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Intensive home treatment (IHT) for people experiencing a mental health crisis has been progressively established in many western countries as an alternative to in-ward admission. But is this a real alternative? We previously reported that patients treated in our IHT unit only differ from those voluntarily admitted to hospital in suicidal risk and severe behaviour disorders (not in other factors such as clinical severity) (Martín-Blanco et al., Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment 2022;15:213-5). Now we are interested in disentangle if those patients who used to require inward management can be successfully treated at home.
To describe subsequent treatment trajectories of the first 1000 admissions to our IHT unit and to compare clinical characteristics among the different groups of trajectories.
Retrospective cohort study. Subsequent treatment trajectories were collected from December 2016 to October 2022 and classified: absence, hospital, IHT, and mixed (hospital and IHT). Statistical significance was tested by means of ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis test for quantitative variables (corrected for multiple comparisons) and chi-square tests for qualitative variables.
Tables 1 shows the characteristics of the whole sample. Of the 1000 IHT admissions, 12.1% needed subsequent hospital admission(s), 12.7% IHT admission(s), and 9.3% mixed admission(s). There were no differences among these groups in median severity at IHT admission, but there were differences in the number of previous admissions (p=0.0001): the group with no subsequent admissions had less previous admissions than the other groups (pBonf<0.0001), and the group with subsequent IHT admissions had less than the group with mixed admissions (pBonf=0.0123). There were differences between groups regarding distribution of diagnoses (p<0.0001) (Fig. 1). When considering subsequent admissions by diagnosis, there were differences in severity at IHT admission (p=0.0068) and in number of previous hospitalizations (p<0.0001) (Fig. 2).Table 1.
Clinical characteristics of the whole sample (N=1000)
CGI-s at admission *
Hospital admission in the previous 5 years
CGI-s: clinical global impression - severity. * median and IQR
Patients that used to require inward management can now be treated at home when suffering an acute episode. Therefore, IHT has changed treatment trajectories for some patients with psychiatric disorders.
The reform of mental health care is a key health policy target. Mental health care provision in Spain is designed with national and regional strategies that stablish the objectives to develop. The Castilla y Leon regional strategy 2022-2026 aim to stabilsh the priorities for objectives and actions with stakeholders from th eregional society.
To evaluate priorities in the implementation of a Mental Health strategy with the consensus of professionals and society.
An initial consensus was achieved with the regional health goverment and local mental health representatives, considering the 2022-2026 national strategy and other mental health plans from nearby regions. Lines in the strategy included transversal lines (part of all the mental health scope) and action lines (priorities focused in one relevant field)
Priorities were stablished by different representatives from mental health and other healthcare professionals, social and educational stakeholders, scientific societies, people with mental health disorders and families. After agreeing to participate in the process, they had to answer an online survey. For each line, they have to score from 0 to 10.
500 subjects participated (44% Healthcare workers, 5.8% education or social services, 3.8% Justice, 8,6% workers for associations, 14% Mental Health Care users). All the lines were highly appreciated (mean score >7). Within the transversal lines, the highest score was for the Humanization line (8.81±1.43) and the lowest for the Digitalization line (7.18±1.92). In the Action Lines, the highest score was for Suicide (9.03±11.5) and the lowest for Elder people (8.04±1.94).
Prevention line had higher scores by Education, Justice, Associations and Healthcare professionals and the lowest was for users (F: 2.754; p=0.012). In the Digitalization line the higher scores were in the health professionals and scientific societies and the lowest in the users (F:4.665; p<0.001). In the research, innovation and Training line, the higher scores were for professionals, societies and users and the lowest in the education and justice groups. The only differences found in the Action lines was for the Addiction line, with higher scores for societies, social services, professionals and users and lower in Associations and Justice (F:2.219; p=0,040)
Highest transversal priority for the MH Strategy was Humanization of Mental Health Services, and the most critical action was Suicide prevention. Professionals, Scientific societies and Users considered more important research, innovation and training compared with other society groups, whereas the less important areas for the users were digitalization and prevention users. These priorities will help to design the implementation and schedule for the lines of the Mental Health Strategy in Castilla y León.
