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Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been associated with the development mental and behavioural symptoms and psychiatric disorders. This association is stronger in severe cases of the disease and in those needing inpatient treatment, particularly in intensive care units (ICU).
To determine the incidence of psychiatric disorders in a Portuguese hospital-based sample of patients with COVID-19. To describe relevant demographic and clinical data.
We reviewed all COVID-19 inpatients assessed by liaison psychiatry at our hospital between April and September 2020. Patients admitted due to a psychiatric disorder were excluded from the analysis. We reviewed medical records and retrieved relevant clinical data. ICD-10 was used to classify diagnoses.
We identified 36 cases with a mean age of 62.64 years-old (SD 19.23). The most common disorder was delirium, which occurred in 41.7% of our sample (15 patients), followed by adjustment disorder (22.2%, n=8), and depressive episode (16.7%, n=8). Most patients had no personal (61.1%, n=22) nor family (75%, n=27) history of a psychiatric disorder. Mean length of admission was 36.89 days (SD 28.91). Seventeen cases (47.22%) had at least one risk factor for severe COVID-19 disease and 14 (38.89%) were admitted at some point to the ICU.
In our sample, delirium was the main cause for mental or behavioural symptoms in COVID-19 patients. However, we observed a wide array of presentations in our center. A larger sample would allow to better characterize this often-overlooked symptoms and identify risk factors to psychiatric syndromes.
Ramadan happens in the ninth month of the Muslim lunar calendar. The cycle of the sun marks the beginning and the end of fasting. Its duration varies depending on the season: approximately 18 h in the summer to approximately 12 h during winter. The obligation to eat only during the night leads to an important change in the circadian rhythm There are certain psychiatric illnesses wherein people are very sensitive to this circadian disruption, bipolar disorder in particular. We know that a regulated circadian rhythm with adequate sleep are essential for symptom regulation and mood stability, with the risk of relapse or worsening symptoms. Additionally, some medications have to be maintained at a specific therapeutic index, namely lithium, a common mood stabilizer used to treat bipolar disorder.
To review the impact of Ramadan on patients with bipolar disorder
Pubmed and Google Scholar search using the keywords Bipolar disorder, Ramadan, circadian rhythm, fasting, sleep deprivation
All physiologic parameters are influenced by the circadian rhythm, which is influenced in its turn by the food rhythm. Studies on the effects of Ramadan on mood and mental health in the general population provide contradicting evidence. The inability to take medications during the day, dehydration and other somatic changes that necessitate dosing modification may lead to psychiatric symptom exacerbation.
Patients with bipolar disorder might be particularly sensitive to circadian rhythm disturbances and could require increased monitoring of their symptoms during this month.
XtendFlex® technology from Bayer allows growers to apply glyphosate, glufosinate, and dicamba POST to cotton. Since the evolution and spread of glyphosate-resistant weed species, early POST applications with several modes of action have become common. However, crop injury potential from these applications warrants further examination. Field studies were conducted from 2015 to 2017 at two locations in Mississippi to evaluate XtendFlex® cotton injury from herbicide application. Herbicide applications were made to XtendFlex® cotton at the three- to six-leaf stage with herbicide combinations composed of two-, three-, and four-way combinations of glyphosate, glufosinate, S-metolachlor, and three formulations of dicamba. Data collection included visual estimations of injury, stand counts, cotton height, total mainstem nodes, and nodes above whiteflower at first bloom. Data collection at the end of the season included cotton height, total mainstem nodes, and nodes above cracked boll. Visual estimations of injury from herbicide applications were highest at 3 d following applications containing glufosinate + S-metolachlor (36% to 41% injury) and glufosinate + S-metolachlor in combination with dicamba + glyphosate (39% to 41% injury), regardless of the dicamba formulation. Crop injury decreased at each rating interval and dissipated by 28 d following applications (P = 0.3748). Height reductions were present at first bloom and at the end of the season (P < 0.0001), although cotton yield was unaffected (P = 0.2089), even when injury at 3 d after application was greater than 30%. Results indicate that growers may apply a variety of herbicide tank mixtures to XtendFlex® cotton and expect no yield penalty. Furthermore, if growers are concerned with cotton injury after herbicide applications, the use of glufosinate in combination with S-metolachlor should be approached with caution in XtendFlex® cotton.
