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We present the construction of an expert system (ES) for the diagnosis of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders (OCD). It concerns an artificial intelligence tool, in Lisp language compatible with any personal computer (PC) with a hard disk. The ES asks the user 50 questions in natural language, on the patient or on a clinical history. It is provided with 115 rules of reasoning. Using single or multivaluate variables, the ES reaches the diagnosis of the Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders or the recommendations of differential diagnosis with related patterns or involucred with obsessive pathology: phobic, affective, schizophrenic and Gilles de la Tourette disorders. Finally, the perspectives for the utilisation of the ES in psychopathology are disscussed, in conjunction with the 2 serious problems created, design difficulty and user acceptance.
Early nutrition may have long-lasting metabolic impacts in adulthood. Even though breast milk is the gold standard, most infants are at least partly formula-fed. Despite obvious improvements, infant formulas remain perfectible to reduce the gap between breastfed and formula-fed infants. Improvements such as reducing the protein content, modulating the lipid matrix and adding prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics, are discussed regarding metabolic health. Numerous questions remain to be answered on how impacting the infant formula composition may modulate the host metabolism and exert long-term benefits. Interactions between early nutrition (composition of human milk and infant formula) and the gut microbiota profile, as well as mechanisms connecting gut microbiota to metabolic health, are highlighted. Gut microbiota stands as a key actor in the nutritional programming but additional well-designed longitudinal human studies are needed.
This study aims at presenting a way to obtain nanostructured materials. Austenitic
stainless steel (316L) nanopowders and ferritic/martensitic alloy steels (Fe14Cr) are
sintered with the Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) technique. This technique leads to a fully
dense/nano-sized microstructure material after a short treatment. The optimal sintering
temperature was found to be 850°C for both materials. The relationship between the Vickers Hardness
and scale of the microstructure is in good agreement with the Hall-Petch Law.
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