Humanization in Mental Health is a concept that treat to conceal in the last decades the quality, efficiency and safety of care of complex diseases and conditions with individual values, needs and preferences and involves the patient and society in the decision-making priority.
to stablish and evaluate the priorities of different groups of interest in the development of a new humanization plan for mental health
During 2022 a Humanization plan for the Spanish region of Castilla y Leon (2.400.000 habs) was developed with a Delphi model. Participants included 36 stakeholders including mental health services, administration, social services, associations, patients and families. They stablished 32 objectives distributed in 7 strategic lines: 1. “People First” (Rights, Autonomy and Information); 2. “From People to Services” (Participation of users in mental heal services); 3. “Person-Centered-Assistance” 4. “Processes sensible to change” (reduction of coercion); 5. “Human ambient” (Improvement of units, psychosocial interventions). 6. Innovation, training and climate (not evaluated here). 7. “People without marks” (battle against stigma).
Priorities in the lines were stablished by representatives from mental health and other healthcare professionals, social and educational stakeholders, scientific societies, patients and families. After agreeing to participate in the process, they had to answer an online survey. For each line, they have to score it from 0 to 10.
500 subjects participated (38.6% Healthcare workers, 14% Mental Health Care users, 9.8% Social Services, 8.8% Associations, 7.8% Drug Services 6% Management of Health System, 5.8% Education Services, 3.8 Justice). Humanization was the most appreciated plan within the mental health plan 2022-2026 in Castilla y Leon (8.81±1.43).
The Highest priority score was given to the Rights (8.68 + 1.54), Information (8.44 + 1.60) and Stigma (8.43 + 1.89) lines and the lowest were the evaluation of satisfaction (7.62 + 1.90) and Reduction of Coercion (7.29 + 2.12). Differences were found between groups. Scores in Rights and Autonomy (F:3.474; p<0.001) were highest in the Associations (9.32 +1.01) and lowest in the Justice group (7.68 + 1.67). In the information line the highest score (F:2.431; p=0,014) was in the Education Services (9.03 +0,94) compared to Scientific Societies (7,65 + 2,13). Highest score for Participation of Users (F:2,968; p=0,003) was in Social Services (8.76 +1.48) compared to Justice (7.47 +1.95). There were differences in the coercion reduction line (F:2.165; p=0,029) but no pairwise differences were found
Humanization approaches are well appreciated by different stakeholders. Priorities in our region start with rights, information and integration and mental health users in the health system and society
Antarctic and Southern Ocean environments are facing increasing pressure from multiple threats. The Antarctic Treaty System regularly looks to the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) for the provision of independent and objective advice based on the best available science to support decision-making, policy development and effective environmental management. The recently approved SCAR Scientific Research Programme Ant-ICON - ‘Integrated Science to Inform Antarctic and Southern Ocean Conservation‘ - facilitates and coordinates high-quality transdisciplinary research to inform the conservation and management of Antarctica, the Southern Ocean and the sub-Antarctic in the context of current and future impacts. The work of Ant-ICON focuses on three research themes examining 1) the current state and future projections of Antarctic systems, species and functions, 2) human impacts and sustainability and 3) socio-ecological approaches to Antarctic and Southern Ocean conservation, and one synthesis theme that seeks to facilitate the provision of timely scientific advice to support effective Antarctic conservation. Research outputs will address the most pressing environmental challenges facing Antarctica and offer high-quality science to policy and advisory bodies including the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting, the Committee for Environmental Protection and the Scientific Committee of the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources.
Empathy is argued to be a key factor for a successful design discussion. However, such causality cannot be empirically proven based on how empathy is currently defined in design community. Empathy is used as an umbrella construct, broad and encompassing of diverse phenomena, making it difficult to quantify. We suggest improving such a situation by introducing a definition of empathy based on psychology literature, which provides structure and guidance for studying the role of empathy in design. We first break empathy to components. Then, we review empathy as used in design. Finally, we synthetize the reviewed material. From this synthesis, we conclude that empathy in design shares several key components of empathy in psychology; particularly with state influences, top-down control process and emotional stimuli. These are present in design methods although they have not been studied using such terms. Incorporating psychological components of empathy into design can help conceptualising empathy from a different angle, thus opening interesting new avenues for future research. We hope that our treatment provides present and future designers with some useful guidance.
