To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Hylobatids (gibbons and siamangs) are the smallest of the apes distinguished by their coordinated duets, territorial songs, arm-swinging locomotion, and small family group sizes. Although they are the most speciose of the apes boasting twenty species living in eleven countries, ninety-five percent are critically endangered or endangered according to the IUCN's Red List of Threatened Species. Despite this, gibbons are often referred to as being 'forgotten' in the shadow of their great ape cousins because comparably they receive less research, funding and conservation attention. This is only the third book since the 1980s devoted to gibbons, and presents cutting-edge research covering a wide variety of topics including hylobatid ecology, conservation, phylogenetics and taxonomy. Written by gibbon researchers and practitioners from across the world, the book discusses conservation challenges in the Anthropocene and presents practice-based approaches and strategies to save these singing, swinging apes from extinction.
Higher thalamic volume has been found in children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and children with clinical-level symptoms within the general population (Boedhoe et al. 2017, Weeland et al. 2021a). Functionally distinct thalamic nuclei are an integral part of OCD-relevant brain circuitry.
We aimed to study the thalamic nuclei volume in relation to subclinical and clinical OCD across different age ranges. Understanding the role of thalamic nuclei and their associated circuits in pediatric OCD could lead towards treatment strategies specifically targeting these circuits.
We studied the relationship between thalamic nuclei and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in a large sample of school-aged children from the Generation R Study (N = 2500) (Weeland et al. 2021b). Using the data from the ENIGMA-OCD working group we conducted mega-analyses to study thalamic subregional volume in OCD across the lifespan in 2,649 OCD patients and 2,774 healthy controls across 29 sites (Weeland et al. 2021c). Thalamic nuclei were grouped into five subregions: anterior, ventral, intralaminar/medial, lateral and pulvinar (Figure 1).
Both children with subclinical and clinical OCD compared with controls show increased volume across multiple thalamic subregions. Adult OCD patients have decreased volume across all subregions (Figure 2), which was mostly driven by medicated and adult-onset patients.
Our results suggests that OCD-related thalamic volume differences are global and not driven by particular subregions and that the direction of effects are driven by both age and medication status.
To determine how engagement of the hospital and/or vendor with performance improvement strategies combined with an automated hand hygiene monitoring system (AHHMS) influence hand hygiene (HH) performance rates.
The study was conducted in 58 adult and pediatric inpatient units located in 10 hospitals.
HH performance rates were estimated using an AHHMS. Rates were expressed as the number of soap and alcohol-based hand rub portions dispensed divided by the number of room entries and exits. Each hospital self-assigned to one of the following intervention groups: AHHMS alone (control group), AHHMS plus clinician-based vendor support (vendor-only group), AHHMS plus hospital-led unit-based initiatives (hospital-only group), or AHHMS plus clinician-based vendor support and hospital-led unit-based initiatives (vendor-plus-hospital group). Each hospital unit produced 1–2 months of baseline HH performance data immediately after AHHMS installation before implementing initiatives.
Hospital units in the vendor-plus-hospital group had a statistically significant increase of at least 46% in HH performance compared with units in the other 3 groups (P ≤ .006). Units in the hospital only group achieved a 1.3% increase in HH performance compared with units that had AHHMS alone (P = .950). Units with AHHMS plus other initiatives each had a larger change in HH performance rates over their baseline than those in the AHHMS-alone group (P < 0.001).
AHHMS combined with clinician-based vendor support and hospital-led unit-based initiatives resulted in the greatest improvements in HH performance. These results illustrate the value of a collaborative partnership between the hospital and the AHHMS vendor.
Over the past 20 years, collaboration has become an essential aspect of archaeological practice in North America. In paying increased attention to the voices of descendant and local communities, archaeologists have become aware of the persistent injustices these often marginalized groups face. Building on growing calls for a responsive and engaged cultural heritage praxis, this forum article brings together a group of Native and non-Native scholars working at the nexus of history, ethnography, archaeology, and law in order to grapple with the role of archaeology in advancing social justice. Contributors to this article touch on a diverse range of critical issues facing Indigenous communities in the United States, including heritage law, decolonization, foodways, community-based participatory research, and pedagogy. Uniting these commentaries is a shared emphasis on research practices that promote Indigenous sovereignty and self-determination. In drawing these case studies together, we articulate a sovereignty-based model of social justice that facilitates Indigenous control over cultural heritage in ways that address their contemporary needs and goals.
The impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on mental health is still being unravelled. It is important to identify which individuals are at greatest risk of worsening symptoms. This study aimed to examine changes in depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms using prospective and retrospective symptom change assessments, and to find and examine the effect of key risk factors.
Online questionnaires were administered to 34 465 individuals (aged 16 years or above) in April/May 2020 in the UK, recruited from existing cohorts or via social media. Around one-third (n = 12 718) of included participants had prior diagnoses of depression or anxiety and had completed pre-pandemic mental health assessments (between September 2018 and February 2020), allowing prospective investigation of symptom change.
Prospective symptom analyses showed small decreases in depression (PHQ-9: −0.43 points) and anxiety [generalised anxiety disorder scale – 7 items (GAD)-7: −0.33 points] and increases in PTSD (PCL-6: 0.22 points). Conversely, retrospective symptom analyses demonstrated significant large increases (PHQ-9: 2.40; GAD-7 = 1.97), with 55% reported worsening mental health since the beginning of the pandemic on a global change rating. Across both prospective and retrospective measures of symptom change, worsening depression, anxiety and PTSD symptoms were associated with prior mental health diagnoses, female gender, young age and unemployed/student status.
We highlight the effect of prior mental health diagnoses on worsening mental health during the pandemic and confirm previously reported sociodemographic risk factors. Discrepancies between prospective and retrospective measures of changes in mental health may be related to recall bias-related underestimation of prior symptom severity.
The hippocampus is a complex brain structure with key roles in cognitive and emotional processing and with subregion abnormalities associated with a range of disorders and psychopathologies. Here we combine data from two large independent young adult twin/sibling cohorts to obtain the most accurate estimates to date of genetic covariation between hippocampal subfield volumes and the hippocampus as a single volume. The combined sample included 2148 individuals, comprising 1073 individuals from 627 families (mean age = 22.3 years) from the Queensland Twin IMaging (QTIM) Study, and 1075 individuals from 454 families (mean age = 28.8 years) from the Human Connectome Project (HCP). Hippocampal subfields were segmented using FreeSurfer version 6.0 (CA4 and dentate gyrus were phenotypically and genetically indistinguishable and were summed to a single volume). Multivariate twin modeling was conducted in OpenMx to decompose variance into genetic and environmental sources. Bivariate analyses of hippocampal formation and each subfield volume showed that 10%–72% of subfield genetic variance was independent of the hippocampal formation, with greatest specificity found for the smaller volumes; for example, CA2/3 with 42% of genetic variance being independent of the hippocampus; fissure (63%); fimbria (72%); hippocampus-amygdala transition area (41%); parasubiculum (62%). In terms of genetic influence, whole hippocampal volume is a good proxy for the largest hippocampal subfields, but a poor substitute for the smaller subfields. Additive genetic sources accounted for 49%–77% of total variance for each of the subfields in the combined sample multivariate analysis. In addition, the multivariate analyses were sufficiently powered to identify common environmental influences (replicated in QTIM and HCP for the molecular layer and CA4/dentate gyrus, and accounting for 7%–16% of total variance for 8 of 10 subfields in the combined sample). This provides the clearest indication yet from a twin study that factors such as home environment may influence hippocampal volumes (albeit, with caveats).
In this prospective study of mental health, we examine the influence of three interrelated traits — perceived stress, rumination, and daytime sleepiness — and their association with symptoms of anxiety and depression in early adolescence. Given the known associations between these traits, an important objective is to determine the extent to which they may independently predict anxiety/depression symptoms. Twin pairs from the Queensland Twin Adolescent Brain (QTAB) project were assessed on two occasions (N = 211 pairs aged 9−14 years at baseline and 152 pairs aged 10−16 years at follow-up). Linear regression models and quantitative genetic modeling were used to analyze the data. Prospectively, perceived stress, rumination, and daytime sleepiness accounted for 8−11% of the variation in later anxiety/depression; familial influences contributed strongly to these associations. However, only perceived stress significantly predicted change in anxiety/depression, accounting for 3% of variance at follow-up after adjusting for anxiety/depression at baseline, although it did not do so independently of rumination and daytime sleepiness. Bidirectional effects were found between all traits over time. These findings suggest an underlying architecture that is shared, to some degree, by all traits, while the literature points to hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis and/or circadian systems as potential sources of overlapping influence and possible avenues for intervention.
