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The role of starburst winds versus active galactic nuclei (AGN) jets/winds in the formation of the kiloparsec scale radio emission seen in Seyferts is not yet well understood. In order to be able to disentangle the role of various components, we have observed a sample of Seyfert galaxies exhibiting kpc-scale radio emission suggesting outflows, along with a comparison sample of starburst galaxies, with the EVLA B-array in polarimetric mode at 1.4 GHz and 5 GHz. The Seyfert galaxy NGC 2639, shows highly polarized secondary radio lobes, not observed before, which are aligned perpendicular to the known pair of radio lobes. The additional pair of lobes represent an older epoch of emission. A multi-epoch multi-frequency study of the starburst-Seyfert composite galaxy NGC 3079, reveals that the jet together with the starburst superwind and the galactic magnetic fields might be responsible for the well-known 8-shaped radio lobes observed in this galaxy. We find that many of the Seyfert galaxies in our sample show bubble-shaped lobes, which are absent in the starburst galaxies that do not host an AGN.
The German Twin Family Panel (TwinLife) is a German longitudinal study of monozygotic and dizygotic same-sex twin pairs and their families that was designed to investigate the development of social inequalities over the life course. The study covers an observation period from approximately 2014 to 2023. The target population of the sample are reared-together twins of four different age cohorts that were born in 2009/2010 (cohort 1), in 2003/2004 (cohort 2), in 1997/1998 (cohort 3) and between 1990 and 1993 (cohort 4). In the first wave, the study included data on 4097 twin families. Families were recruited in all parts of Germany so that the sample comprises the whole range of the educational, occupational and income structure. As of 2019, two face-to-face, at-home interviews and two telephone interviews have been conducted. Data from the first home and telephone interviews are already available free of charge as a scientific use-file from the GESIS data archive. This report aims to provide an overview of the study sample and design as well as constructs that are unique in TwinLife in comparison with previous twin studies — such as an assessment of cognitive abilities or information based on the children’s medical records and report cards. In addition, major findings based on the data already released are displayed, and future directions of the study are presented and discussed.
The objective was to compare the performance of the updated Charlson comorbidity index (uCCI) and classical CCI (cCCI) in predicting 30-day mortality in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB). All cases of SAB in patients aged ⩾14 years identified at the Microbiology Unit were included prospectively and followed. Comorbidity was evaluated using the cCCI and uCCI. Relevant variables associated with SAB-related mortality, along with cCCI or uCCI scores, were entered into multivariate logistic regression models. Global model fit, model calibration and predictive validity of each model were evaluated and compared. In total, 257 episodes of SAB in 239 patients were included (mean age 74 years; 65% were male). The mean cCCI and uCCI scores were 3.6 (standard deviation, 2.4) and 2.9 (2.3), respectively; 161 (63%) cases had cCCI score ⩾3 and 89 (35%) cases had uCCI score ⩾4. Sixty-five (25%) patients died within 30 days. The cCCI score was not related to mortality in any model, but uCCI score ⩾4 was an independent factor of 30-day mortality (odds ratio, 1.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.05–3.74). The uCCI is a more up-to-date, refined and parsimonious prognostic mortality score than the cCCI; it may thus serve better than the latter in the identification of patients with SAB with worse prognoses.
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a significant cause of gastrointestinal infection and the haemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). STEC outbreaks are commonly associated with food but animal contact is increasingly being implicated in its transmission. We report an outbreak of STEC affecting young infants at a nursery in a rural community (three HUS cases, one definite case, one probable case, three possible cases and five carriers, based on the combination of clinical, epidemiological and laboratory data) identified using culture-based and molecular techniques. The investigation identified repeated animal contact (animal farming and petting) as a likely source of STEC introduction followed by horizontal transmission. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was used for real-time investigation of the incident and revealed a unique strain of STEC O26:H11 carrying stx2a and intimin. Following a public health intervention, no additional cases have occurred. This is the first STEC outbreak reported from Israel. WGS proved as a useful tool for rapid laboratory characterization and typing of the outbreak strain and informed the public health response at an early stage of this unusual outbreak.