Strenuous physical activity, sleep deprivation and psychological stress are common features of military field training. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of supplementation with a synbiotic ice cream on salivary IgA, gastrointestinal symptoms, well-being indicators and gut microbiota in young military participants undergoing field training. Sixty-five military completed the study: one group was supplemented for 30 d with synbiotic ice cream containing: 2·1 × 108 CFU/g for Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and 2·7 × 109 CFU/g for Bifidobacterium animalis BB-12 and 2·3 g of inulin in the 60 g of ice cream at manufacture, and the other with a placebo ice cream. Volunteers were evaluated at pre-supplementation (baseline), post-supplementation and after a 5-d military training. Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus genera were measured in stool samples and both showed a higher differential abundance post-supplementation and training. Salivary IgA and gastrointestinal symptoms decreased at post-training in both groups (P < 0·05; main effect of time); however, supplementation with synbiotic did not mitigate this effect. Tenseness and sleepiness were decreased in the synbiotic-treated group, but not in the placebo group at post-military training (P = 0·01 and 0·009, respectively; group × time effect). The other well-being indicators were not affected by the synbiotic supplementation. In conclusion, 30 d of synbiotic ice cream supplementation containing inulin, L. acidophilus LA-5 and B. animalis BB-12 favourably modulated gut microbiota and improved tenseness and sleepiness in healthy young military undergoing a 5-d field training. These improvements may be relevant to this population as they may influence the decision-making process in an environment of high physical and psychological stress.
Mucositis is an inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa resulting from high doses of radio/chemotherapy treatment and may lead to interruption of antineoplasic therapy. Soluble fibres, like pectin, increase SCFA production, which play a role in gut homoeostasis and inflammation suppression. Due to the properties of pectin, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a high-fibre (HF) diet on chemotherapy-induced mucositis in a murine model. C57/BL6 mice received control (AIN93M), HF, low/zero fibre (LF) diets for 10 d prior to mucositis challenging with irinotecan (75 mg/kg), or they were treated with acetate added to drinking water 5 d prior to and during the mucositis induction. Mice that received the HF diet showed decreased immune cells influx and improved histopathological parameters in the intestine, compared with mice that received the normal diet. Furthermore, the HF diet decreased intestinal permeability induced in the mucositis model when compared with the control group. This effect was not observed for acetate alone, which did not improve gut permeability. For instance, mice that received the LF diet had worsened gut permeability, compared with mice that received the normal diet and mucositis. The effects of the HF and LF diets were shown to modulate the intestinal microbiota, in which the LF diet increased the levels of Enterobacteriaceae, a group associated with gut inflammation, whereas the HF diet decreased this group and increased Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium (SCFA producers) levels. In conclusion, the results demonstrated the importance of dietary fibre intake in the modulation of gut microbiota composition and homoeostasis maintenance during mucositis in this model.
African animal trypanosomiasis (AAT) affects the livestock of 12.3 million Somalis and constrains their development and wellbeing. There is missing data on AAT in the country after the civil war of the 1990s. Therefore, this study has aimed to assess the prevalence of Trypanosoma spp. in 614 blood samples from cattle (n = 202), goats (n = 206) and sheep (n = 206) in Afgoye and Jowhar districts, Somalia using parasitological and molecular methods. Twenty-one out of 614 (3.4%; 95% CI: 2.1–5.2%) and 101/614 (16.4%; 95% CI: 13.6–19.6%) ruminants were positive for Trypanosoma spp. by buffy coat technique (BCT) and internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. Using ITS1-PCR, the highest prevalence was observed in cattle (23.8%; 95% CI: 18.4–30.1%) followed by goats (17.5%; 95% CI: 12.9–23.3%) and sheep (8.3%; 95% CI: 5.1–12.9%). A total of 74/101 (73.3%; 95% CI: 63.5–81.6%) ruminants were shown coinfection with at least two Trypanosome species. The four T. brucei-positive samples have tested negative for T. b. rhodesiense, by the human-serum-resistance-associated-PCR. Trypanosoma evansi, T. godfreyi, T. vivax, T. brucei, T. simiae and T. congolense were the Trypanosoma species found in this study. This is the first study on the molecular detection of Trypanosoma sp. in ruminants in Somalia. Further investigations and control measures are needed to manage Trypanosomiasis spreading in the country. Studies should also focus on the detection of T. b. rhodesiense in the country.
