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Sex differences in brain structure and neurodevelopment occur in non-clinical populations. We investigated whether sex had a similar effect on developmental domains amongst boys and girls with a familial risk of schizophrenia (FHR-SZ), bipolar disorder (FHR-BP), and controls.
Through Danish registries, we identified 522 7-year-old children (242 girls) with FHR-SZ, FHR-BP, and controls. We assessed their performance within the domains of neurocognition, motor function, language, social cognition, social behavior, psychopathology, and home environment.
FHR-SZ boys compared with FHR-SZ girls had a higher proportion of disruptive behavior and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and exhibited lower performance in manual dexterity, balance, and emotion recognition. No sex differences were found between boys and girls within FHR-BP group. Compared with controls, both FHR-SZ boys and FHR-SZ girls showed impaired processing speed and working memory, had lower levels of global functioning, and were more likely to live in an inadequate home environment. Compared with control boys, FHR-SZ boys showed impaired manual dexterity, social behavior, and social responsiveness, and had a higher proportion of ADHD and disruptive behavior disorder diagnoses. Stress and adjustment disorders were more common in FHR-BP boys compared with control boys. We found no differences between FHR-BP girls and control girls.
Impairment within neurodevelopmental domains associated within FHR-SZ boys v. FHR-SZ girls was most evident among boys, whereas no sex differences were found within the FHR-BP group (FHR-BP boys v. FHR-BP girls). FHR-SZ boys exhibited the highest proportion of early developmental impairments.
Delirium is reported to be one of the manifestations of coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. COVID-19 hospitalized patients are at a higher risk of delirium. Pathophysiology behind the association of delirium and COVID-19 is uncertain. We analyzed the association of delirium occurrence with outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, across all age groups, at Mayo Clinic hospitals.
A retrospective study of all hospitalized COVID-19 patients at Mayo Clinic between March 1, 2020 and December 31, 2020 was performed. Occurrence of delirium and outcomes of mortality, length of stay, readmission, and 30-day mortality after hospital discharge were measured. Chi-square test, student t-test, survival analysis, and logistic regression analysis were performed to measure and compare outcomes of delirium group adjusted for age, sex, Charlson comorbidity score, and COVID-19 severity with no-delirium group.
A total of 4351 COVID-19 patients were included in the study. Delirium occurrence in the overall study population was noted to be 22.4%. The highest occurrence of delirium was also noted in patients with critical COVID-19 illness severity. A statistically significant OR 4.35 (3.27–5.83) for in-hospital mortality and an OR 4.54 (3.25–6.38) for 30-day mortality after discharge in the delirium group were noted. Increased hospital length of stay, 30-day readmission, and need for skilled nursing facility on discharge were noted in the delirium group. Delirium in hospitalized COVID-19 patients is a marker for increased mortality and morbidity. In this group, outcomes appear to be much worse when patients are older and have a critical severity of COVID-19 illness.
The discovery of wake bistability has generated an upsurge in experimental investigations into the wakes of simplified vehicle geometries. Particular focus has centred on the probabilistic switching between two asymmetrical bistable wake states of a square-back Ahmed body; however, the majority of this research has been undertaken in wind tunnels with turbulence intensities of less than $1\,\%$, considerably lower than typical atmospheric levels. To better simulate bistability under on-road conditions, in which turbulence intensities can easily reach levels of $10\,\%$ or more, this experimental study investigates the effects of free-stream turbulence on the bistability characteristics of the square-back Ahmed body. Through passive generation and quantification of the free-stream turbulent conditions, a monotonic correlation was found between the switching rate and free-stream turbulence intensity.
The cognitive control system matures gradually with age and shows age-related sex differences. To gain knowledge concerning error adaptation in familial high-risk groups, investigating error adaptation among the offspring of parents with severe mental disorders is important and may contribute to the understanding of cognitive functioning in at-risk individuals. We identified an observational cohort through Danish registries and measured error adaptation using an Eriksen flanker paradigm. We tested 497 7-year-old children with a familial high risk of schizophrenia (N = 192) or bipolar disorder (N = 116) for deficits in error adaptation compared with a control group (N = 189). We investigated whether error adaptation differed between high-risk groups compared with controls and sex differences in the adaptation to errors, irrespective of high-risk status. Overall, children exhibited post-error slowing (PES), but the slowing of responses did not translate to significant improvements in accuracy. No differences were detected between either high-risk group compared with the controls. Boys showed less PES and PES after incongruent trials than girls. Our results suggest that familial high risk of severe mental disorders does not influence error adaptation at this early stage of cognitive control development. Error adaptation behavior at age 7 years shows specific sex differences.