Objectives: The present study examined differences in neurocognitive outcomes among non-Hispanic Black and White stroke survivors using the NIH Toolbox-Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB), and investigated the roles of healthcare variables in explaining racial differences in neurocognitive outcomes post-stroke. Methods: One-hundred seventy adults (91 Black; 79 White), who participated in a multisite study were included (age: M=56.4; SD=12.6; education: M=13.7; SD=2.5; 50% male; years post-stroke: 1–18; stroke type: 72% ischemic, 28% hemorrhagic). Neurocognitive function was assessed with the NIHTB-CB, using demographically corrected norms. Participants completed measures of socio-demographic characteristics, health literacy, and healthcare use and access. Stroke severity was assessed with the Modified Rankin Scale. Results: An independent samples t test indicated Blacks showed more neurocognitive impairment (NIHTB-CB Fluid Composite T-score: M=37.63; SD=11.67) than Whites (Fluid T-score: M=42.59, SD=11.54; p=.006). This difference remained significant after adjusting for reading level (NIHTB-CB Oral Reading), and when stratified by stroke severity. Blacks also scored lower on health literacy, reported differences in insurance type, and reported decreased confidence in the doctors treating them. Multivariable models adjusting for reading level and injury severity showed that health literacy and insurance type were statistically significant predictors of the Fluid cognitive composite (p<.001 and p=.02, respectively) and significantly mediated racial differences on neurocognitive impairment. Conclusions: We replicated prior work showing that Blacks are at increased risk for poorer neurocognitive outcomes post-stroke than Whites. Health literacy and insurance type might be important modifiable factors influencing these differences. (JINS, 2017, 23, 640–652)
An obesity paradox has been proposed in many conditions including HIV. Studies conducted to investigate obesity and its effect on HIV disease progression have been inconclusive and are lacking for African settings. This study investigated the relationship between overweight/obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2) and HIV disease progression in HIV+ asymptomatic adults not on antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Botswana over 18 months. A cohort study in asymptomatic, ART-naïve, HIV+ adults included 217 participants, 139 with BMI of 18·0–24·9 kg/m2 and seventy-eight participants with BMI≥25 kg/m2. The primary outcome was time to event (≥25 % decrease in cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cell count) during 18 months of follow-up; secondary outcomes were time to event of CD4 cell count<250 cells/µl and AIDS-defining conditions. Proportional survival hazard models were used to compare hazard ratios (HR) on time to events of HIV disease progression over 18 months. Higher baseline BMI was associated with significantly lower risk of an AIDS-defining condition during the follow-up (HR 0·218; 95 % CI 0·068, 0·701; P=0·011). Higher fat mass at baseline was also significantly associated with decreased risk of AIDS-defining conditions during the follow-up (HR 0·855; 95 % CI 0·741, 0·987; P=0·033) and the combined outcome of having CD4 cell count≤250/µl and AIDS-defining conditions, whichever occurred earlier (HR 0·918; 95 % CI 0·847, 0·994; P=0·036). All models were adjusted for covariates. Higher BMI and fat mass among the HIV-infected, ART-naïve participants were associated with slower disease progression. Mechanistic research is needed to evaluate the association between BMI, fat mass and HIV disease progression.
To prospectively examine whether negative life events (NLE) and low perceived coping efficacy (CE) increase the risk for the onset of various forms of psychopathology and low CE mediates the associations between NLE and incident mental disorders.
A representative community sample of adolescents and young adults (N = 3017, aged 14–24 at baseline) was prospectively followed up in up to three assessment waves over 10 years. Anxiety, depressive and substance use disorders were assessed at each wave using the DSM-IV/M-CIDI. NLE and CE were assessed at baseline with the Munich Event List and the Scale for Self-Control and Coping Skills. Associations (odds ratios, OR) of NLE and CE at baseline with incident mental disorders at follow-up were estimated using logistic regressions adjusted for sex and age.
NLE at baseline predicted the onset of any disorder, any anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, generalised anxiety disorder, any depression, major depressive episodes, dysthymia, any substance use disorder, nicotine dependence and abuse/dependence of illicit drugs at follow-up (OR 1.02–1.09 per one NLE more). When adjusting for any other lifetime disorder prior to baseline, merely the associations of NLE with any anxiety disorder, any depression, major depressive episodes, dysthymia and any substance use disorder remained significant (OR 1.02–1.07). Low CE at baseline predicted the onset of any disorder, any anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, generalised anxiety disorder, any depression, major depressive episodes, dysthymia, any substance use disorder, alcohol abuse/dependence, nicotine dependence and abuse/dependence of illicit drugs at follow-up (OR 1.16–1.72 per standard deviation). When adjusting for any other lifetime disorder prior to baseline, only the associations of low CE with any depression, major depressive episodes, dysthymia, any substance use disorder, alcohol abuse/dependence, nicotine dependence and abuse/dependence of illicit drugs remained significant (OR 1.15–1.64). Low CE explained 9.46, 13.39, 12.65 and 17.31% of the associations between NLE and any disorder, any depression, major depressive episodes and dysthymia, respectively. When adjusting for any other lifetime disorder prior to baseline, the reductions in associations for any depression (9.77%) and major depressive episodes (9.40%) remained significant, while the reduction in association for dysthymia was attenuated to non-significance (p-value > 0.05).
