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Accumulating evidence suggests beneficial effects of media stories featuring individuals mastering their suicidal crises, but effects have not been assessed for psychiatric patients.
We randomized n = 172 adult psychiatric patients (n = 172, 97.1% inpatients) to read an educative article featuring a person mastering a suicidal crisis (n = 92) or an unrelated article (n = 80) in a single-blind randomized controlled trial. Questionnaire data were collected before (T1) and after exposure (T2) as well as 1 week later (study end-point, T3). The primary outcome was suicidal ideation as assessed with the Reasons for Living Inventory; secondary outcomes were help-seeking intentions, mood, hopelessness, and stigmatization. Differences between patients with affective versus other diagnoses were explored based on interaction tests.
We found that patients with affective disorders (n = 99) experienced a small-sized reduction of suicidal ideation at 1-week follow up (mean difference to control group [MD] at T3 = −0.17 [95% CI −0.33, −0.03], d = −0.15), whereas patients with nonaffective diagnoses (n = 73) experienced a small-sized increase (T2: MD = 0.24 [95% CI 0.06, 0.42], d = 0.19). Intervention group participants further experienced a nonsustained increase of help-seeking intentions (T2: MD = 0.53 [95% CI 0.11, 0.95], d = 0.19) and a nonsustained deterioration of mood (T2: MD = −0.14 [95% CI −0.27, −0.02], d = −0.17).
This study suggests that patients with affective disorders appear to benefit from media materials featuring mastery of suicidal crises. More research is needed to better understand which patient groups are at possible risk of unintended effects.
In this work, the fluid dynamics and heat transfer of time-dependent flows with shear-thinning behaviour over two confined square cylinders in tandem arrangement are studied numerically. The case studies include two- and three-dimensional flows under a wide range of power-law indices, $0.25\leq n \leq 1.0$, and blockage ratios, $\beta =0.50$, 0.66 and 0.80, for a fixed Reynolds number of $Re=100$ and Prandtl number of $Pr=10$. The fluid dynamic analysis includes detailed qualitative and quantitative comparisons between the different fluids and blockage ratios, where streamlines, viscosity fields, and lift and drag coefficients are presented. Moreover, a detailed study of the route from laminar time-dependent to chaotic flows is included. It was determined that the flow exhibits a transition from laminar to chaotic by decreasing the power-law index ($n$) and increasing the blockage ratio ($\beta$). With respect to the thermal analysis, isotherms and Nusselt numbers are compared between the different case studies. This analysis demonstrates that the average Nusselt numbers increased in chaotic flows. The three-dimensional cases confirmed the results proposed for the two-dimensional case.
To use Internet search data to compare duration of compliance for various diets.
Using a passive surveillance digital epidemiological approach, we estimated the average duration of diet compliance by examining monthly Internet searches for recipes related to popular diets. We fit a mathematical model to these data to estimate the time spent on a diet by new January dieters (NJD) and to estimate the percentage of dieters dropping out during the American winter holiday season between Thanksgiving and the end of December.
Internet searches in the USA for recipes related to popular diets over a 15-year period from 2004 to 2019.
Individuals in the USA performing Internet searches for recipes related to popular diets.
All diets exhibited significant seasonality in recipe-related Internet searches, with sharp spikes every January followed by a decline in the number of searches and a further decline in the winter holiday season. The Paleo diet had the longest average compliance times among NJD (5.32 ± 0.68 weeks) and the lowest dropout during the winter holiday season (only 14 ± 3 % dropping out in December). The South Beach diet had the shortest compliance time among NJD (3.12 ± 0.64 weeks) and the highest dropout during the holiday season (33 ± 7 % dropping out in December).
The current study is the first of its kind to use passive surveillance data to compare the duration of adherence with different diets and underscores the potential usefulness of digital epidemiological approaches to understanding health behaviours.
A novel underwater vehicle configuration with an operating principle as the Sepiida animal is presented and developed in this paper. The mathematical equations describing the movements of the vehicle are obtained using the Newton–Euler approach. An analysis of the dynamic model is done for control purposes. A prototype and its embedded system are developed for validating analytically and experimentally the proposed mathematical representation. A real-time characterization of one mass is done to relate the pitch angle with the radio of displacement of the mass. In addition, first validation of the closed-loop system is done using a linear controller.