The farrowing process is one of the most energy-demanding activities for the modern hyperprolific sow. This study evaluated the effects of supply of energy on the expected date of farrowing on the farrowing kinetics and piglets’ performance during the first 24 h after birth. A total of 80 sows were used. The sows and their respective litters were considered as the experimental unit. On the expected day of farrowing, the sows were allocated to one of the following groups: sows that did not have access to feed from farrowing induction until the end of the farrowing process (CON, n = 40); sows fed 500 g of energetic supplement, which consisted of 250 g of the basal lactation diet plus 250 g of cane sugar, 18 h after farrowing induction (SUP, n = 40). The farrowing duration, farrowing assistance, birth interval, number of total born, stillborn and mummified piglets were recorded for each sow. Piglets were weighed individually at birth and 24 h later. The interval from birth to first suckle was evaluated individually for each piglet in 16 randomly selected litters (eight litters per treatment group). Blood glucose concentrations of six sows were measured shortly after expulsion of the first piglet. Farrowing duration, farrowing assistance and stillborn rate tended to be greater (P = 0.06, P = 0.09 and P = 0.07, respectively) in sows from the CON group compared to sows from the SUP group. However, there was no difference (P > 0.05) between the groups for birth interval. Colostrum intake was greater (P < 0.05) for piglets from the SUP group compared to piglets from the CON group. Additionally, BW gain of the piglets suckling the SUP group was greater (P < 0.05) than those suckling the CON group at 24 h after birth. The blood glucose concentrations during the expulsive stage of farrowing were greater (P < 0.05) in the SUP group than for sows from the CON group. In conclusion, supplying modern hyperprolific sows energy on the expected day of farrowing is a valuable nutritional intervention to improve the farrowing kinetics and piglets’ performance in early life.
The impact of Idiopathic Parkinson Disease (IPD) in patient’s sexual health is still a matter of debate. Clinicians should have a concern about the sexual function of their patients with IPD.
To evaluate sexual health of patients with IPD.
We randomly select a group of IPD patients and a group of healthy controls. We used the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) to assess sexual function. To evaluate depression and anxiety we used Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and Beck Depression Index (BDI).
We had 83 IPD patients, and 69 controls. Male patients had lower total IIEF scores than controls (p< 0,001). The analysis of linear regression shows a relationship between the IIFE and the duration of the disease, the patient age and the BDI score (R=0,72; Adjusted R square=0,49, p< 0,001) when adjusted to the variables: realization of deep brain cirurgy of subthalamic nucleus (DBS-STN) stage of the disease, BSI score, dopaminergic treatment, treatment with antidepressives and antipsychotics. The IFSF didn’t show differences between the cases and the controls. Patients had higher BSI and BDI scores than controls (p< 0,001).
Male IPD patients had an impairment of sexual function predicted by disease duration, patient age and BDI scores. Sexual function should be assessed in these patients
The efficacy of antidepressants has been linked in part to their ability to reduce activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis; however, the mechanism by which antidepressants regulate the HPA axis is largely unknown. Recent research has demonstrated that endocannabinoids can regulate the HPA axis and exhibit antidepressant potential.
The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate the effect of chronic administration of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) on the adrenal gland of mice.
Delta9-THC (10 mg/kg, 1 THC:1 chremophor:18 saline) or vehicle (CT, 1 chremophor:18 saline) was administered i.p. for 10 days to C57Bl6 mice aged 15 weeks. At the end of the study rats were placed in metabolic cages. Noradrenaline (NA) and adrenaline (AD) levels in samples and tissues were evaluated by HPLC-ED. Statistical analysis was done by ANOVA followed by Student's t test. Results are presented as mean±SEM.