Our findings suggest that NLE and low perceived CE elevate the risk for various incident mental disorders and that low CE partially mediates the association between NLE and incident depression. Subjects with NLE might thus profit from targeted early interventions strengthening CE to prevent the onset of depression.
There are inconclusive findings regarding whether danger and loss events differentially predict the onset of anxiety and depression.
A community sample of adolescents and young adults (n = 2304, age 14–24 years at baseline) was prospectively followed up in up to four assessments over 10 years. Incident anxiety and depressive disorders were assessed at each wave using the DSM-IV/M-CIDI. Life events (including danger, loss and respectively mixed events) were assessed at baseline using the Munich Event List (MEL). Logistic regressions were used to reveal associations between event types at baseline and incident disorders at follow-up.
Loss events merely predicted incident ‘pure’ depression [odds ratio (OR) 2.4 per standard deviation, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5–3.9, p < 0.001] whereas danger events predicted incident ‘pure’ anxiety (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1–4.6, p = 0.023) and ‘pure’ depression (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.7–3.5, p < 0.001). Mixed events predicted incident ‘pure’ anxiety (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.5–5.7, p = 0.002), ‘pure’ depression (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.6–3.4, p < 0.001) and their co-morbidity (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.8–7.0, p < 0.001).
Our results provide further evidence for differential effects of danger, loss and respectively mixed events on incident anxiety, depression and their co-morbidity. Since most loss events referred to death/separation from significant others, particularly interpersonal loss appears to be highly specific in predicting depression.
Threshold and subthreshold forms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are highly prevalent and impairing conditions among adults. However, there are few general population studies that have examined these conditions during the early life course. The primary objectives of this study were to: (1) examine the prevalence, and sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of threshold and subthreshold forms of GAD in a nationally representative sample of US youth; and (2) test differences in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics between threshold and subthreshold forms of the disorder.
The National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement is a nationally representative face-to-face survey of 10 123 adolescents 13 to 18 years of age in the continental USA.
Approximately 3% of adolescents met criteria for threshold GAD. Reducing the required duration from 6 months to 3 months resulted in a 65.7% increase in prevalence (5.0%); further relaxing the uncontrollability criterion led to an additional 20.7% increase in prevalence (6.1%). Adolescents with all forms of GAD displayed a recurrent clinical course marked by substantial impairment and co-morbidity with other psychiatric disorders. There were few significant differences in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics between threshold and subthreshold cases of GAD. Results also revealed age-related differences in the associated symptoms and clinical course of GAD.
Findings demonstrate the clinical significance of subthreshold forms of GAD among adolescent youth, highlighting the continuous nature of the GAD construct. Age-related differences in the associated symptoms and clinical course of GAD provide further support for criteria that capture variation in clinical features across development.
We have obtained long slit spectra of 3C 67 and 3C 277.1 with the HST/STIS spectrograph. We present our preliminary results on the diagnostic emission line ratios along the radio source axes in 3C 67 and 3C 277.1.
We have obtained HST/STIS long slit spectroscopy of the aligned emission line nebulae in three compact steep spectrum (CSS) radio sources — 3C 67, 3C 277.1, and 3C 303.1. We find systematic offsets (˜300–500 kms) of the emission line velocities on one or both sides of the radio sources. We also see evidence for broad lines (FWHM ˜500 kms) and complex emission line profiles. In 3C 303.1 the data are consistent with multiple components and possibly split lines. The amplitude of the velocity variations is not so large as to exclude gravitationally-induced motions. However, the complex kinematics, the lack of a signature of Keplerian rotation, and the association of the velocity variations with the radio lobes are consistent with the observed ˜300–500 kms velocities being driven by the expansion of the radio source. Acceleration of the clouds by the bow shock is plausible given the estimated densities in the clouds and the velocities observed in the much smaller compact symmetric objects and with expansion velocities estimated from spectral ageing. This conclusion is unchanged if we consider the scenario in which the cloud acceleration is dominated by the post bow shock flow.
We present initial results from a program that we have begun, aimed at increasing the number of GPS and CSS sources for which good spectroscopic data are available for a variety of emission lines. We combine new observational data with previously published results to investigate whether there are any relationships between the excitation state of the gas and the radio properties of the sources, retaining distinctions between GPS and GSS galaxies and quasars. In scenarios where the youngest, most compact sources interact most strongly with the gas, it is perhaps to be expected that this can have an effect on the overall excitation state of the gas, which could therefore correlate with radio properties such as turnover frequency that plausibly trace the source size and age. However, we find a degree of scatter between the turnover frequency and gas excitation state that is several times larger than the characteristic degree of uncertainty in our line ratio measurements. This would suggest that either there is no underlying relationship between turnover frequency and excitation state, or alternatively that any potential relationship is completely diluted by variations in the intrinsic properties of the gas from one source to the next, which would thus be an important factor in determining the source properties.