We study the stability of the differential process of Rochberg and Weiss associated with an analytic family of Banach spaces obtained using the complex interpolation method for families. In the context of Köthe function spaces, we complete earlier results of Kalton (who showed that there is global bounded stability for pairs of Köthe spaces) by showing that there is global (bounded) stability for families of up to three Köthe spaces distributed in arcs on the unit circle while there is no (bounded) stability for families of four or more Köthe spaces. In the context of arbitrary pairs of Banach spaces, we present some local stability results and some global isometric stability results.
There are multiple movements within medicine, public health, and health policy that have expanded the measurement of well-being and wellness and made such practices imperative. Medicine continues to grow more highly specialized and focused on biomedical treatments. Physicians’ roles have become more siloed, and our knowledge of the effects of illness and medical treatments on patients’ lives is limited. Simultaneously, public health research has elucidated the importance of contexts, connectedness, and functioning to health. Biomedical treatments and the absence of illness do not define health. Well-being, social connectedness, and one’s ability to function in essential domains of life are essential components of health. In response, health policy has begun to prioritize patient-reported outcomes, including well-being and health-related quality of life (QOL).
Methane (CH4) is a greenhouse gas (GHG) produced and released by eructation to the atmosphere in large volumes by ruminants. Enteric CH4 contributes significantly to global GHG emissions arising from animal agriculture. It has been contended that tropical grasses produce higher emissions of enteric CH4 than temperate grasses, when they are fed to ruminants. A number of experiments have been performed in respiration chambers and head-boxes to assess the enteric CH4 mitigation potential of foliage and pods of tropical plants, as well as nitrates (NO3−) and vegetable oils in practical rations for cattle. On the basis of individual determinations of enteric CH4 carried out in respiration chambers, the average CH4 yield for cattle fed low-quality tropical grasses (>70% ration DM) was 17.0 g CH4/kg DM intake. Results showed that when foliage and ground pods of tropical trees and shrubs were incorporated in cattle rations, methane yield (g CH4/kg DM intake) was decreased by 10% to 25%, depending on plant species and level of intake of the ration. Incorporation of nitrates and vegetable oils in the ration decreased enteric CH4 yield by ∼6% to ∼20%, respectively. Condensed tannins, saponins and starch contained in foliages, pods and seeds of tropical trees and shrubs, as well as nitrates and vegetable oils, can be fed to cattle to mitigate enteric CH4 emissions under smallholder conditions. Strategies for enteric CH4 mitigation in cattle grazing low-quality tropical forages can effectively increase productivity while decreasing enteric CH4 emissions in absolute terms and per unit of product (e.g. meat, milk), thus reducing the contribution of ruminants to GHG emissions and therefore to climate change.
Nuestro objetivo es estudiar las estrategias de uso del espacio por parte de sociedades humanas móviles en un paisaje andino de Patagonia caracterizado por una marcada heterogeneidad topográfica, climática y ecológica (localidad de Barrancas-Buta Ranquil, provincia del Neuquén, Argentina). Inicialmente, se analiza la estructura del paisaje desde una perspectiva biogeográfica, desarrollando un modelo de estacionalidad mediante sistemas de información geográfica. Nuestro enfoque distribucional combina una prospección sistemática para caracterizar la estructura espacial del registro en superficie y evidencias que han sido obtenidas bajo otras estrategias de muestreo. Sobre la base de la distribución de artefactos líticos y cerámicos y de motivos rupestres, se evalúan patrones de intensidad ocupacional, diversidad funcional y circulación de información en sectores del espacio con propiedades biogeográficas diferentes. Los resultados sugieren una delimitación funcional del espacio en escala temporal promediada, en la cual los espacios intermedios habrían funcionado como lugares centrales desde donde se articulan movimientos logísticos hacia otros sectores del paisaje. Dado que la unidad de muestreo captura variación biogeográfica que se expresa en forma regional más amplia, el modelo de uso del espacio propuesto es relevante para la comprensión de la arqueología del noroeste de Patagonia en general.