By ratifying the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) in 2018, Ireland has undertaken inter alia the obligation to implement ‘an inclusive education system at all levels and lifelong learning’, as required by Article 24. However, concerns have been repeatedly expressed about the practice of inclusive education in Ireland in terms of admission policies, funding, school choice and reduced timetabling. This paper investigates whether, and to what extent, the current approach to special educational needs (SEN) in Ireland complies with the aim of ensuring an inclusive educational system in which children with disabilities are valued and empowered. Ireland is an interesting case-study due to its history of marginalisation of children with disabilities and its relatively recent engagement with the concept of inclusive education. By using a socio-legal approach, drawing on qualitative interviews with key stakeholders in education combined with a legal analysis of relevant primary and secondary sources, it examines the current practices relating to the education of children with disabilities in Ireland.
In March 2020, New York City became the epicenter of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the United States. Because healthcare facilities were overwhelmed with patients, the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center was transformed into the nation’s largest alternate care site: Javits New York Medical Station (hereafter termed Javits). Protecting healthcare workers (HCWs) during a global shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE) in a nontraditional healthcare setting posed unique challenges. We describe components of the HCW safety program implemented at Javits.
Javits, a large convention center transformed into a field hospital, with clinical staff from the US Public Health Service Commissioned Corps and the US Department of Defense.
Key strategies to ensure HCW safety included ensuring 1-way flow of traffic on and off the patient floor, developing a matrix detailing PPE required for each work activity and location, PPE extended use and reuse protocols, personnel training, and monitoring adherence to PPE donning/doffing protocols when entering or exiting the patient floor. Javits staff who reported COVID-19 symptoms were immediately isolated, monitored, and offered a severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test.
A well-designed and implemented HCW safety plan can minimize the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection for HCWs. The lessons learned from operating the nation’s largest COVID-19 alternate care site can be adapted to other environments during public health emergencies.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The goal of this study is to determine the role of the tRNA modifications in the translation of Hfq. Hfq is an RNA chaperone that acts as a co-factor for the action of the largest class of small RNAs in E. coli. RNA modifications have been known to play critical roles in the translational fidelity of many cellular proteins in bacteria. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In this study, we used an hfq-lacZ translation fusion to screen several RNA modification mutant genes to uncover additional RNA modifications that may play a role in Hfq translation. We measured hfq-lacZ activity in genetic backgrounds mutated for several additional RNA modification enzymes previously untested for Hfq effects. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We identified 5 RNA modification genes that were defective for hfq-lacZ fusion activity, and we subsequently performed western blot analysis on the Hfq protein in the absence of these modification mutant genes to determine the effect of these mutants more directly on Hfq protein levels. We identified 2 out of these 5 RNA modification mutants that also affect Hfq protein levels. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Since Hfq is critically important for small RNA function is a wide range of bacteria, it is possible tRNA modifications regulate Hfq expression in other bacteria. These processes, when further investigated, could provide us with the basic information to develop new antibiotics needed to address emerging antibiotic resistance.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: MiaA is a highly conserved prenyl transferase that catalyzes synthesis of the i6A37 tRNA modification in E. coli. While transcriptional regulation of MiaA is well characterized, there is no information on the MiaA post-transcriptional regulation. The aim of this study is to characterize the post-transcriptional regulation of the MiaA gene in E. coli. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: To characterize the post-transcriptional regulation of miaA, we executed a targeted genetic screen of an E. coli small RNA library on a miaA-lacZ translational reporter fusion strain to identify small RNAs (sRNAs) that modulate MiaA translation or transcription termination. We also measured MiaA mRNA levels and miaA-lacZ activity in the absence or over-expression of candidate sRNA regulators of MiaA. We also measured MiaA mRNA levels in the absence of RNaseE and PNPase, two enzymes involved in mRNA turnover. Finally, we measured the ability of purified recombinant CsrA to bind to the MiaA mRNA transcript in vitro. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We identified the carbon sensing sRNA CsrB and its cognate protein interaction partner CsrA, as potential post-transcriptional regulators of MiaA. Over-expression of CsrB fully repressed miaA-lacZ activity and MiaA mRNA levels. The absence of CsrA resulted in a defective miaA-lacZ activity and a 10-fold decrease in MiaA mRNA levels. We also identified an increase in the MiaA mRNA half-life particularly in the absence of RNaseE. Our results demonstrate an additional layer of regulation for the miaA operon by the CsrA/CsrB protein-sRNA system. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: MiaA is a highly conserved bacterial protein. Our data may represent phenomena in an array of bacteria that could be targeted by novel antibiotics. The human MiaA homologue, TRIT1, plays a role in mitochondrial disorders. We anticipate that information garnered from MiaA studies will elucidate TRIT1 function and its role in mitochondrial disorders.