Among adolescents and young adults with DSM-IV alcohol use disorders (AUDs), there are inter-individual differences in the speed of transition from initial alcohol use (AU) to AUD. AUDs are highly co-morbid with other mental disorders. The factors associated with rapid transition from first AU to AUD remain unknown and the role of mental disorders in rapid transitions is unclear. Given this background we examined (1) whether prior anxiety, mood, externalizing and non-alcohol substance use disorders are related to the risk and speed of transition from first AU to DSM-IV alcohol abuse (AA) and alcohol dependence (AD) and (2) whether early age of onset of prior mental disorders (PMDs) is a promoter of rapid transition.
A total of 3021 community subjects (97.7% lifetime AU) aged 14–24 years at baseline were followed up prospectively for up to 10 years. AU and mental disorders were assessed with the DSM-IV/M-CIDI.
Among subjects with lifetime AU, several PMDs, such as specific phobia, bipolar disorder and nicotine dependence, were associated with an increased risk of AUD independent of externalizing disorders. Associations of PMDs with the speed of transition to AUDs were mostly weak and inconsistent. Only social phobia and externalizing disorders were associated with faster transitions to AD even after adjustment for other PMDs. Earlier age of onset of PMD was not associated with rapid transition.
Mental disorders are associated with the risk of AUD. With the possible exception of social phobia and externalizing disorders, they do not promote rapid transition, even if they occur particularly early. Future research needs to identify factors relevant to rapid transition to AUD.
Experiments show that plasma may be temporarily confined in a potential well created by three symmetrically spaced inverse pinches. X-type neutral points form at each of the three points of first contact of the inverse pinches and these three neutral points act as flux switches impulsively transferring flux into a central confinement region. The confinement is terminated by a transition to anomalous resistivity at the centre of the device resulting in rapid annihilation of the confining flux by resistive dissipation. The subsequent magnetic field pattern is much more like the vacuum field having only one hyperbolic neutral point.
The plasma configuration can probably be made stable for longer periods of time and should also be of interest for studies of interactions between laser light and a plasma in a state of microturbulence.
Paediatric cardiac services are poorly developed or totally absent in underdeveloped countries. Institutions, foundations and interested individuals in those nations in which sophisticated paediatric cardiac surgery is practised have the ability to alleviate this problem by sponsoring paediatric cardio-surgical missions to provide care, and train local caregivers in developing, transitional, and third world countries. The ultimate benefit of such a programme is to improve the surgical abilities of the host institution. The purpose of this report is to present the impact of our programme over a period of 14 years.
We specifically reviewed our database of patients from our missions, our team lists, surgical results, and the number and type of personnel trained in the institutions that we have assisted. In order for the institution to be entered into the study, the foundation had to provide at least 2 months of training. In addition, the institution had to respond to a simple questionnaire concerning the number and types of surgery performed at their facility before and after intervention by the foundation.
We made 140 trips to 27 institutions in 19 countries, with 12 of the visited institutions qualifying for inclusion. Of these, 9 institutions reported an increase in the number and complexity of cases currently being performed in their facility since the team intervened. This goal had not been accomplished in 3 institutions. The reasons for failure included the economic situation of the country, hospital and national politics, personality conflicts, and continued lack of hardware and disposables.
Paediatric cardiac service assistance can improve local services. A significant commitment is required by all parties involved.
Sets of microsatellites extracted from both a genomic library (gSSRs) and from expressed sequence tag sequence (eSSRs), and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were applied to assess the levels of genetic diversity in a sample of 70 barley accessions, originating from 28 countries in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Europe. The eSSR assays detected a mean of 9.5 alleles per locus, and the gSSRs only 5.7 alleles per locus, but the polymorphism information content values for the two assay types were indistinguishable. Strong and statistically significant correlations were observed between the eSSR and gSSR (r = 0.86, P < 0.05), the eSSR and SNP (r = 0.74, P < 0.05) and the gSSR and SNP genotypes (r = 0.67, P < 0.05). Accessions originating from the Middle East and Asia had the highest levels of genetic diversity. Pairwise genetic similarity ranged from 0.16 to 0.87 (mean 0.43), indicating that the sample was genetically diverse. When clustered on the basis of genotype, Asian and African accessions tended to be grouped together, but those originating from the Middle East were not concentrated in any particular cluster.