The giant gypsum crystals of Naica cave have fascinated scientists since their discovery in 2000. Human activity has changed the microclimate inside the cave, making scientists wonder about the potential environmental impact on the crystals. Over the last 9 years, we have studied approximately 70 samples. This paper reports on the detailed chemical–structural characterization of the impurities present at the surface of these crystals and the experimental simulations of their potential deterioration patterns. Selected samples were studied by petrography, optical and electronic microscopy, and laboratory X-ray diffraction. 2D grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, X-ray μ-fluorescence, and X-ray μ-absorption near-edge structure were used to identify the impurities and their associated phases. These impurities were deposited during the latest stage of the gypsum crystal formation and have afterward evolved with the natural high humidity. The simulations of the behavior of the crystals in microclimatic chambers produced crystal dissolution by 1–4% weight fraction under high CO2 concentration and permanent fog, and gypsum phase dehydration under air and CO2 gaseous environment. Our work suggests that most surface impurities are of natural origin; the most significant anthropogenic damage on the crystals is the extraction of water from the caves.
Tuberculosis (TB) in children is a critical public health issue. In Bohol, Philippines, we found a high tuberculin skin test (TST)-positive prevalence (weighted prevalence = 6.4%) among 5476 children (<15 years) from 184 villages, with geographically isolated communities having prevalence as high as 29%. Therefore, we conducted a geospatial and hot spot analysis to examine the association between villages with high TST-positive prevalence (⩾6.5%) and access to medical care (distance (in kilometres and minutes of travel time) to the municipal Rural Health Units (RHU)), access to healthcare resources (distance to Provincial Health Office (PHO)) and socioeconomic determinants of health. Hot spot analysis revealed significant clusters of TST-positive prevalence in villages farthest from the PHO. Based on univariate analysis, the following variables associated with high prevalence were included in the multivariate model: minutes of travel time to the PHO, distance to the PHO, island villages and total deprivation based on socioeconomic indicators. In the final model, only distance to PHO in minutes was significant (P = 0.005). When evaluated further, greater than 1-hour drive significantly increased risk for TST-positivity (P = 0.003). Distance to healthcare resources likely increases the risk of TB transmission within the community. Expanding TB control efforts to geographically isolated areas is critical.
Until now, no reliable biological markers of risk and relapse in substance-dependent patients have been identified. The yawn-inducing test with apomorphine has been proposed as a marker of the functional status of the dopaminergic system and therefore a predictor of suffering an addiction or predisposition to relapse.
Studying the safety and efficacy of apomorphine test as a predictor of relapse in intranasal cocaine dependent, diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR.
We performed the test of apomorphine at the beginning (day 1) and end (day 11/12) of a detoxification program in 33 patients (29 men). The majority of patients relapsed after 22 weeks of follow up (87% relapse). The average yawns in the sample were 10.9 ± 9.3 in the initial test (Apo 1) and 10.2 ± 10.2 in the final test (Apo 2). The 42% of patients relapsed early (before 4 weeks) and 45% late (afther 4 weeks). 58% of the sample (N = 19), which did not fall belatedly filled an average of 8.0 yawns in Apo1 and 8.1 on Apo2 and 42% who did so early (N = 14), 14,8 in Apo1 and 14.6 in Apo2. Therefore there are an increased number of yawns in patients with early relapse. No important side effects were reported.
Patients with early relapse have a higher number of yawns that those falling late or abstainers The apomorphine test is a safe test and it is a readily applicable tool in clinical practice and may be a biological marker of risk.
Immigrant population has been growing up in Spain in the last decades. The immigration process constitutes a vulnerability factor for the development of psychological issues. Moreover, ethnicity determines a great variability in the symptomatic expression of psychiatric diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the demographical characteristics and clinical profiles of immigrant patients that visit the emergency services of general hospitals.
An epidemiological study was conducted to evaluate profiles and demographical characteristics of immigrant population attended at the emergency services of the “Hospital 12 de Octubre” Madrid, during 2007. The data were acquired through a protocol developed for this study and applied to all foreign patients attended.
2976 patients were attended during 2007. Immigrant patients were 10% of the sample. There mean age was 29.46 years. 42.1% were men and 57.9% were women. The nationalities of the sample were as follow: 47.8% were Latin American, 23.7% Eastern Europeans, 16.1% were Maghribian and 4.7% were Africans. 48.2% were attended because of suicide attempt (the 59% of Latin Americans and the 54.5% of Eastern Europeans) and 14.3% had psychosis (the 42.9% of Africans and the 36.2% of Maghribians). 30% were diagnosed of a current Substance Use Disorder (the 16.9% of Eastern Europeans).
