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Both neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) and psychotropic drug use (PDU) are common in institutionalized People with Young Onset Dementia (PwYOD) and can produce negative outcomes such as reduced quality of life and high workload. In community-dwelling PwYOD, NPS are found to be associated with unmet care needs. This emphasizes the importance of a care program for the management of NPS in institutionalized PwYOD that also addresses unmet care needs and PDU. The objectives of the Behavior and Evolution of Young ONset Dementia part 2 (BEYOND-II) study are to develop a care program for the management of NPS in institutionalized PwYOD and to evaluate its effectiveness.
The care program consists of an educational program combined with an intervention to manage NPS with the following five steps: the evaluation of psychotropic drug prescription, detection, analysis (including the detection of unmet needs), treatment and the evaluation of NPS. A stepped wedge design will be used to evaluate its effectiveness. The primary outcomes are agitation and aggression and other NPS. The secondary outcomes are PDU, quality of life, the workload of nursing staff and job satisfaction. Additionally, a process analysis and a cost-consequence analysis will be conducted.
The study protocol of the Beyond-II study describes the development, implementation and evaluation of a care program for the management of NPS in institutionalized PwYOD. This care program provides a structured method for the management of NPS, in which unmet needs and PDU are also addressed.
The interaction between immune cells, neurotransmitters and the neuroendocrinological systems plays a role in affective disorders, especially depression. Although panic disorder (PD) shares a lot of features with depression, it is clearly a distinct disorder. Reports on immunological parameters in PD don't provide a clear picture of the immunological status of PD patients. This can partly be attributed to methodological differences between studies and small patient groups.
The present study aims to assemble all studies on immunological parameters in PD in order to combine all available data to gain a broader perspective on this matter.
PubMed was searched for studies describing immunological parameters in PD patients without comorbid disorders or medication use. All studies had to include a healthy control group and the outcome measures had to be shared by at least one other study.
Fourteen articles were found. Although the T-lymphocytic branch and the innate immune system were normal, the B-lymphocytic branch showed some differences between PD patients and healthy controls. B-cell counts were increased in PD patients, which was underlined by increased human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR counts and increased immunoglobulin A levels. However, B-cell activity following mitogen stimulation was normal.
PD patients show increased B-cell numbers. The finding that B-cell activity is not increased can possibly be attributed to functional exhaustion of these cells. The meaning of this finding remains unclear, although it may be potentially important in affective disorders as the same has been found in depression.
A rapid and dramatic change in our views of the Universe which we have witnessed during the past two decades or so is often compared with what happened at the time of Galileo. Revolutionary role of the optical telescope then may be analogized with that of space-astronomy today which has drastically opened the new observational window to the Universe. The revolution is ongoing with a rapid pace or even being accelerated.
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