Transcriptional changes involved in neuronal recovery after sports-related concussion (SRC) may be obscured by inter-individual variation in mRNA expression and nonspecific changes related to physical exertion. Using a co-twin study, the objective of this study was to identify important differences in mRNA expression among a single pair of monozygotic (MZ) twins discordant for concussion. A pair of MZ twins were enrolled as part of a larger study of concussion biomarkers among collegiate athletes. During the study, Twin A sustained SRC, allowing comparison of mRNA expression to the nonconcussed Twin B. Twin A clinically recovered by Day 7. mRNA expression was measured pre-injury and at 6 h and 7 days postinjury using Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 microarray. Changes in mRNA expression from pre-injury to each postinjury time point were compared between the twins; differences >1.5-fold were considered important. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes identified biologic networks associated with important transcripts. Among 38,000 analyzed genes, important changes were identified in 153 genes. The ErbB (epidermal growth factor receptor) signaling pathway was identified as the top transcriptional network from pre-injury to 7 days postinjury. Genes in this pathway with important transcriptional changes included epidermal growth factor (2.41), epiregulin (1.73), neuregulin 1 (1.54) and mechanistic target of rapamycin (1.51). In conclusion, the ErbB signaling pathway was identified as a potential regulator of clinical recovery in a MZ twin pair discordant for SRC. A co-twin study design may be a useful method for identifying important gene pathways associated with concussion recovery.
Adults who had non-edematous severe acute malnutrition (SAM) during infancy (i.e., marasmus) have worse glucose tolerance and beta-cell function than survivors of edematous SAM (i.e., kwashiorkor). We hypothesized that wasting and/or stunting in SAM is associated with lower glucose disposal rate (M) and insulin clearance (MCR) in adulthood.
We recruited 40 nondiabetic adult SAM survivors (20 marasmus survivors (MS) and 20 kwashiorkor survivors (KS)) and 13 matched community controls. We performed 150-minute hyperinsulinaemic, euglycaemic clamps to estimate M and MCR. We also measured serum adiponectin, anthropometry, and body composition. Data on wasting (weight-for-height) and stunting (height-for-age) were abstracted from the hospital records.
Children with marasmus had lower weight-for-height z-scores (WHZ) (−3.8 ± 0.9 vs. −2.2 ± 1.4; P < 0.001) and lower height-for-age z-scores (HAZ) (−4.6 ± 1.1 vs. −3.4 ± 1.5; P = 0.0092) than those with kwashiorkor. As adults, mean age (SD) of participants was 27.2 (8.1) years; BMI was 23.6 (5.0) kg/m2. SAM survivors and controls had similar body composition. MS and KS and controls had similar M (9.1 ± 3.2; 8.7 ± 4.6; 6.9 ± 2.5 mg.kg−1.min−1 respectively; P = 0.3) and MCR. WHZ and HAZ were not associated with M, MCR or adiponectin even after adjusting for body composition.
Wasting and stunting during infancy are not associated with insulin sensitivity and insulin clearance in lean, young, adult survivors of SAM. These data are consistent with the finding that glucose intolerance in malnutrition survivors is mostly due to beta-cell dysfunction.
Does exposure to a mass migration event cause citizens to vote against incumbents? I offer an answer to this question by studying one of the largest acute periods of migration in the US, the case of the 1980 Mariel Boatlift during which roughly 125,000 Cubans fled to South Florida. I estimate the change in support for Republican presidential candidates in Miami using the synthetic control method and fixed effects regressions with a panel of county-level and archival precinct-level election results. I find that, while Miami voters dramatically increased their support of the Republican candidate in 1980, this shift was not a local consequence of the Boatlift. Instead, the evidence suggests that Cuban support for Reagan was not a local Miami response to the Boatlift—it happened in Cuban communities throughout the US—but it was most noticeable in Miami because Miami had the largest Cuban population in the US even before the Boatlift. I also present evidence that this change in Cuban voting may have been specific to Reagan and not a broader shift against incumbents or toward Republicans. These findings suggest that, in this case, direct exposure to migration did not lead citizens to dramatically change their voting behavior.
