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This article brings together insights from efforts to develop a global history of science and recent historical and sociological studies on the relations between science and religion. Using the case of the late Ottoman Empire as an example, it argues that ‘science and religion’ can be seen as a debate that travelled globally in the nineteenth century, generating new conceptualizations of both science and religion in many parts of the world. In their efforts to counter arguments that represented Islam as the enemy of science and progress, young Ottoman intellectuals wrote many texts addressing a specific European author, or an imagined, broad European audience in the mid- to late nineteenth century. These texts described a ‘science-friendly’ Islam of which not only Europeans but also ‘ignorant Muslims’ were unaware. Using examples from the Ottoman press, the article demonstrates how this effort involved separating Islam from the lived reality of Muslims, transforming the religion essentially into a text that referred to scientific facts or that instructed adherents to appreciate science. In their contributions to the debate on science and religion, these young intellectuals thus also defined themselves as the legitimate interpreters of Islam in the ‘age of science’.
Congenital absence of the aortic valve is characterised by the absence of aortic valve and severe regurgitation. The rest of the reported cases were mostly diagnosed either on postnatal echocardiography or autopsy. Here, we present a foetal case with the absence of the aortic valve and “inverse circulatory shunt”.
Individuals present in lower Manhattan during the 9/11 World Trade Center (WTC) disaster suffered from significant physical and psychological trauma. Studies of longitudinal psychological distress among those exposed to trauma have been limited to relatively short durations of follow-up among smaller samples.
The current study longitudinally assessed heterogeneity in trajectories of psychological distress among WTC Health Registry enrollees – a prospective cohort health study of responders, students, employees, passersby, and residents in the affected area (N = 30 839) – throughout a 15-year period following the WTC disaster. Rescue/recovery status and exposure to traumatic events of 9/11, as well as sociodemographic factors and health status, were assessed as risk factors for trajectories of psychological distress.
Five psychological distress trajectory groups were found: none-stable, low-stable, moderate-increasing, moderate-decreasing, and high-stable. Of the study sample, 78.2% were classified as belonging to the none-stable or low-stable groups. Female sex, being younger at the time of 9/11, lower education and income were associated with a higher probability of being in a greater distress trajectory group relative to the none-stable group. Greater exposure to traumatic events of 9/11 was associated with a higher probability of a greater distress trajectory, and community members (passerby, residents, and employees) were more likely to be in greater distress trajectory groups – especially in the moderate-increasing [odds ratios (OR) 2.31 (1.97–2.72)] and high-stable groups [OR 2.37 (1.81–3.09)] – compared to the none-stable group.
The current study illustrated the heterogeneity in psychological distress trajectories following the 9/11 WTC disaster, and identified potential avenues for intervention in future disasters.
The aim of this study was to compare the sociodemographic and clinic characteristics of patients with bipolar disorder type I with and without history of depressive episode.
In this study the data of 108 bipolar type I patients who were admitted to psychiatry clinic of a university hospital due to manic episode between 2007–2009 were examined.
According to these data, 16 of 108 bipolar disorder type I patients (14.8%) had inhabited at least 4 manic episodes throughout their lives and there was no history of depressive episode although the disease had continued at least 4 years. with and without a history of depressive episode of bipolar type I patients have not been identified differ in terms of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, but patients not having a history of depressive episode during their lifetime was found to be more than the number of hospitalizations.
Current information seem to be not sufficient to define unipolar mania as a separate nosological class. Largescale, prospective designs and illuminating the pathophysiology and etiology studies needs to be done in this issue.
High-fat diet (HFD) consumption leads to metabolic disorders, gastrointestinal dysfunction and intestinal dysbiosis. Antibiotics also disrupt the composition of intestinal microbiota. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of a short-term feeding with HFD on oxidative status, enteric microbiota, intestinal motility and the effects of antibiotics and/or melatonin treatments on diet-induced hepato-intestinal dysfunction and inflammation. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were pair-fed with either standard chow or HFD (45 % fat) and were given tap water or melatonin (4 mg/kg per d) or melatonin plus antibiotics (ABX; neomycin, ampicillin, metronidazole; each 1 g/l) in drinking water for 2 weeks. On the 14th day, colonic motility was measured and the next day intestinal transit was assessed using charcoal propagation. Trunk blood, liver and intestine samples were removed for biochemical and histopathological evaluations, and faeces were collected for microbiota analysis. A 2-week HFD feeding increased blood glucose level and perirenal fat weight, induced low-level hepatic and intestinal inflammation, delayed intestinal transit, led to deterioration of epithelial tight junctions and overgrowth of colonic bacteria. Melatonin intake in HFD-fed rats reduced ileal inflammation, colonic motility and perirenal fat accumulation. ABX abolished increases in fat accumulation and blood glucose, reduced ileal oxidative damage, suppressed HFD-induced overgrowth in colonic bacteria, and reversed HFD-induced delay in intestinal transit; however, hepatic neutrophil accumulation, hepatic injury and dysfunction were further enhanced. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that even a short-term HFD ingestion results in hepato-intestinal inflammatory state and alterations in bacterial populations, which may be worsened with antibiotic intake, but alleviated by melatonin.