Treatment with delta9-THC did not produce changes in mice weight (CT: 25±1; delta9-THC: 24±1 g, n=5-6) but produced a significant reduction in adrenal gland weight (CT: 1.4±0.2; delta9-THC: 0.6±0.1* mg, n=5-6, *P˂0.01). However, treatment with delta9-THC did not produce significant changes in NA and AD adrenal content (NA: 7.5±2.1, 5.3±0.6; AD: 14.1±1.1, 11.1±2.1 nmol, CT and delta9-THC respectively, n=5-6) or in NA and AD urine levels (NA: 0.88±0.06, 1.18±0.17; AD: 0.64±0.07, 0.81±0.09 nmol/24h, CT and delta9-THC respectively, n=5-6).
Chronic treatment with delta9-THC reduces adrenal gland weight in mice. These results suggest that endocannabinoids may act directly at the adrenal gland to regulate the HPA axis.
A small subset of patients with above average admissions to psychiatric inpatient units is recognized in clinical practice. These frequent users tend to be younger and to have a diagnosis of schizophrenia or affective disorder. Social conditions and the severity of the illness seem to be associated with this increased number of admissions.
To study demographic and clinical characteristics of frequent and non-frequent users of a psychiatric inpatient unit.
Retrospective data of all the patients admitted to a psychiatric inpatient unit from January 2004 to December 2008 were reviewed. Frequent-users were defined as patients with 3 or more admissions over that period of time, and non-frequent users as those with less than 3 admissions. The two groups were compared in terms of age, gender, ethnicity, psychiatric diagnosis and compulsory admissions
In a total of 2018 admissions and 1348 patients, the frequent-user group represented 10.2% (n = 137) of the patients and 28.9%(n = 584) of the admissions. Frequent-users were significantly younger (39.5 vs. 44.5 years, p = .001), more frequently black (22.6 vs. 19.4%, p < .001) and compulsorily admitted (27.7 vs. 14%, p < .001) than non-frequent users. Patients with bipolar disorder (p = .001), schizophrenia (p = .003) belonged significantly more to frequent-users group, while unipolar depressive patients (p = .016) and other diagnosis (p = .011) was more significantly represented in the non-frequent users group. Frequency of admission did not differ with gender.
The results concerning age and psychiatric diagnosis are consistent with previous studies. Compulsory admissions and black ethnicity were significantly higher among frequent- users.
Decision capacity (DC) is a complex construct, whose assessment poses huge challenges to Liaison Psychiatrist (LP).
Assess factors related to DC in patients with somatic disorders admitted in medical and surgical departments of a general hospital.
Clinical records of patients who were submitted to a DC assessment at Hospital Fernando Fonseca (Portugal), from 1st January 2012 to 31st December 2014 were retrospectively analysed. Collected data were statistically analysed with SPSS®. Univariable analysis was performed, in order to determine factors related to DC.
Data from 35 patients subject to DC evaluation were considered, of whom 42.4% were considered unable to give consent to medical and/or surgical procedures. Most of these assessments were related to patients who refused treatment. Patients unable to decide were predominantly male and mainly affected by organic mental or neurocognitive disorders (P < 0.05). There were no statistical significant differences in the age of those considered able or unable to decide. After PL intervention, 40% of those considered unable to decide changed their decision. However, it was not significantly related to the ability to give consent.
Neurocognitive disorders are common diagnosis found in patients admitted in somatic departments with no DC. Frequent change in decision after LP intervention may reflect not only cognitive fluctuations, but also a possible influence of LP intervention on patients’ choices. Appropriate standardized measures are useful tools in assessing patients with cognitive impairment, reducing evaluation differences between professionals, and in order to increase LP decisions credibility.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Illness anxiety disorder, or hypochondriasis, is one the most difficult and complex psychiatric disorders to treat.
To describe a case of a patient with illness anxiety disorder and summarize the most important aspects on this theme.
Interviews with the patient and literature review searching the PubMed/MEDLINE were performed.
A 42-year-old married man, dentist, Angolan citizen, who had recently arrived in Portugal, was referred to psychiatry assessment during his hospitalization in medicine service, after an exhaustive medical evaluation. He was excessively anxious and worried about having a severe heart disease because he has gradually become more aware of palpitations and chest pain. Although negative results of the examinations he was worried that “something has been missed”. After he had consulted several medical providers in Luanda, he decided to seek medical advice in Portugal. Patient believed that his symptoms exacerbated with activity and intake food, so he gradually restricted them. Due to his health anxiety, he stopped his work and lost 36 kilos. Shortly before the onset of the clinical picture, his daughter was hospitalized for the first time.