The spicules of male parasitic nematodes are key morphological features, which vary between species in shape and length and are used often for species identification. However, little is known about spicules and particularly if/how their length varies during growth. We first assessed the degree of variation in spicule length of male Heligmosomoides bakeri 21 days post infection (PI), and then in two follow-up experiments measured spicule lengths at half daily/daily intervals between days 6 and 14 PI. Mean spicule length in 21-day worms was 0.518 mm with a range of 94 μm, and variation between the two spicules of individual worms from 2 to 32 μm. Spicules were first detectable on day 6–6.5, after which their lengths increased until day 7 PI (mean = 0.61 and 0.59). This was followed by significant contraction, initially relatively quickly over the following 48 h and then more slowly over a longer period, stabilizing by days 10–14, with only minor further reduction in length. We conclude that the length of spicules varies significantly over the first few days after they have formed, and, consequently, the age of worms is an important factor for consideration when spicule lengths are measured for experimental/diagnostic or taxonomical purposes.
A growing body of research applies behavioral approaches to the study of international law, mainly by studying convenience samples of students or other segments of the general public. Alongside the promises of this agenda are concerns about applying findings from non-elite populations to the people, and groups of people, charged with most real-world decision-making in the domain of law and governance. This concern is compounded by the fact that it is extremely difficult to recruit these actual decision-makers in a way that allows for direct study.
Nematode spicules vary in shape and size even between closely related species and, therefore, constitute key characters in nematode taxonomy for distinguishing between species. Spicules are seldom measured on fresh specimens, but rather at some time after extraction from culled hosts and after a period of preservation of the worms in chemical fixatives or by freezing. We carried out two experiments to assess the effects of freezing in Hanks’ balanced salt solution, 70% or 80% ethanol and 10% formalin (both of the latter at room temperature and after storage at −80°C) on spicule length of Heligmosomoides bakeri at two time intervals after extraction from mice (Experiment 1, one and four weeks; Experiment 2, one and four months). In Experiment 1, no significant differences were detected, although there was some variation between treatments and over time. In Experiment 2, spicule length varied significantly between treatments and over time, the greatest shrinkage being in 80% ethanol and the least in 10% formalin. However, overall variation in spicule length was very limited, accounting for no more than 5.03% change in length over time and 4.95% between treatments at any of the periods of assessment. Therefore, while whole nematodes can shrivel and shrink in preservatives, making many measurements unreliable, our data indicated that spicule lengths are very little changed by preservation techniques over time, and so spicule length remains as a reliable taxonomic character.
The Scaling-up Health-Arts Programme: Implementation and Effectiveness Research (SHAPER) project is the world's largest hybrid study on the impact of the arts on mental health embedded into a national healthcare system. This programme, funded by the Wellcome Trust, aims to study the impact and the scalability of the arts as an intervention for mental health. The programme will be delivered by a team of clinicians, research scientists, charities, artists, patients and healthcare professionals in the UK's National Health Service (NHS) and the community, spanning academia, the NHS and the charity sector. SHAPER consists of three studies – Melodies for Mums, Dance for Parkinson's, and Stroke Odysseys – which will recruit over 800 participants, deliver the interventions and draw conclusions on their clinical impact, implementation effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. We hope that this work will inspire organisations and commissioners in the NHS and around the world to expand the remit of social prescribing to include evidence-based arts interventions.
Choosing Wisely Canada (CWC) is a national branch of a global campaign advocating for fewer unnecessary tests and for optimizing patient care. Professional societies representing physicians, pharmacists, and nurses participate by generating lists of recommendations meant to reduce patient harm and resource mismanagement in healthcare. The Canadian Neurological Society (CNS) plays an important role in advocating for quality patient care demonstrated by deriving specific recommendations. This process is described.
The CNS Choosing Wisely task force adapted 10 recommendations for Canadian neurology practice. These were approved by the CNS board, and subsequently ranked by CNS members.
Ten recommendations were brought forward and ranked in a survey completed by CNS members. Survey ranking is presented. The top five recommendations were selected and optimized, resulting in seven key recommendations.
The recommendations set forth by the CNS will help with resource stewardship and patient safety in the delivery of neurological care by healthcare providers in Canada.
Now in its fourth edition, this is the definitive step-by-step 'how to' guide to designing an organization. Building on information processing theory, the book proposes a holistic, multi-contingency model of the organization. This textbook communicates the fundamentals of traditional and new organizational forms, including up-to-date analysis of self-organizing, boss-less, digital, and sustainable organizations. Providing a framework for the practical implementation of organizational design changes, the authors break the process down into seven basic steps: (1) Assessing Goals, (2) Assessing Strategy, (3) Analyzing Structure, (4) Assessing Process and People, (5) Analyzing Coordination, Control and Incentives, (6) Designing the Architecture, and (7) Implementing the Architecture. Each step connects with one of the nine interdependent components of the multi-contingency model, and the authors also provide a logical query process for approaching each of these components. This is an ideal guide for managers or executives interested in assessing their organization and taking steps to redesign it for success, as well as for MBA and executive MBA students looking for an introduction to organizational design.