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One common denominator to the clinical phenotypes of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) is emotion regulation impairment. Although these two conditions have been extensively studied separately, it remains unclear whether their emotion regulation impairments are underpinned by shared or distinct neurobiological alterations.
We contrasted the neural correlates of negative emotion regulation across an adult sample of BPD patients (n = 19), MDD patients (n = 20), and healthy controls (HCs; n = 19). Emotion regulation was assessed using an established functional magnetic resonance imaging cognitive reappraisal paradigm. We assessed both task-related activations and modulations of interregional connectivity.
When compared to HCs, patients with BPD and MDD displayed homologous decreased activation in the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) during cognitive reappraisal. In addition, the MDD group presented decreased activations in other prefrontal areas (i.e., left dorsolateral and bilateral orbitofrontal cortices), while the BPD group was characterized by a more extended pattern of alteration in the connectivity between the vlPFC and cortices of the visual ventral stream during reappraisal.
This study identified, for the first time, a shared neurobiological contributor to emotion regulation deficits in MDD and BPD characterized by decreased vlPFC activity, although we also observed disorder-specific alterations. In MDD, results suggest a primary deficit in the strength of prefrontal activations, while BPD is better defined by connectivity disruptions between the vlPFC and temporal emotion processing regions. These findings substantiate, in neurobiological terms, the different profiles of emotion regulation alterations observed in these disorders.
The prevalence of mental disorders (MD) is greater in children; however, they are the population with less help-seeking and access to mental health-care services (MHS).
To explore the characteristics of help-seeking and access to specialized MHS in children with MD.
A cross-sectional study was carried out from 2018 to 2019, in the Children’s Psychiatric Hospital and National Institute of Psychiatry in Mexico City. Sample 397 children and 397 caregivers. The project was approved by the Ethics Committee of both institutions. The patient’s family member was questioned on sociodemographic data and help-seeking to MHS. Sample’s descriptive statistics applying measures of central tendency, Inferential statistics with t-test for differences in means between groups (diagnosis), and one-way ANOVA to variables associated with the help-seeking to MHS.
Children´s sample: 37% female, average age 12 years (SD± 3.6), 51% had diagnosis of hyperkinetic disorder (HD), 34% depressive disorder (DD). The children´s age at the time of seeking healthcare was different according to the diagnosis: DD 10.1 (SD ± 4.5) and HD 6.95 (SD ± 3.4), (T = -3.18, p = 0.000); and by sex: girls 10.9 (SD ± 4.5), boys 7.85 (SD ± 4.0); (T = -3.07, p = 0.000). The mother was the first person to notice the symptoms.
The search for MHS differs by sex, diagnosis and family history; it is necessary to design mental health interventions considering gender-based differences, namely, to integrate a gender perspective.
Stigma has been associated with various groups, based on certain attributes or characteristics, such as; Race or health status is a complex and dynamic process, a universal phenomenon that is part of all social groups and is maintained by its functions related to the establishment of one’s own identity and the facilitation of socialization processes. Many societies throughout history have identified people with a mental health problem as part of a minority group considered inferior to the rest. What has made this population an object of social stigma. With the beginning of community psychiatry, and with the need to integrate people with a serious mental disorder into it, it becomes even more valuable to be able to assess the social stigma towards mental illness in the community.
The goal is to examine community attitudes towards people with mental illness.
Cross-sectional study of 228 people through an anonymous online survey. Sociodemographic variables and questionnaires were collected, such as the Community Attitudes Questionnaire towards people with Mental Illness (CAMI).
65% of respondents are women and 35% men. 74% have university studies. 18% do not agree that mental illness is an illness like any other. 1% believe that not all people can develop a mental illness. 7% of those surveyed are afraid that people with mental illness reside in their neighborhood and 14% believe that they are more dangerous people than the general population.
Given the results obtained, we observe that the stigma towards people with mental illness is still present in society.
The intravenous (IV) is one of the main parenteral routes for drug administration. Rapid onset of action, precise titration, patient-specific dosing and bypass of liver metabolism are a few of its advantages, while hypersensitivity reactions, adverse effects, infection risk and a higher overall cost some of its most debated downsides. Unlike other areas of Medicine, IV has been significantly under-utilized in Psychiatry.