Illness anxiety disorder often begins in early to middle adulthood. Its core feature is the fear or idea of having a serious disease, based on the misinterpretation of bodily signs and sensations as evidence of disease, which persists despite appropriate medical evaluations and reassurance. This patient fulfills the DSM-5 criteria of Illness anxiety disorder and has a clinical profile similar to those found in literature.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
We assessed whether paternal demographic, anthropometric and clinical factors influence the risk of an infant being born large-for-gestational-age (LGA). We examined the data on 3659 fathers of term offspring (including 662 LGA infants) born to primiparous women from Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE). LGA was defined as birth weight >90th centile as per INTERGROWTH 21st standards, with reference group being infants ⩽90th centile. Associations between paternal factors and likelihood of an LGA infant were examined using univariable and multivariable models. Men who fathered LGA babies were 180 g heavier at birth (P<0.001) and were more likely to have been born macrosomic (P<0.001) than those whose infants were not LGA. Fathers of LGA infants were 2.1 cm taller (P<0.001), 2.8 kg heavier (P<0.001) and had similar body mass index (BMI). In multivariable models, increasing paternal birth weight and height were independently associated with greater odds of having an LGA infant, irrespective of maternal factors. One unit increase in paternal BMI was associated with 2.9% greater odds of having an LGA boy but not girl; however, this association disappeared after adjustment for maternal BMI. There were no associations between paternal demographic factors or clinical history and infant LGA. In conclusion, fathers who were heavier at birth and were taller were more likely to have an LGA infant, but maternal BMI had a dominant influence on LGA.
The effects of growing pinto peanut mixed with elephant grass-based pastures are still little known. The aim of the current research was to evaluate the performance of herbage yield, nutritive value of forage and animal responses to levels of pinto peanut forage mass mixed with elephant grass in low-input systems. Three grazing systems were evaluated: (i) elephant grass-based (control); (ii) pinto peanut, low-density forage yield (63 g/kg of dry matter – DM) + elephant grass; and (iii) pinto peanut, high-density dry matter forage yield (206 g/kg DM) + elephant grass. The experimental design was completely randomized with the three treatments (grazing systems) and three replicates (paddocks) in split-plot grazing cycles. Forage samples were collected to evaluate the pasture and animal responses. Leaf blades of elephant grass and the other companion grasses of pinto peanut were collected to analyse the crude protein, in vitro digestible organic matter and total digestible nutrients. The pinto peanut, high-density dry matter forage yield + elephant grass treatment was found to give the best results in terms of herbage yield, forage intake and stocking rate, as well as having higher crude protein contents for both elephant grass and the other grasses, followed by pinto peanut with low-density forage yield + elephant grass and finally elephant grass alone. Better results were found with the grass–legume system for pasture and animal responses.
With international demand for production systems aimed at thermal comfort and animal welfare, milk producers have become increasingly interested in compost barns. However, doubts about the behavioral aspects of cows in tropical and subtropical climates remain, because the compost barn system offers a larger bed area per animal at a lower stocking rate. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the diurnal behaviors, hygiene and lameness of crossbred dairy cows are influenced by different number of lactations when housed in a compost-bedded pack barn system under hot and humid conditions. Crossbred cows (Holstein and Jersey), which were divided into two treatments based on number of lactations (primiparous and multiparous cows), were evaluated during lactation (n=12). The study was conducted from September 2015 to February 2016 in a compost barn in the southwest region of the state of Paraná, Brazil. Daytime behavior was observed between milking schedules using focal observations with 0/1 sampling. Cow hygiene and lameness were evaluated using subjective scores ranging from 1 to 4 and 1 to 5, respectively. Animal behavior and welfare was analyzed using Bayesian inference with a mixed effects model. The probabilities of dyspnea and pushing behaviors were higher (P<0.05) in multiparous cows, and the probability increased during the hottest hours of the day. For both multiparous and primiparous cows, the agonistic behaviors of pushing, butting and chasing peaked during the afternoon. Eating behaviors had the highest likelihood values (0.8 at 0800 h). The cows preferred to remain lying down in the morning, while rest and standing rumination were preferred in the afternoon. Primiparous cows were cleaner than multiparous cows, and the hygiene score for this group was significantly lower (P<0.05). The hygiene and lameness scores for all animals were low, and the highest scores were 1 and 2. In conclusion, multiparous cows exhibited more frequent agonistic behaviors during the hottest hours of the day. Regarding hygiene and lameness scores, multiparous cows exhibited a higher degree of dirtiness compared with the primiparous cows.