This exploratory study investigated the effects of early v. delayed time-restricted eating (TRE) plus caloric restriction (CR) on body weight, body composition and cardiometabolic parameters in adults with overweight and obesity. Adults (20–40 years) were randomised to one of three groups for 8 weeks: early time-restricted eating (eTRE; 08.00–16.00) plus CR, delayed time-restricted eating (dTRE; 12.00–20.00) plus CR or only CR (CR; 08.00–20.00). All groups were prescribed a 25 % energy deficit relative to daily energy requirements. Thirteen participants completed the study in the eTRE and CR groups and eleven in the dTRE group (n 37). After the interventions, there was no significant difference between the three groups for any of the outcomes. Compared with baseline, significant decreases were observed in the body weight (eTRE group: −4·2 kg; 95 % CI, −5·6, −2·7; dTRE group: −4·8 kg; 95 % CI, −5·9, −3·7; CR: −4·0 kg; 95 % CI, −5·9, −2·1), fat mass (eTRE group: −2·9 kg; 95 % CI, −3·9, −1·9; dTRE group: −3·6 kg; 95 % CI, −4·6, −2·5; CR: −3·1 kg; 95 % CI, −4·3, −1·8) and fasting glucose levels (eTRE group: −4 mg/dl; 95 % CI, −8, −1; dTRE group: −2 mg/dl; 95 % CI, −8, 3; CR: −3 mg/dl; 95 % CI, −8, 2). In a free-living setting, TRE with a energetic deficit, regardless of the time of day, promotes similar benefits in weight loss, body composition and cardiometabolic parameters. However, given the exploratory nature of our study, further investigation is needed to confirm these findings.
Metabolites produced by microbial fermentation in the human intestine, especially short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), are known to play important roles in colonic and systemic health. Our aim here was to advance our understanding of how and why their concentrations and proportions vary between individuals. We have analysed faecal concentrations of microbial fermentation acids from 10 human volunteer studies, involving 163 subjects, conducted at the Rowett Institute, Aberdeen, UK over a 7-year period. In baseline samples, the % butyrate was significantly higher, whilst % iso-butyrate and % iso-valerate were significantly lower, with increasing total SCFA concentration. The decreasing proportions of iso-butyrate and iso-valerate, derived from amino acid fermentation, suggest that fibre intake was mainly responsible for increased SCFA concentrations. We propose that the increase in % butyrate among faecal SCFA is largely driven by a decrease in colonic pH resulting from higher SCFA concentrations. Consistent with this, both total SCFA and % butyrate increased significantly with decreasing pH across five studies for which faecal pH measurements were available. Colonic pH influences butyrate production through altering the stoichiometry of butyrate formation by butyrate-producing species, resulting in increased acetate uptake and butyrate formation, and facilitating increased relative abundance of butyrate-producing species (notably Roseburia and Eubacterium rectale).
Despite numerous reports on the beneficial effects of olive oil in the cardiovascular context, very little is known about the olive tree’s wild counterpart (Olea europaea, L. var. sylvestris), commonly known as acebuche (ACE) in Spain. The aim of this study was to analyse the possible beneficial effects of an extra virgin ACE oil on vascular function in a rodent model of arterial hypertension (AH) induced by NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Four experimental groups of male Wistar rats were studied: (1) normotensive rats (Control group); (2) normotensive rats fed a commercial diet supplemented with 15 % (w/w) ACE oil (Acebuche group); (3) rats made hypertensive following administration of L-NAME (L-NAME group); and (4) rats treated with L-NAME and simultaneously supplemented with 15 % ACE oil (LN + ACE group). All treatments were maintained for 12 weeks. Besides a significant blood pressure (BP)-lowering effect, the ACE oil-enriched diet counteracted the alterations found in aortas from hypertensive rats in terms of morphology and responsiveness to vasoactive mediators. In addition, a decrease in hypertension-related fibrotic and oxidative stress processes was observed in L-NAME-treated rats subjected to ACE oil supplement. Therefore, using a model of AH via nitric oxide depletion, here we demonstrate the beneficial effects of a wild olive oil based upon its vasodilator, antihypertensive, antioxidant, antihypertrophic and antifibrotic properties. We postulate that regular inclusion of ACE oil in the diet can alleviate the vascular remodelling and endothelial dysfunction processes typically found in AH, thus resulting in a significant reduction of BP.