This systematic review analyzed the evidence for effectiveness and safety behind the use of IV medication used for the management of acute disturbance.
APA PsycINFO, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases were searched for eligible studies. Studies were included if they used IV medication to treat acute disturbance, in English language, had participants aged >18. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the National Institutes of Health quality checklist.
17 studies were deemed eligible. Data analysis was limited to narrative synthesis since primary outcome measures varied significantly between each study. Findings showed strong evidence for efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine, droperidol, midazolam, and olanzapine. These medications displayed a short time to sedation, reduction in agitation levels, or large percentage of patients adequately sedated with a low number of adverse events. Results did not provide enough evidence for the use of IV ketamine, haloperidol, diazepam, lorazepam, and promethazine.
This review supports dexmedetomidine, droperidol, midazolam, and olanzapine as safe and efficacious options for managing acute disturbance via the intravenous route, particularly in special clinical settings where trained staff, optimal monitoring, resuscitation equipment and ventilators are all at hand.
Suicide is a global health problem. The elderly is the range with the highest suicide rate and suicidal behaviors are more lethal, with greater planning and less possibility of rescue. In the elderly, Major Depressive Disorder is the diagnosis most frequently associated with suicidal behavior. 15% of the elderly with a depressive picture commit suicide. Loneliness, the main cause of suicides in the elderly population.
The objective of the clinical case presented is to address the risk factors for suicide in the elderly.
80-year-old patient, widower who makes a suicide attempt by ingesting glyphosate. Personal history: Acute myocardial infarction 1 month ago. Not mental illness. Family stressors: illness of his granddaughter, loss of his son’s job. Personal stressors: Loss of autonomy due to ischemic heart disease. The patient was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit with acute pulmonary edema secondary to the suicide attempt. Psychopathological exploration: Conscious, oriented and collaborative. Depressive mood in relation to the stressors presented. Makes partial criticism of the suicide attempt, recognizes its seriousness and planning.
Diagnosis: Moderate depressive episode. SAD PERSONS scale: 9 High risk.
The risk factors for suicide in older people can be medical, psychiatric, psychological, family environment and social - environmental factors. There are hardly any specific action protocols that allow early intervention and suicide prevention in the elderly. As social health professionals, we must work on the elaboration and application of these, since consummated suicide represents a major public health problem throughout the world.
Using data from a nationally generalisable birth cohort, we aimed to: (i) describe the cohort’s adherence to national evidence-based dietary guidelines using an Infant Feeding Index (IFI) and (ii) assess the IFI’s convergent construct validity, by exploring associations with antenatal maternal socio-demographic and health behaviours and with child overweight/obesity and central adiposity at age 54 months. Data were from the Growing Up in New Zealand cohort (n 6343). The IFI scores ranged from zero to twelve points, with twelve representing full adherence to the guidelines. Overweight/obesity was defined by BMI-for-age (based on the WHO Growth Standards). Central adiposity was defined as waist-to-height ratio > 90th percentile. Associations were tested using multiple linear regression and Poisson regression with robust variance (risk ratios, 95 % CI). Mean IFI score was 8·2 (sd 2·1). Maternal characteristics explained 29·1 % of variation in the IFI score. Maternal age, education and smoking had the strongest independent relationships with IFI scores. Compared with children in the highest IFI tertile, girls in the lowest and middle tertiles were more likely to be overweight/obese (1·46, 1·03, 2·06 and 1·56, 1·09, 2·23, respectively) and boys in the lowest tertile were more likely to have central adiposity (1·53, 1·02, 2·30) at age 54 months. Most infants fell short of meeting national Infant Feeding Guidelines. The associations between IFI score and maternal characteristics, and children’s overweight/obesity/central adiposity, were in the expected directions and confirm the IFI’s convergent construct validity.
Cognition heavily relies on social determinants and genetic background. Latin America comprises approximately 8% of the global population and faces unique challenges, many derived from specific demographic and socioeconomic variables, such as violence and inequality. While such factors have been described to influence mental health outcomes, no large-scale studies with Latin American population have been carried out. Therefore, we aim to describe the cognitive performance of a representative sample of Latin American individuals with schizophrenia and its relationship to clinical factors. Additionally, we aim to investigate how socioeconomic status (SES) relates to cognitive performance in patients and controls.
