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In the United States, elections are often administered by directly elected local officials who run as members of a political party. Do these officials use their office to give their party an edge in elections? Using a newly collected dataset of nearly 5,900 clerk elections and a close-election regression discontinuity design, we compare counties that narrowly elect a Democratic election administrator to those that narrowly elect a Republican. We find that Democrats and Republicans serving similar counties oversee similar election results, turnout, and policies. We also find that reelection is not the primary moderating force on clerks. Instead, clerks may be more likely to agree on election policies across parties than the general public and selecting different election policies may only modestly affect outcomes. While we cannot rule out small effects that nevertheless tip close elections, our results imply that clerks are not typically and noticeably advantaging their preferred party.
Includes 'John Harvey of Ickwell, 1688-9', edited by Margaret Richards. 'Henry Taylor of Pulloxhill, 1750-72', edited by Patricia Bell. 'John Salusbury of Leighton Buzzard, 1757-9', edited by Joyce Godber. 'John Pedley of Great Barford, 1773-95', edited by F. G. Emmison. 'Elizabeth Brown of Ampthill, 1778-91', edited by Joyce Godber. 'Edward Arpin of Felmersham, 1763-1831', edited by C. D. Linnell. 'Catherine Young (later Maclear) of Bedford, 1832-5 and 1846', edited by Isobel Thompson. 'Sir John Burgoyne, Bart., of Sutton, 1854', edited by Brigadier P. Young, DSO, MC. 'Major J. H. Brooks and the Indian Mutiny, 1857', edited by Aileen M. Armstrong. 'The Rev. G. D. Newbolt of Souldrop, 1856-95', edited by Patricia Bell. 'Some Letters from Bedfordshire Pioneers in Australia, 1842-86', edited by Andrew Underwood.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Supported by the State of Alabama, the Alabama Genomic Health Initiative (AGHI) is aimed at preventing and treating common conditions with a genetic basis. This joint UAB Medicine-HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology effort provides genomic testing, interpretation, and counseling free of charge to residents in each of Alabama’s 67 counties. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Launched in 2017, as a state-wide population cohort, AGHI (1.0) enrolled 6,331 Alabamians and returned individual risk of disease(s) related to the ACMG SF v2.0 medically actionable genes. In 2021, the cohort was expanded to include a primary care cohort. AGHI (2.0) has enrolled 750 primary care patients, returning individual risk of disease(s) related to the ACMG SF v3.1 gene list and pre-emptive pharmacogenetics (PGx) to guide medication therapy. Genotyping is done on the Illumina Global Diversity Array with Sanger sequencing to confirm likely pathogenic / pathogenic variants in medically actionable genes and CYP2D6 copy number variants using Taqman assays, resulting in a CLIA-grade report. Disease risk results are returned by genetic counselors and Pharmacogenetics results are returned by Pharmacists. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We have engaged a statewide community (>7000 participants), returning 94 disease risk genetic reports and 500 PGx reports. Disease risk reports include increased predisposition to cancers (n=38), cardiac diseases (n=33), metabolic (n=12), other (n=11). 100% of participants harbor an actionable PGx variant, 70% are on medication with PGx guidance, 48% harbor PGx variants and are taking medications affected. In 10% of participants, pharmacists sent an active alert to the provider to consider/ recommend alternative medication. Most commonly impacted medications included antidepressants, NSAIDS, proton-pump inhibitors and tramadol. To enable the EMR integration of genomic information, we have developed an automated transfer of reports into the EMR with Genetics Reports and PGx reports viewable in Cerner. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We share our experience on pre-emptive implementation of genetic risk and pharmacogenetic actionability at a population and clinic level. Both patients and providers are actively engaged, providing feedback to refine the return of results. Real time alerts with guidance at the time of prescription are needed to ensure future actionability and value.
The term atmospheric general circulation, as used in this book, connotes a statistical representation of the three‐dimensional, time varying flow in the global atmosphere, including the cycling of zonal momentum, energy, water vapor, and other trace constituents.
On a rotating planet, the zonally symmetric zonal wind and temperature fields are in thermal wind balance. By applying this dynamical constraint, it is possible to go beyond the consistency arguments for steady state balances in Eqs. (3.21) and (5.20) and deduce how the flow will evolve in response to specified, time varying distributions of diabatic heating rate, frictional drag, and the eddy transports of zonal momentum and heat. In this zonally averaged version of the primitive equations, which dates back to Eliassen,1 the mean meridional circulations play a critical role in enforcing the constraint that the zonal wind and temperature fields remain in thermal wind balance as the flow evolves.
This chapter introduces some of the fundamental concepts that underlie our understanding of the general circulation of planetary atmospheres: radiative–convective equilibrium, a mechanical energy cycle, a thermodynamic heat engine, stratification – how it develops and why it matters, the dynamical response to horizontal and vertical heating gradients, the influence of rotation, the far‐reaching effects of frictional drag.
Wave–mean flow interaction has played a central role in studies of the general circulation, dating back to the foundational works of Rossby, Starr, and collaborators. In the early studies the waves were usually referred to as “eddies” (as in “turbulent eddies”) without regard for the specific kind of instability or forcing mechanism that gave rise to them. Starr was particularly intrigued with the countergradient transports of angular momentum equatorward of the tropospheric jet stream.1