We discuss the first detection of deuterated water (HDO) in extragalactic hot cores. The HDO 211–212 line has been detected with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) toward hot cores N 105–2 A and 2 B in the N 105 star-forming region in the low-metallicity Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), the nearest star-forming galaxy. We compared the HDO line luminosity (LHDO) measured toward two hot cores in N 105 to those observed toward a sample of 17 Galactic hot cores and found that the observed values of LHDO for the LMC hot cores fit very well into the LHDO trends with Lbol and metallicity observed toward the Galactic hot cores. Our results indicate that LHDO seems to be largely dependent on the source luminosity, but metallicity also plays a role. We provide a rough estimate of the H2O column density and abundance ranges toward N 105–2 A and 2 B by assuming that HDO/H2O toward the LMC hot cores is the same as that observed in the Milky Way; the obtained values are systematically lower than those measured in the Galactic hot cores. The spatial distribution and velocity structure of the HDO emission in N 105–2 A is consistent with HDO being the product of the low-temperature dust grain chemistry.
Cognition heavily relies on social determinants and genetic background. Latin America comprises approximately 8% of the global population and faces unique challenges, many derived from specific demographic and socioeconomic variables, such as violence and inequality. While such factors have been described to influence mental health outcomes, no large-scale studies with Latin American population have been carried out. Therefore, we aim to describe the cognitive performance of a representative sample of Latin American individuals with schizophrenia and its relationship to clinical factors. Additionally, we aim to investigate how socioeconomic status (SES) relates to cognitive performance in patients and controls.
We included 1175 participants from five Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Mexico): 864 individuals with schizophrenia and 311 unaffected subjects. All participants were part of projects that included cognitive evaluation with MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery and clinical assessments.
Patients showed worse cognitive performance than controls across all domains. Age and diagnosis were independent predictors, indicating similar trajectories of cognitive aging for both patients and controls. The SES factors of education, parental education, and income were more related to cognition in patients than in controls. Cognition was also influenced by symptomatology.
Patients did not show evidence of accelerated cognitive aging; however, they were most impacted by a lower SES suggestive of deprived environment than controls. These findings highlight the vulnerability of cognitive capacity in individuals with psychosis in face of demographic and socioeconomic factors in low- and middle-income countries.
The relevance of the episodic memory in the prediction of brain aging is well known. The Face Name Associative Memory Exam (FNAME) is a valued associative memory measure related to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) biomarkers, such as amyloid-β deposition preclinical AD individuals. Previous validation of the Spanish version of the FNAME test (S-FNAME) provided normative data and psychometric characteristics. The study was limited to subjects attending a memory clinic and included a reduced sample with gender inequality distribution. The purpose of this study was to assess S-FNAME psychometric properties and provide normative data in a larger independent sample of cognitively healthy individuals.
S-FNAME was administered to 511 cognitively healthy volunteers (242 women, aged 41–65 years) participating in the Barcelona Brain Health Initiative cohort study.
Factor analysis supported construct validity revealing two underlying components: face-name and face-occupation and explaining 95.34% of the total variance, with satisfactory goodness of fit. Correlations between S-FNAME and Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test were statistically significant and confirmed its convergent validity. We also found weak correlations with non-memory tests supporting divergent validity. Women showed better scores, and S-FNAME was positively correlated with education and negatively with age. Finally, we generated normative data.
The S-FNAME test exhibits good psychometric properties, consistent with previous findings, resulting in a valid and reliable tool to assess episodic memory in cognitively healthy middle-aged adults. It is a promising test for the early detection of subtle memory dysfunction associated with abnormal brain aging.
As in previous periods of quarantine, lockdown confinement measures dictated to control SARS-CoV-2 would be expected to negatively affect mental health. We investigated the immediate effects (over a 10 day period) of a strict nationwide stay-at-home order imposed in Spain, one of the countries most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Focusing our analysis on the feelings of loneliness, we obtained our measures within a social context characterised by strong and continuous public and governmental support for increasing social bonds and cooperation in order to face the common public threat. Leveraging data from the Barcelona Brain Health Initiative, a prospective population-based study cohort, the short UCLA Loneliness Scale was administered to 1604 participants 2 years and 1 year before the stay-at-home lockdown and repeated, on average, 10 days after the official confinement order issued by the Spanish government. Ratings of loneliness remained stable during the 2 years before lockdown; however, they decreased significantly during the early stages of home confinement. This effect was particularly significant for the item ‘feeling excluded from others’ and was also observed among individuals who were confined alone. Overall, the results suggest that gestures and manifestations of appreciation by people for the labour and efforts of certain individuals, along with official campaigns designed to promote feelings of inclusion and belonging, may have beneficial effects on feelings of loneliness, a negative emotional state strongly regarded as a risk factor for impaired mental and general health status. Further assessments during the later stages of home confinement are now warranted.
We present the rare case of lipomatous atrial septal hypertrophy associated with adrenocorticotropin hormone therapy in an infant with West syndrome, highlighting their relatively benign nature and good prognosis in children, and the relevance of the differential diagnosis with more dangerous cardiac masses in order to avoid aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic interventions.
Empathic design highlights the relevance of understanding users and their circumstances in order to obtain good design outcomes. However, theory-based quantitative methods, which can be used to test user understanding, are hard to find in the design science literature. Here, we introduce a validated method used in social psychological research – the empathic accuracy method – into design to explore how well two designers perform in a design task and whether the designers’ empathic accuracy performance and the physiological synchrony between the two designers and a group of users can predict the designers’ success in two design tasks. The designers could correctly identify approximately 50% of the users’ reported mental content. We did not find a significant correlation between the designers’ empathic accuracy and their (1) performance in design tasks and (2) physiological synchrony with users. Nevertheless, the empathic accuracy method is promising in its attempts to quantify the effect of empathy in design.
There are few studies about the characteristics of Substance Use Disorder patients that relapse, defined by restart of the substance use that motivated the intake, after discharge from a Detoxification Unit.
To analyze the percentage of patients who had a relapse in the following 3 months after discharge and to describe their sociodemographic, clinical and therapeutical characteristics.
We prospectively studied drug dependents patients admitted to our Detoxification Unit from June 2008 to August 2009. Data was gathered at admission on demographic (gender, age), clinical (main abused drug, psychiatric comorbidities, polydrug users) and therapeutical variables (hospitalisation duration, prescribed treatment). Patients were followed up for 3 months and assessed for relapse at 1 and 3 months by clinical interview, alcohol screening test and/or urinalysis. Results from patients with and without relapses were compared.
The study sample included 103 patients (77,7% men, average age 38,31±9). At month 3, 57,3% of the patients had relapsed. We found significant differences between the relapse and the non-relapse group on the percentage of polydrug users (68,6% vs 31,4%, p=0,05), on heroine as main drug of abuse (76% vs 24%, p=0,05) and psychiatric comorbidities (60,8% vs 39,2%, p=0,04), being psychotic disorders the most frequent. No significant differences were found between the 2 groups concerning therapeutical variables.
More than half of the patients that ended the detoxification process relapsed in the first 3 months. Polydrug use, opiate dependence and having a psychiatric comorbidity might be considered as risk factors for relapse.
Cocaine dependence disorder has been widely described. However, differences due to gender remain unknown.
To compare clinical gender differences in a large sample of cocaine-dependent patients.
We performed a cross-sectional, observational study in 902 patients (35.47 yo, 21.3% women) with a cocaine dependence according DSM-IV criteria, seeking treatment during 2005 to 2013. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were collected The SCID-I, SCID–II, BIS and a structured interview about cocaine-induced psychosis were performed. Simple descriptive statistics were carried out for demographic and clinical data. Bivariate analysis was made to compare the main variables by sex using SPSSvs18.0.
No differences in age of dependence onset, other clinical variables or cocaine-induced psychosis were detected. However, less cocaine used in the last month (2.12 vs 3.37g) (p < 0.009), more impulsivity (67.2 vs 63.03) (p < 0.040), and more sedative dependence (21.2% % vs 8.3%)(p< 0.00) were detected in women than in men. Affective disorders lifetime were the most prevalent (57,4%) in women. More comorbidity with anxiety disorders (p< 0.025) eating disorders (p< 0.000) and personality disorders (p< 0.039) were detected in women than in men.
Sedative dependence and anxiety disorders should be investigated in cocaine-dependent women in order to treat these conditions. Surprisingly high impulsivity level was detected and could moderate cocaine consumption. However, no difference have been found previously in studies about gender differences in cocaine-dependent patients, so this finding should be confirm in new studies.
Alcohol dependence disorder has been widely described. However, differences due to gender remain unknown.
To compare clinical gender differences in an alcohol dependent outpatient sample.
Alcohol dependent outpatients from the centre for addiction treatment of the Vall d’Hebron University Hospital following treatment during 2005 to 2011 were evaluated. We included patients with an alcohol dependence following DSM-IV criteria. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were collected. Simple descriptive statistics were carried out for demographic and clinical data. Bivariate analysis was made to compare the main variables by sex using SPSSvs15.0.
149 patients were included, 83.2% were men. No gender differences were found in the mean age of the sample. Time of first alcohol use to regular consumption was significantly shorter in men (7.9 ± 6.9 year vs 13.95 ± 8.9 years). Significantly more women (68%) compared with men (44.4%) had comorbid psychiatric disorders. 52% of women and 28.2% of men had depressive symptoms. No gender differences were observed for psychotic, anxiety neither personality disorders. Comorbidity with nicotine dependence was high in men and in women (75.4% vs 73.9%). Significantly more women had sedatives dependence (16% vs 5.3%) and opiate dependence (8.3% vs 3.5%) without observing gender differences in the other drugs. the 71.4% of women consume alone compared with the 38.7% of men.
Alcoholic women tend to consume alone. They have more comorbid mental disorders, being depression the most prevalent. Besides alcohol dependence, women also had more sedatives and opiate dependence than men.
Liaison psychiatry is the branch of psychiatry that specialises in the interface between medicine and psychiatry. The liaison psychiatrist uses a wide range of drugs and antipsychotics are among them.
To analyse the prescription of antipsychotics at the liaison psychiatry service of a general hospital.
This is a transversal study. All patients evaluated by the liaison psychiatry service of a general hospital from the 1/01/2012 to the 31/05/2012 were included.
The sample consisted of 128 patients (53’1% women; mean age 65’34±17’18). The majority of them were Spanish (92’2%). Internal Medicine was the service who asked for more psychiatric evaluations, followed by General Surgery (19’5%) and Nephrology (10’2%). The most frequent main complain was depression (46’9%), behavioural disorders (18%) and anxiety (10’2%). The diagnosis given were more often affective disorders (43’8%), delirium (11’7%), psychotic disorders (10’9%) and anxious disorders (9’4%).
Within the 128 patients, 34 (26’6%) did receive antipsychotics during the admission. We compared the two groups (antipsychotic group vs non-antipsychotic group) and obtained the following results: we found that the antipsychotic group more often had behavioural disorders (34’3%) and delusions/hallucinations (20%). A significant increase in delirium diagnose was to be seen (42’9%).
Antipsyhotics are the second most used treatment at the liaison psychiatry service. Patients who receive them are more often affected by delirium and to a minor extent by a psychotic disorder. The first generation antipsychotics such as haloperidol still are the first option. However, the use of second generation antipsychotics is increasing remarkably.
The utility of Mobile Crisis Unit (MCU) and its target population has been a controversial issue and many scientific articles have been writen about it (1,2).
The aim of this study is to identify the demographic and clinical features of patients diagnosed with psychotic disorder who have been hospitalized and have not required hospitalization in psychiatric unit through a Mobile Crisis Unit (MCU).
We collected retrospectively demographic and clinical variables. These include psychiatric rating scales of severity: Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI) and Psychiatric Disease Severity (GEP); of functionality as Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF); the aggressive behaviour and violence scale (AVAT) and psychopathology with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) of a total of 136 patients between June 2007 and July 2010.
There have been found stadisticaly significative differences between patients who have been hospitalized versus patients who have not in the items of treatment adherence and security staff intervention (Table 1). There is a positive correlation between patients who required hospitalization and the clinical scales CGI, GEP, GAF, AVAT, SUMD, PANSS-P and PANSS-G (Table 2).
We can conclude that patients cared for by the Mobile Crisis Unit (MCU) that require of psychiatric hospitalization have poor adherence to previous treatment. A high frequency of cases require intervention of security staff for having a higher risk of aggressiveness at the moment of hospitalization. The presence of greater psychopathology and functionality severity in patients hospitalized through the Mobile Crisis Unit (MCU) is also considered.