We included 1175 participants from five Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Mexico): 864 individuals with schizophrenia and 311 unaffected subjects. All participants were part of projects that included cognitive evaluation with MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery and clinical assessments.
Patients showed worse cognitive performance than controls across all domains. Age and diagnosis were independent predictors, indicating similar trajectories of cognitive aging for both patients and controls. The SES factors of education, parental education, and income were more related to cognition in patients than in controls. Cognition was also influenced by symptomatology.
Patients did not show evidence of accelerated cognitive aging; however, they were most impacted by a lower SES suggestive of deprived environment than controls. These findings highlight the vulnerability of cognitive capacity in individuals with psychosis in face of demographic and socioeconomic factors in low- and middle-income countries.
The top biomedical research institutions have traditionally been assumed to provide better medical treatment for their patients. However, this may not necessarily be the case. Low-to-moderate negative associations between research activity and the quality-of-care provided by clinical departments have been described. We aimed to examine this relationship in the psychiatric units of the largest hospitals in Spain.
Scientific publications for 50 hospitals were retrieved from the Web of Science (2006–2015), and quality of mental healthcare data were gathered from Spanish National Health System records (2008–2014). Spearman-rank correlation analyses (adjusting for number of beds and population) were used to examine the associations between research data and quality-of-care outcomes in psychiatry. Stepwise regression models were built in order to determine the predictive value of research productivity for healthcare outcomes.
We found a positive association between research activity indicators (i.e., number of publications, number of citations, cumulative impact factor, and institutional H-index) and better quality-of-care outcomes in psychiatry (i.e., number of readmissions, transfers, and discharges from hospital). In particular, a higher research activity predicted a lower level of readmissions for individuals with psychoses (p = 0.025; R = 0.317), explaining 8.2% of the variance when other factors were accounted for.
Higher research activity is associated with better quality of mental healthcare in psychiatry. Our results can inform decision-making in clinical and research management settings in order to determine the most appropriate quality measures of the impact of research on the prognosis of individuals with psychiatric conditions.
Hypleurochilus fissicornis is a resident species of the intertidal and subtidal zones of Mar del Plata, Argentina. The specific reproductive biology was studied by means of both microscopic and macroscopic analyses. A total of 212 males and 223 females were analysed. Specimens were dissected and their gonads and livers were removed. The gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indexes and the condition factor were calculated on a monthly basis. Hypleurochilus fissicornis breeds in rocky intertidal areas, and exhibits low fecundity with benthic eggs and parental care. Size at first maturity (L50) was estimated at 53.66 and 55.83 mm total length for females and males, respectively. The spawning season takes place between December and April.
The objective of this study was to analyse the dynamics of spatial dispersion of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Brazil by correlating them to socioeconomic indicators. This is an ecological study of COVID-19 cases and deaths between 26 February and 31 July 2020. All Brazilian counties were used as units of analysis. The incidence, mortality, Bayesian incidence and mortality rates, global and local Moran indices were calculated. A geographic weighted regression analysis was conducted to assess the relationship between incidence and mortality due to COVID-19 and socioeconomic indicators (independent variables). There were confirmed 2 662 485 cases of COVID-19 reported in Brazil from February to July 2020 with higher rates of incidence in the north and northeast. The Moran global index of incidence rate (0.50, P = 0.01) and mortality (0.45 with P = 0.01) indicate a positive spatial autocorrelation with high standards in the north, northeast and in the largest urban centres between cities in the southeast region. In the same period, there were 92 475 deaths from COVID-19, with higher mortality rates in the northern states of Brazil, mainly Amazonas, Pará and Amapá. The results show that there is a geospatial correlation of COVID-19 in large urban centres and regions with the lowest human development index in the country. In the geographic weighted regression, it was possible to identify that the percentage of people living in residences with density higher than 2 per dormitory, the municipality human development index (MHDI) and the social vulnerability index were the indicators that most contributed to explaining incidence, social development index and the municipality human development index contributed the most to the mortality model. We hope that the findings will contribute to reorienting public health responses to combat COVID-19 in Brazil, the new epicentre of the disease in South America, as well as in other countries that have similar epidemiological and health characteristics to those in Brazil.