We studied the ontogenetic growth of goat wethers (castrated male goats) of the Saanen and Swiss Alpine breeds based on a large range of intraspecific body mass (BM). The body parts and the chemical constituents of the empty body were described by the allometric function by using BM and the empty body mass (EBM) as the predictors for morphological traits and chemical composition, respectively. We fitted the allometric scaling function by applying the SAS NLMIXED procedure, but to evaluate assumptions regarding variances in morphological and compositional traits, we combined the scaling function with homoscedastic (MOD1), and the heteroscedastic exponential (MOD2) and power-of-the-mean (MOD3) variance functions. We also predicted the ontogenetic growth by using the traditional log-log transformation and back-transformed results into the arithmetic scale (MOD4). We obtained predictions from MOD4 in the arithmetic scale by a two-step process, and evaluated MOD1, MOD2 and MOD3 by a model selection framework, and compared MOD4 with MOD1, MOD2 and MOD3 based on goodness-of-fit measures. Based on information criteria for model selection, heterogeneous variance functions were more likely to describe 10 over 36 traits with a low level of model selection uncertainty. One trait was predicted by averaging the MOD1 and MOD2 variance functions; and nine traits were better described by averaging the MOD2 and MOD3 variance functions. The predictions for other 16 traits were averaged from MOD1, MOD2 and MOD3. However, MOD4 better described 11 traits according to the goodness-of-fit measures. Depending on the variable being analyzed, the body parts and the chemical amounts exhibited the three types of allometric behavior with respect to BM and EBM, that is, positive, negative and isometric ontogenetic growth. Reference BMs, that is, 20, 27, 35 and 45 kg, were used to compute the net protein and energy requirements based on the first derivative of the scaling function, and the results were presented in reference to the EBM and EBM0.75. Both the net protein and energy requirements scaled to EBM0.75 increased from 20 to 45 kg of BM.
Licuri (Syagrus coronate) cake is a biodiesel by-product used in ruminant feed as a beneficial energy source for supplementation in managed pastures. The objective was to evaluate the performance, digestibility, nitrogen balance, blood metabolites, ingestive behavior and diet profitability of eight crossbred Holstein (3/4)×Gyr (5/8) multiparous cows (480±25 kg BW and 100 days milking) grazing and supplemented with licuri cake partially replacing ground corn and soybean meal in concentrate (0, 200, 400 and 600 g/kg in dry matter (DM)), distributed in an experimental duplicated 4×4 Latin square design. Licuri cake partially replacing ground corn and soybean meal increased (P<0.01) the intake and digestibility of ether extract and decreased the non-fiber carbohydrates; however, there were no influences on the intakes of DM, CP, NDF and total digestible nutrients (TDN). The digestibilities of DM, CP and NDF were not influenced by licuri cake addition. There was a decrease trend on TDN digestibility (P=0.08). Licuri cake replacing ground corn and soybean meal in concentrate did not affect the intake; fecal, urinary and mammary excretions; N balance; and triglycerides concentrations. However, the blood urea nitrogen (P=0.04) concentration decreased with the licuri cakes inclusion in cow supplementation. There was an increasing trend for serum creatinine (P=0.07). Licuri cake inclusion did not affect body condition score, production, yield, protein, lactose, total solids and solid non-fat contents of milk and Minas frescal cheese. There was a linear decrease in average daily weight gain (g/day). The milk fat concentration and cheese fat production (P<0.1) presented a linear increase with partial replacement of ground corn and soybean meal with licuri cakes. The addition of licuri cake did not alter the time spent feeding, ruminating or idling. There was an increasing trend in NDF feeding efficiency (P=0.09). The replacing of ground corn and soybean meal with licuri cake up to 600 g/kg decreased the concentrate cost by US$0.45/cow per day. Licuri cake replacing corn and soybeans (400 g/kg) in concentrate promoted a profit of US$0.07/animal per day. Licuri cake is indicated to concentrate the supplementation of dairy cows with average productions of 10 kg/day at levels up to 400 g/kg in the concentrate supplement because it provides an additional profit of US$0.07/animal per day and increased milk and Minas frescal cheese fat without negative effects on productive parameters.