We found several clinical and demographical differences within the ethnic groups studied. Latin Americans and Eastern Europeans consult for suicide attempt, whereas Maghribians and Africans are attended for psychosis. Psychiatrists should consider cultural and ethnic factors when interviewing foreign population.
In Spain, consumption of psychotropic drugs is high and benzodiazepines represent 74% of the total. His prescription in primary care is very common and their use continues to grow. They are safe and effective drugs, but patients with prolonged use are elaborating the most adverse effects, particularly the dependency.
Descriptive ans cross-sectional.
Primary Health Care.
We seleted 202 patients treated with benzodiazepines, consecutive sample, belonging to the health center Los Barrio who were seen in consultation during 2009.
We conducted through a questionnaire that cointained the treatment and demographic characteristics.
We detect a frequency of use of benzodiazepines 9% (95% CI 4,7-12,1%). The profile of the consumer responds to middle-aged woman, with primary and housewives. Somatic diseases were associated in 72.6% (CI 67,2-77,5%) and had mental pathology at 59.7% (CI 53,9-65,3%). 35% (95% 29,6-40,6%) of prescribed benzodiazepines were clorazape dipotassium. Consumption was constant for over a year. The prescription from primary care represents 81% (95% 76,3-85,4%) and in 65% (CI 59,3-70,3%) is associated with other psychoactive drug.
In our area, highlights the prescription of benzodiazepines from primary care on demand and consumption during prolonged time. Interventions should be conducted on the prescription of benzodiazepines in medical and other interventions for patient support.
Les hallucinations auditives sont un des symptômes fréquent et invalidants demeurant persistantes dans 20 à 30 % des cas et ce malgré les traitements antipsychotiques. Certaines théories suggèrent que les caractéristiques des hallucinations seraient liées à des dimensions psychologiques et émotionnelles pouvant expliquer le phénomène hallucinatoire, mais aussi à la croyance que le sujet halluciné accorde à ces voix [1,2].
L’objectif de cette étude est de mettre en évidence l’intérêt clinique des méthodes d’analyse de discours à travers des entretiens menés auprès de patients schizophrènes souffrant d’hallucinations auditives résistantes.
Des entretiens semi-dirigés ont été menés auprès de 10 sujets schizophrènes souffrant d’hallucinations résistantes. L’entretien a été construit autour de 10 thèmes principaux se rapportant aux croyances du sujet en rapport à son vécu hallucinatoire, tels que les intentions des voix, le pouvoir qui leur est attribué ou encore les stratégies de contrôle mis en œuvre. L’analyse des données s’est faite à l’aide du logiciel Alceste  permettant d’effectuer de manière systématisée et automatisée l’analyse d’entretiens ou de textes. Elle repose sur une classification descendante hiérarchique conduisant à la mise en évidence de mondes lexicaux par la construction de classes de discours mettant en évidence les mots les plus récurrents et significatifs dans le discours du sujet.
Les résultats de l’analyse sur 10 sujets ont permis de mettre en évidence des classes de discours renvoyant à des processus psychologiques particuliers, concernant le vécu et les relations qu’entretient le sujet avec ses voix. Nous pensons que ces processus, jusque-là sous-estimés et donc peu analysés pourraient constituer une piste d’exploration du caractère résistant des hallucinations.
Fiction films offer unexplored opportunities of rehabilitation for schizophrenia and other psychoses. Schizophrenia produces deficits y distortions in the perception and comprehension of reality, also expressed in the perception and comprehension of films. After a year of an “ad hoc” experience, the following technique was developed:
1) Selecting a fiction film for its narrative, affective, cognitive and social cognitive content
2) Briefly presenting of the film to a group of 8-16 patients with diverse psychosis.
3) Screening of the film to the patients and the therapeutic team.
4) Summarizing of the plot by a patient. Group correcting of distortions and deficits caused by problems of attention and working memory, as well as positive, negative, affective and social cognitive symptoms (emotional perception, theory of mind, attributive style)
5) Selecting 1-2 sequences by each patient, and group commenting using the same technique.
6) Field recording of all the commentaries obtained.
7) Second screening of the film two days after, repeating points 2 to 6.
8) Comparing both field records.