Parent–child interaction is critical for early language and literacy development. Parent training programs have proliferated to support early interactions. However, many environmental and psychosocial factors can impact the quality of parent–child language and literacy interactions as well as training program outcomes. This preliminary randomized controlled trial examined maternal perceived self-efficacy and locus of control during a language and literacy parent training program. Thirty mother–child dyads (mother age 21–40; children 2;6–4;0) were assigned in parallel to the training or control group. The training was efficacious for mothers and children – training-group dyads made significantly greater gains in maternal strategy use, responsivity, and child print awareness than the control group. Gains were maintained one month post-training. Children whose mothers had more external baseline control perceptions identified significantly fewer print targets at baseline and made greater gains than those with more internal control perceptions. Future directions and implications are discussed.
In 2012, construction works at the traditional olive market at Tarsus, in Eski Ömerli district, revealed large-scale architectural remains of the Roman period; the construction works were halted and a salvage excavation was initiated by Tarsus Museum. The remains that appeared at the first stage of the excavations were interpreted as those of a reservoir from the Roman Imperial period, stretching along a N–S axis. On the E side, a structure projects from the E wall of the reservoir, containing a pool that collects water flowing from drainage pipes set in the reservoir’s façade. The pool was extended in two stages in late antiquity.1 Two metres north of this pool and 3 m from the E wall of the reservoir, the excavations revealed a mosaic pavement (9.73 x 5.05 m), apparently forming part of the floor of a building running parallel to the reservoir’s wall (fig. 1).
Trajectories of individual molecules moving within complex environments such as cell cytoplasm and membranes or semiflexible polymer networks provide invaluable information on the organization and dynamics of these systems. However, when such trajectories are obtained from a sequence of microscopy images, they can be distorted due to the fact that the tracked molecule exhibits appreciable directed motion during the single-frame acquisition. We propose a new model of image formation for mobile molecules that takes the linear in-frame motion into account and develop an algorithm based on the maximum likelihood approach for retrieving the position and velocity of the molecules from single-frame data. The position and velocity information obtained from individual frames are further fed into a Kalman filter for interframe tracking of molecules that allows prediction of the trajectory of the molecule and further improves the precision of the position and velocity estimates. We evaluate the performance of our algorithm by calculations of the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound, simulations, and model experiments with a piezo-stage. We demonstrate tracking of molecules moving as fast as 7 pixels/frame (12.6 μm/s) within a mean error of 0.42 pixel (37.43 nm).
The levels of erythrocyte membrane sialic acid from 17 patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria and 1 with Plasmodium vivax malaria, in Papua New Guinea, have been compared with 9 uninfected controls. The amounts of radioactivity incorporated into the major erythrocyte glycoproteins by the periodate/NaB3H4 or galactose oxidase plus neuraminidase/NaB3H4 methods were unchanged by malaria infection. The electrophoretic mobilities of these proteins also were unaffected. Several new glycoprotein bands with molecular weights (mol. wt) of 160000, 89000, 46000, 42000 and 33000 Daltons were labelled on the surface of erythrocytes from infected individuals; however, none of these bands appeared in all malarious samples. Sialic acid levels on the erythrocyte membrane were also measured by exhaustive neuraminidase treatment and quantitative assay of released sialic acid. The amount of sialic acid was raised in 1 infected individual, within the normal range for Europeans in 4 others, and below this range with 3 patients. Apparently, extensive removal or modification of sialic acid on the surface of uninfected erythrocytes does not occur in human malaria, in contrast to the results obtained in earlier studies with the lethal murine malarias.
John W. Draper's History of the Conflict between Religion and Science (1874) is commonly regarded as the manifesto of the ‘conflict thesis’. The superficiality of this thesis has been demonstrated in recent studies, but to read Draper's work only as a text on ‘science versus religion’ is to miss half of its significance, as it also involved evaluations of individual religions with respect to their attitudes towards science. Due to Draper's favourable remarks on Islam, the Ottoman author Ahmed Midhat translated his work into Turkish, and published it along with his own comments on Draper's arguments. Midhat interpreted Islam using the cues provided by Draper, and portrayed it as the only religion compatible with science. While his Christian readers condemned Draper for his approach to Islam, Midhat transformed the ‘conflict thesis’ into a proclamation that Islam and science were allies in opposition to Christian encroachment on the Ottoman Empire. This paper analyses Midhat's appropriation of Draper's work and compares it to the reaction of Draper's Christian readers. It discusses the context that made an alliance between Islam and science so desirable for Midhat, and emphasizes the impact of the historico-geographical context on the encounters between and representations of science and religion.
Anti-pneumococcal polysaccharide antibody (anti-PPS) levels were measured in 153 serum samples collected from children aged between 2 and 47 months living in the highlands of Papua New Guinea (PNG). Fifty-seven of the samples were collected during acute episodes of lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI). Total IgA and IgG increased steadily with age; however, no association was found between the levels of these antibodies and the health status of the child. Total IgM levels showed little relationship to the age of the child but under 12 months of age levels were somewhat higher on average in children with pneumonia. For most of eight pneumococcal serotypes tested, specific IgG levels were found to decline rapidly in the first 6–8 months, reaching a minimum at approximately 12 months of age. Serotype 3 was exceptional in having very low titres in the youngest children. A separate analysis of 24 cord sera suggested that antibodies to this serotype do not usually cross the placenta in PNG. Children with pneumonia tended to have lower levels of specific IgG than healthy controls of the same age. Specific anti-PPS IgA levels were found to increase steadily with age, but were not associated with health status.
Rates of acquisition and mean duration of nasal carriage of different serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae have been estimated by fitting a stochastic model to longitudinal carriage data in children from Papua New Guinea. Immunogenicity and two indices of relative invasiveness were determined for each serotype. Immunogenic serotypes were less frequently acquired and were carried for shorter periods, but no relationship between immunogenicity and invasiveness was apparent using either index of invasiveness. Frequent invasion was associated with a high acquisition rate and high frequency and prolonged duration of carriage. Carriage studies can provide a broad indication of which serotypes cause invasive disease but not the proportion of disease due to individual serotypes; some serotypes which cause invasive disease (e.g. serotype 46) are not found even in extensive carriage studies. The antibiotic resistance of carriage organisms, however, does approximate the resistance patterns of invasive organisms and thus may be used to monitor changing patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility in the community.
Eighty-seven cases of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) were diagnosed from September 1988 to April 1991 in Papua New Guinea (PNG), by demonstration of high-titre measles-specific antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). For 1990 the annual incidence of SSPE, for the study provinces, was calculated to be 56 cases per million under 20 years of age and it is expected that this figure will be higher in 1991. The mean age of presentation was 4.9 years, with a male to female ratio of 1.8:1. An elevation in the ratio of immunoglobulin G as a percentage of total protein in CSF and an increase in the CSF:serum immunoglobulin G ratio was shown in SSPE patients. The dramatic appearance and high frequency of the disease in PNG might relate to the early age of measles infection encountered in children in this country.
In a study on a Caucasian population in Western Australia the prevalence of antibodies to Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) was 41% in the 9- to 10-year age group, 80% in the 16 to 19-year age group and 92% in young adults. The age-specific annual seroconversion rates indicated two peaks of primary EBV infection in the population studied – one under 5 years of age and the other at adolescence. The geometric mean titre rose with age, from 23 at 5–6 years to 53 at 36–40 years.
It was shown that in 73 families studied there was evidence of probable spread of EBV infection among siblings, particularly between those of the same sex.
Serological study of patients with infectious mononucleosis indicated that 100% of those examined had antibody to EBV and the geometric mean titre was elevated to 210. Rising titres and seroconversion was demonstrated in these patients together with successful establishment of EBV-carrying cell lines from the peripheral blood in two-thirds of the cases.
Between October and December 2005, 16 cases of wound botulism were notified to the health authorities of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. All patients were injecting drug users (IDU) and the epidemiological investigations suggested contaminated injection drugs as the most probable source of infection. Clostridium botulinum was cultivated from clinical samples of six patients and molecular typing revealed that the different isolates were clonally identical. Two samples of heroin, one of them provided by a patient, were examined but C. botulinum could not be isolated. This outbreak demonstrates that IDU are at risk for acquiring wound botulism by injecting contaminated drugs. A greater awareness of this disease is needed by physicians and a close cooperation between public health authorities, street workers, operators of sheltered injecting facilities, and medical centres focusing on IDU is essential to prevent and manage outbreaks in IDU in a timely manner.
A total of 736 outpatients diagnosed as having malaria using clinical criteria at a health centre in a highly endemic area of Papua New Guinea were investigated parasitologically. Plasmodium falciparum-attributable fractions were determined using a logistic regression model to compare parasite densities in cases with those of healthy individuals in community surveys. Thirty-seven percent of presumptive cases were found to have raised P. falciparum parasitaemia. This corresponds to an average reporting rate for the population of 0·53 attributable episodes per annum. Whilst the maximum prevalence of parasitaemia in the community was in children aged 5–9 years, the maximum age-specific incidence of attributable cases at the outpatient clinic was 2 cases per annum in the 2- to 4-year-old age group. The procedure for estimating attributable fractions makes it possible to compare morbidity rates between age groups, and to examine how the relationship between morbidity risk and parasite density changes with age, without diagnosing individual episodes. The average tolerance of parasites in an age group was measured by considering the level of parasitaemia associated with a given risk of malaria-attributable morbidity. In contrast to anti-parasite immunity, tolerance of parasites declines with age since at parasite isodensity the probability of being symptomatic increases with age.
The proportion of blood meals taken on humans which are infectious to mosquitoes in the Madang area, Papua New Guinea was estimated by two methods. In the first, laboratory reared Anopheles farauti were fed on individuals of all ages at village surveys. The results showed that 3·8% of people were infectious and that the mean percentage of mosquitoes which became infected by feeding on these people was 37·9%. From the average proportion of mosquitoes infected, the probability that a mosquito feeding on a human would pick up infection was 0·013±0·005. In the second approach mosquitoes were fed on identified Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax and P. malariae gametocyte carriers. The results indicated that 46% of gametocyte carriers were infectious and that the mean probability of a mosquito becoming infected after feeding on a gametocyte carrier was 0·151±0·029. Gametocyte prevalence rates in all ages measured over 18 months in three villages averaged 3·3% P. falciparum, 4·0% P. vivax and 0·7% P. malariae, totalling 8·0±0·7%. Combining gametocyte prevalence rates with the probability of a mosquito becoming infected from a gametocyte carrier, the probability of a mosquito becoming infected following a blood meal on a member of the human population was estimated to be 0·012±0·003.
In Baden-Wuerttemberg, a federal state in south-west Germany, a large outbreak of 1089 laboratory-confirmed human Puumala virus (PUUV) infections occurred in 2007. We conducted a survey to describe the disease burden and a case-control study to identify risk factors for acquiring PUUV. Case-patients were interviewed about clinical outcome and both case-patients and randomly recruited controls were interviewed about exposure. We calculated matched odds ratios (mOR) using a conditional logistic regression model. Multivariable analysis of 191 matched case-control pairs showed that case-patients were more likely than controls to have seen small rodents/their droppings (mOR 1·9, 95% CI 1·2–3·0), cleaned utility rooms (mOR 1·8, 95% CI 1·0–3·4) and visited forest shelters (mOR 3·9, 95% CI 1·1–14·3). Two thirds of case-patients required hospitalization. During PUUV epidemics rodent control measures and use of protective equipment should be considered in utility rooms and shelters.
An outbreak of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) among children caused by infection with sorbitol-fermenting enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H− (SF EHEC O157:H−) occurred in Germany in 2002. This pathogen has caused several outbreaks so far, yet its reservoir and routes of transmission remain unknown. SF EHEC O157:H− is easily missed as most laboratory protocols target the more common sorbitol non-fermenting strains. We performed active case-finding, extensive exploratory interviews and a case-control study. Clinical and environmental samples were screened for SF EHEC O157:H− and the isolates were subtyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. We identified 38 case-patients in 11 federal states. Four case-patients died during the acute phase (case-fatality ratio 11%). The case-control study could not identify a single vehicle or source. Further studies are necessary to identify the pathogen's reservoir(s). Stool samples of patients with HUS should be tested with an adequate microbiological set-up to quickly identify SF EHEC O157:H−.