Babies born small-for-gestational age (SGA) have an increased risk of mortality, morbidity and adverse functional consequences. Studies suggest that pre-pregnancy maternal diet may influence newborns’ size. This study aimed to determine whether maternal pre-pregnancy dietary patterns (DP) are associated with delivering SGA newborns in the ProcriAr Cohort Study, Sao Paulo-Brazil. Pre-pregnancy DP of 299 women were investigated using factor analysis with principal component’s estimation, based on intake reported on a validated 110-item FFQ. Newborns were classified as SGA if their weight and/or length, adjusted by gestational age and sex, were below the 10th percentile of the INTERGROWTH-21st standards. Multivariate Poisson regression modelling with robust error variance was performed to examine associations between the different DP (in quintiles) and SGA. In a model adjusted by maternal sociodemographic and health behaviours, women who scored in the highest quintile of the DP ‘Snacks, sandwiches, sweets and soft drinks’ (in relation to the women who scored in the lowest quintile) were significantly more likely to deliver SGA babies (relative risk 1·92; 95 % CI 1·08, 3·39). This study verified that women’s pre-pregnancy dietary behaviour characterised by an energy-dense nutrient-poor food intake was a risk factor for delivering SGA newborns. Investments in education and improved access to healthful food and nutritional information before pregnancy should be prioritised due to their potential positive impact on child health. However, further studies are warranted to identify specific metabolic pathways that may be underlying these associations.
The diversity of experiences among bilingual children is reflected in the variability of abilities in each of their languages. This paper describes the CECER-DLL Child and Family, and Teacher Questionnaires and discusses the utility of these tools. These questionnaires were created to address the need for valid and reliable tools to document contextual characteristics and language experiences of young bilingual children in developmental and educational research. A multi-site validity study using the CECER-DLL Questionnaires demonstrates how children's language skills are influenced by language exposure at home and at school, mothers’ and teachers’ skills in each language, mother's generational status, and languages used during language and literacy activities at home.
Background: Detection of unusual carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPOs) in a healthcare facility may signify broader regional spread. During investigation of a VIM-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa (VIM-CRPA) outbreak in a long-term acute-care hospital in central Florida, enhanced surveillance identified VIM-CRPA from multiple facilities, denoting potential regional emergence. We evaluated infection control and performed screening for CPOs in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) across the region to identify potential CPO reservoirs and improve practices. Methods: All SNFs in 2 central Florida counties were offered a facility-wide point-prevalence survey (PPS) for CPOs and a nonregulatory infection control consultation. PPSs were conducted using a PCR-based screening method; specimens with a carbapenemase gene detected were cultured to identify the organisms. Infection control assessments focused on direct observations of hand hygiene (HH), environmental cleaning, and the sink splash zone. Thoroughness of environmental cleaning was evaluated using fluorescent markers applied to 6 standardized high-touch surfaces in at least 2 rooms per facility. Results: Overall, 21 (48%) SNFs in the 2-county region participated; 18 conducted PPS. Bed size ranged from 40 to 391, 5 (24%) facilities were ventilator-capable SNFs (vSNFs), and 12 had short-stay inpatient rehabilitation units. Of 1,338 residents approached, 649 agreed to rectal screening, and 14 (2.2%) carried CPOs. CPO-colonized residents were from the ventilator-capable units of 3 vSNFs (KPC-CRE=7; KPC-CRPA=1) and from short-stay units of 2 additional facilities (VIM-CRPA, n = 5; KPC-CRE, n = 1). Among the 5 facilities where CPO colonization was identified, the prevalence ranged from 1.1% in a short-stay unit to 16.1% in a ventilator unit. All facilities had access to soap and water in resident bathrooms; 14 (67%) had alcohol-based hand rubs accessible. Overall, mean facility HH adherence was 52% (range, 37%–66%; mean observations per facility = 106) (Fig. 1). We observed the use of non–EPA-registered disinfectants and cross contamination from dirty to clean areas during environmental cleaning; the overall surface cleaning rate was 46% (n = 178 rooms); only 1 room had all 6 markers removed. Resident supplies were frequently stored in the sink splash zone. Conclusions: A regional assessment conducted in response to emergence of VIM-CRPA identified a relatively low CPO prevalence at participating SNFs; CPOs were primarily identified in vSNFs and among short-stay residents. Across facilities, we observed low adherence to core infection control practices that could facilitate spread of CPOs and other resistant organisms. In this region, targeting ventilator and short-stay units of SNFs for surveillance and infection control efforts may have the greatest prevention impact.