An experimental study using this technique is presented. 8 patients with schizophrenia and other psychoses watched 4 fiction films (“The 39 Steps”, “Charade”, “M”, “The General”). The differences founded in both viewings by two external evaluators (using CGI and analogical scales of the main variables) are presented and commented. An evaluation of the perceived usefulness and satisfaction of the participants was included.
Comorbidity between Substance Use Disorder (SUD) and other psychiatric disorders, known as Dual Diagnosis, is an issue of growing interest in Mental Health. The high association between Personality Disorders (PD) and substance use is reported in scientific literature. However, not many studies have been published regarding the prevalence of this disorder in a psychiatric unit. AIMSTo determine the prevalence of substance abuse among patients with a Personality Disorder in a psychiatric unit.
A retrospective descriptive study was carried out among all patients admitted to our psychiatric unit during one year. The data collected from the discharge clinical records of patients were: demographic variables, personal psychiatric history and substance use, urine tests and clinical diagnoses at discharge.
We obtained a sample of 334 patients. There was comorbidity between Mental Disorder and SUD in 10.17% of subjects; including 4% diagnosed with Personality Disorder (80% belong to Cluster B). 53.3% of patients with PD substance abuse was reported. Excluding nicotine dependence and benzodiazepines, the most common substances used were cannabis (50%), alcohol (37.5%) and cocaine (25%).
This study shows that Personality Disorder is the Mental Disorder most commonly associated with SUD, among inpatients in our psychiatric unit. In order to detect cases of Dual Diagnosis, we suggest optimize recording in clinical history substance use and systematic urine tests in all patients admitted, which would benefit from specific treatment for their condition.
Characterizing the profile of schizophrenic patients with high hospitalization rates seems relevant. The aim of this study is to describe characteristics of patients with schizophrenia hospitalized at Acute Care Units, and identify clinical profiles associated to relapse.
Observational retrospective study (case-control). Hospitalized patients diagnosed for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder for more than 2 years. Data related to the previous 3 years and current hospitalization were recorded: sociodemographics, diagnosis, CGI, reason for current/previous hospitalizations, life events, drug abuse, therapy prior and during hospitalization and compliance.
Preliminary results from 1607 patients are presented: cases are patients with no hospitalization (No-HOSP) in the previous 3 years (N=508); controls are those who had some hospitalization (HOSP) during that period (N=1099). HOSP patients were significantly younger than No-HOSP (p<0.0001). 41% of HOSP and 28.4% of No-HOSP patients showed No-Low family support (p<0.0001). 55.9% of HOSP and 50.2% of No-HOSP patients showed some drug abuse close to current hospitalization (p<0.05). The most frequent factor for current hospitalization was relapse due to non-compliance in both HOSP (66.2%) and No-HOSP (59.4%; p=0.0092). Through artificial intelligence methods, fourteen variables are identified as related to relapse (Number of previous antipsychotics, Time of evolution, CGI, Age, Gender, Educational Level, Family support, Compliance, Heroine, Cocaine or Cannabis abuse, Stressing events, Diagnosis, Number of previous hospitalizations), which have permitted to develop a predictive model for relapse (PRECOG Project).
The main factor for hospitalization was non-compliance. Age, family support, drug abuse seem to be also related to hospitalization.
Fiction films offer unexplored support for rehabilitation in patients with schizophrenia and other psychoses. Schizophrenia produces deficits and distortions in perception and understanding of reality, also expressed in the perception and comprehension of films. After two years of experience “ad hoc” we have designed an experimental case-control study in order to study the effectiveness of the proposed technique compared with conventional “cinema-forum”
20 patients treated at the Psychiatric Day Hospital in Puerta de Hierro Hospital (Majadahonda) will participate in the study. Initially, the researcher will collect information on socio-demographic and clinical data of all participants, as well as a written informed consent. There will be an initial assessment using the following instruments:
- SCIP (schizophrenia cognitive screening)
- Scale GEOPTE (social cognition in schizophrenia)
- Social Functioning Scale (SOFAS, PSP)
- Scale of disease awareness
- IPDE (TP)
- Hamilton Scale (anxiety-depression)
The material used will be the 12 chapters of the first season of TV series “The Sopranos” by David Chase (2004). Specific techniques of cognitive and affective work are compared against a “cinema-forum”. For the evaluation of the effectiveness of the proposed technique, it will be used a measurement tool designed specifically for the activity, which includes:
1. 60 item-Scale, specific on each chapter, evaluating: