been suggested as a former location of very fast ice stream retreat. Four samples collected from erratic pink granite boulders at an altitude of ~80 m above sea level yielded ages that range between 12.9 ± 1.1 ka and 9.4 ± 0.8 ka. As in other studies on Antarctic erratics, we have chosen to report the youngest erratic age (9.4 ± 0.8 ka) as the true age of deglaciation, which confirms a rapid thinning of the Marguerite Trough Ice Stream at the onset of Holocene. This result is consistent with other cosmogenic age data and other proxies (marine and lacustrine 14C and optically stimulated luminescence) reported from nearby areas.
This study aimed to explore the effects of curcumin on experimental allergic rhinitis in rats.
Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four groups: a control group; a group in which allergic rhinitis was induced and no treatment given; a group in which allergic rhinitis was induced followed by treatment with azelastine hydrochloride on days 21–28; and a group in which allergic rhinitis was induced followed by treatment with curcumin on days 21–28. Allergy symptoms and histopathological features of the nasal mucosa were examined.
The sneezing and nasal congestion scores were higher in the azelastine and curcumin treatment groups than in the control group. Histopathological examination showed focal goblet cell metaplasia on the epithelial surface in the azelastine group. In the curcumin group, there was a decrease in goblet cell metaplasia in the epithelium, decreased inflammatory cell infiltration and vascular proliferation in the lamina propria.
Curcumin is an effective treatment for experimentally induced allergic rhinitis in rats.
The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the pectoralis major myofascial flap on pharyngocutaneous fistula formation and time to oral feeding.
This retrospective study reviewed 155 total laryngectomies. Patients were divided into two main groups. Group 1 included 110 patients who were treated primarily by total laryngectomy and group 2 comprised 45 patients who were treated by salvage laryngectomy with or without a pectoralis major myofascial flap.
The use of a pectoralis major myofascial flap did not have a significant effect on pharyngocutaneous fistula formation in the salvage group (p = 0.376). When comparing the oral feeding day of patients with pharyngocutaneous fistula, a significant difference was observed between the salvage group with pectoralis major myofascial flap reinforcement and the salvage group without pectoralis major myofascial flap reinforcement (p = 0.004).
Our study demonstrated that pectoralis major myofascial flap reinforcement did not decrease the rate of pharyngocutaneous fistula formation. Instead, it prevented the formation of large fistulas that would require surgical management, and showed a similar time to oral feeding and length of hospital stay to primary laryngectomy.
The aim of this study was to evaluate nitric oxide (NOx) concentration in infected and non-infected mammary quarters of dairy heifers before and after calving. The relationship between bacterial species and NOx concentrations, as well as correlation between NOx concentrations and postpartum somatic cell count (SCC), was assessed. Coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were the bacteria commonly isolated during the pre- and postpartum period. Infected quarters had greater NOx concentrations than non-infected quarters before (30.81 v. 22.83 μM/ml, P < 0.05) and after (9.56 v. 5.77 μM/ml, P < 0.0001) calving. It was determined that the interaction between sampling period and infectious status had no effect on NOx concentration (P < 0.16). Infected quarters had greater SCC (log10) than healthy quarters (4.95 v. 4.39; P < 0.0001). NOx concentrations, however, did not correlate with SCC (r = 0.02). In summary, changes in NOx concentration were mainly dependent on the infectious status of the quarters with variations among the bacterial species (P < 0.05).
Several problems have been observed when performing the classic endoscopic technique for voice restoration following laryngectomy. An easy and safe method is described for the insertion of a Provox® voice prosthesis using a Yankauer tonsil suction tube and an antrum trocar with an irrigation cannula.
Raman analysis of the E2 mode of AlxGal-xN in the composition range 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 is presented. The lineshape was observed to exhibit a significant asymmetry and broadening toward the high energy range. The spatial correlation model is discussed, and is shown to account for the lineshape. The model calculations also indicate the lack of a long-range order in the CVD (chemical vapor deposition) alloys. These results were confirmed by X-ray scattering: the relative intensity of the superlattice line was found to be negligible. The line broadening of the E2 mode was found to exhibit a maximum at a composition x∼0.5 indicative of a random disordered alloy system. The stress state of the alloys was found to be tensile and was attributed to the difference in the thermal expansion coefficients of the SiC substrate and the film.
Synthesis of high-purity, single-phase gallium nitride (GaN) powder has been achieved by reacting molten Ga with flowing ammonia (NH3) in a hot wall tube furnace. The optimum temperature, NH3 flow rate, and position of the boat in the hot wall tube furnace relative to the NH3 inlet for the complete reaction to pure GaN for our system were 975 °C, 400 standard cubic centimeters per minute (seem) and 50 cm, respectively. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) data revealed the GaN to be single phase with a = 3.1891 Å, c = 5.1855 Å, in space group P63mc, Z=2 and Dx =6.089 g cm−3. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a particle size distribution in the crushed material between 1 and 5 μm with most of the particles being ≍1 μm.
Patients with panic disorder plus agoraphobia had 8 weeks of drug treatment (alprazolam or placebo) plus psychological treatment (exposure or relaxation). At the end of treatment at week 8, 40 patients who had become much/very much improved rated how much their gains were attributable to medication or to their own efforts. During the tapering-off to week 16, and treatment-free follow-up to week 43, patients who at week 8 had attributed their gains to medication and felt less confident in coping without tablets had more severe withdrawal symptoms and greater loss of gains than did patients who at week 8 had attributed their gains to their own efforts during treatment. Baseline illness severity, greater age, higher expectations from drug treatment, and more side-effects of drugs during treatment all predicted more external attributions (i.e. to the effect of drugs) but did not independently predict relapse. Patients on alprazolam compared with placebo had more drug attributions. Though drug attributions predicted relapse in both alprazolam and placebo groups, predictions were stronger in the alprazolam group.
In a controlled trial of alprazolam and exposure in 154 patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia, relations between panic, anticipatory anxiety, and phobic avoidance were examined. The three symptoms were independent of one another at baseline and improved largely independently during treatment; only early improvement in avoidance predicted global improvement after treatment. Global improvement was more related to reduction of avoidance than a decrease in panics. Panic was not a valuable outcome measure in panic disorder with agoraphobia.
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