The effect of sample preparation on a pre-aged Al–Mg–Si–Cu alloy has been evaluated using atom probe tomography. Three methods of preparation were investigated: electropolishing (control), Ga+ focused ion beam (FIB) milling, and Xe+ plasma FIB (PFIB) milling. Ga+-based FIB preparation was shown to introduce significant amount of Ga contamination throughout the reconstructed sample (≈1.3 at%), while no Xe contamination was detected in the PFIB-prepared sample. Nevertheless, a significantly higher cluster density was observed in the Xe+ PFIB-prepared sample (≈25.0 × 1023 m−3) as compared to the traditionally produced electropolished sample (≈3.2 × 1023 m−3) and the Ga+ FIB sample (≈5.6 × 1023 m−3). Hence, the absence of the ion milling species does not necessarily mean an absence of specimen preparation defects. Specifically, the FIB and PFIB-prepared samples had more Si-rich clusters as compared to electropolished samples, which is indicative of vacancy stabilization via solute clustering.
We explore how relational identification (RI) complements the influence of relational exchange within work role-relationships. In two temporally-lagged studies, we examine the contribution of RI, after accounting for relational exchange quality (REQ), in predicting organizationally-relevant behaviors and attitudes – namely, (1) interpersonal citizenship behaviors (ICBs; person-focused and task-focused), (2) job satisfaction, and (3) affective organizational commitment. Across samples of ‘non-professional’ (N = 152) and ‘professional’ (N = 197) employees, we found that RI (after accounting for REQ) significantly predicted outcomes. Indeed, we found RI to be the only predictor (after accounting for REQ) with affective commitment (‘non-professional’ sample only), person-focused ICBs (both samples), and task-focused ICBs (both samples). We discuss potential approaches for better specifying both identification and exchange as well as their unique and interactive effects within work role-relationships as well as managerial implications, limitations, and future research directions.
The Trial Innovation Network (TIN) is a collaborative initiative within the National Center for Advancing Translational Science (NCATS) Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) Program. To improve and innovate the conduct of clinical trials, it is exploring the uses of gamification to better engage the trial workforce and improve the efficiencies of trial activities. The gamification structures described in this article are part of a TIN website gamification toolkit, available online to the clinical trial scientific community.
The game designers used existing electronic trial platforms to gamify the tasks required to meet trial start-up timelines to create friendly competitions. Key indicators and familiar metrics were mapped to scoreboards. Webinars were organized to share and applaud trial and game performance.
Game scores were significantly associated with an increase in achieving start-up milestones in activation, institutional review board (IRB) submission, and IRB approval times, indicating the probability of completing site activation faster by using games. Overall game enjoyment and feelings that the game did not apply too much pressure appeared to be an important moderator of performance in one trial but had little effect on performance in a second.
This retrospective examination of available data from gaming experiences may be a first-of-kind use in clinical trials. There are signals that gaming may accelerate performance and increase enjoyment during the start-up phase of a trial. Isolating the effect of gamification on trial outcomes will depend on a larger sampling from future trials, using well-defined, hypothesis-driven statistical analysis plans.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic requires urgent implementation of effective community-engaged strategies to enhance education, awareness, and inclusion of underserved communities in prevention, mitigation, and treatment efforts. The Texas Community-Engagement Alliance Consortium was established with support from the United States’ National Institutes of Health (NIH) to conduct community-engaged projects in selected geographic locations with a high proportion of medically underserved minority groups with a disproportionate burden of COVID-19 disease and hospitalizations. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of the Consortium. The Consortium organized seven projects with focused activities to address COVID-19 clinical and vaccine trials in highly affected counties, as well as critical statewide efforts. Five Texas counties (Bexar, Dallas, Harris, Hidalgo, and Tarrant) were chosen by NIH because of high concentrations of underserved minority communities, existing community infrastructure, ongoing efforts against COVID-19, and disproportionate burden of COVID-19. Policies and practices can contribute to disparities in COVID-19 risk, morbidity, and mortality. Community engagement is an essential element for effective public health strategies in medically underserved minority areas. Working with partners, the Consortium will use community engagement strategies to address COVID-19 disparities.