To this date ψ Per is the only classical Be star that was angularly resolved in radio (by the VLA at λ = 2 cm). Gaussian fit to the azimuthally averaged visibility data indicates a disk size (FWHM) of ~500 stellar radii (Dougherty & Taylor 1992). Recently, we obtained new multi-band cm flux density measurements of ψ Per from the enhanced VLA. We modeled the observed spectral energy distribution (SED) covering the interval from ultraviolet to radio using the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code HDUST (Carciofi & Bjorkman 2006). An SED turndown, that occurs between far-IR and radio wavelengths, is explained by a truncated viscous decretion disk (VDD), although the shallow slope of the radio SED suggests that the disk is not simply cut off, as is assumed in our model. The best-fit size of a truncated disk derived from the modeling of the radio SED is 100+5−15 stellar radii, which is in striking contrast with the result of Dougherty & Taylor (1992). The reasons for this discrepancy are under investigation.
Maternal diet-induced obesity can cause detrimental developmental origins of health and disease in offspring. Perinatal exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD) can lead to later behavioral and metabolic disturbances, but it is not clear which behaviors and metabolic parameters are most vulnerable. To address this critical gap, biparental and monogamous oldfield mice (Peromyscus polionotus), which may better replicate most human societies, were used in the current study. About 2 weeks before breeding, adult females were placed on a control or HFD and maintained on the diets throughout gestation and lactation. F1 offspring were placed at weaning (30 days of age) on the control diet and spatial learning and memory, anxiety, exploratory, voluntary physical activity, and metabolic parameters were tested when they reached adulthood (90 days of age). Surprisingly, maternal HFD caused decreased latency in initial and reverse Barnes maze trials in male, but not female, offspring. Both male and female HFD-fed offspring showed increased anxiogenic behaviors, but decreased exploratory and voluntary physical activity. Moreover, HFD offspring demonstrated lower resting energy expenditure (EE) compared with controls. Accordingly, HFD offspring weighed more at adulthood than those from control fed dams, likely the result of reduced physical activity and EE. Current findings indicate a maternal HFD may increase obesity susceptibility in offspring due to prenatal programming resulting in reduced physical activity and EE later in life. Further work is needed to determine the underpinning neural and metabolic mechanisms by which a maternal HFD adversely affects neurobehavioral and metabolic pathways in offspring.
To date no comprehensive evaluation has appraised the likelihood of bias or the strength of the evidence of peripheral biomarkers for bipolar disorder (BD). Here we performed an umbrella review of meta-analyses of peripheral non-genetic biomarkers for BD.
The Pubmed/Medline, EMBASE and PsycInfo electronic databases were searched up to May 2015. Two independent authors conducted searches, examined references for eligibility, and extracted data. Meta-analyses in any language examining peripheral non-genetic biomarkers in participants with BD (across different mood states) compared to unaffected controls were included.
Six references, which examined 13 biomarkers across 20 meta-analyses (5474 BD cases and 4823 healthy controls) met inclusion criteria. Evidence for excess of significance bias (i.e. bias favoring publication of ‘positive’ nominally significant results) was observed in 11 meta-analyses. Heterogeneity was high for (I2 ⩾ 50%) 16 meta-analyses. Only two biomarkers met criteria for suggestive evidence namely the soluble IL-2 receptor and morning cortisol. The median power of included studies, using the effect size of the largest dataset as the plausible true effect size of each meta-analysis, was 15.3%.
Our findings suggest that there is an excess of statistically significant results in the literature of peripheral biomarkers for BD. Selective publication of ‘positive’ results and selective reporting of outcomes are possible mechanisms.