Sarcopenic obesity is characterised by the double burden of diminished skeletal muscle mass and the presence of excess adiposity. From a mechanistic perspective, both obesity and sarcopenia are associated with sub-acute, chronic pro-inflammatory states that impede metabolic processes, disrupting adipose and skeletal functionality, which may potentiate disease. Recent evidence suggests that there is an important cross-talk between metabolism and inflammation, which has shifted focus upon metabolic-inflammation as a key emerging biological interaction. Dietary intake, physical activity and nutritional status are important environmental factors that may modulate metabolic-inflammation. This paradigm will be discussed within the context of sarcopenic obesity risk. There is a paucity of data in relation to the nature and the extent to which nutritional status affects metabolic-inflammation in sarcopenic obesity. Research suggests that there may be scope for the modulation of sarcopenic obesity with alterations in diet. The potential impact of increasing protein consumption and reconfiguration of dietary fat composition in human dietary interventions are evaluated. This review will explore emerging data with respect to if and how different dietary components may modulate metabolic-inflammation, particularly with respect to adiposity, within the context of sarcopenic obesity.
Social and environmental factors such as poverty or violence modulate the risk and course of schizophrenia. However, how they affect the brain in patients with psychosis remains unclear.
We studied how environmental factors are related to brain structure in patients with schizophrenia and controls in Latin America, where these factors are large and unequally distributed.
This is a multicentre study of magnetic resonance imaging in patients with schizophrenia and controls from six Latin American cities. Total and voxel-level grey matter volumes, and their relationship with neighbourhood characteristics such as average income and homicide rates, were analysed with a general linear model.
A total of 334 patients with schizophrenia and 262 controls were included. Income was differentially related to total grey matter volume in both groups (P = 0.006). Controls showed a positive correlation between total grey matter volume and income (R = 0.14, P = 0.02). Surprisingly, this relationship was not present in patients with schizophrenia (R = −0.076, P = 0.17). Voxel-level analysis confirmed that this interaction was widespread across the cortex. After adjusting for global brain changes, income was positively related to prefrontal cortex volumes only in controls. Conversely, the hippocampus in patients with schizophrenia, but not in controls, was relatively larger in affluent environments. There was no significant correlation between environmental violence and brain structure.
Our results highlight the interplay between environment, particularly poverty, and individual characteristics in psychosis. This is particularly important for harsh environments such as low- and middle-income countries, where potentially less brain vulnerability (less grey matter loss) is sufficient to become unwell in adverse (poor) environments.
In São Paulo, Brazil, the first case of coronavirus disease 2019 (CoViD-19) was confirmed on 26 February, the first death due to CoViD-19 was registered on 16 March, and on 24 March, São Paulo implemented the isolation of persons in non-essential activities. A mathematical model was formulated based on non-linear ordinary differential equations considering young (60 years old or less) and elder (60 years old or more) subpopulations, aiming to describe the introduction and dissemination of the new coronavirus in São Paulo. This deterministic model used the data collected from São Paulo to estimate the model parameters, obtaining R0 = 6.8 for the basic reproduction number. The model also allowed to estimate that 50% of the population of São Paulo was in isolation, which permitted to describe the current epidemiological status. The goal of isolation implemented in São Paulo to control the rapid increase of the new coronavirus epidemic was partially succeeded, concluding that if isolation of at least 80% of the population had been implemented, the collapse in the health care system could be avoided. Nevertheless, the isolated persons must be released one day. Based on this model, we studied the potential epidemiological scenarios of release by varying the proportions of the release of young and elder persons. We also evaluated three different strategies of release: All isolated persons are released simultaneously, two and three releases divided in equal proportions. The better scenarios occurred when young persons are released, but maintaining elder persons isolated for a while. When compared with the epidemic without isolation, all strategies of release did not attain the goal of reducing substantially the number of hospitalisations due to severe CoViD-19. Hence, we concluded that the best decision must be postponing the beginning of the release.