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Healthcare workers (HCWs) not fulfilling the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case definition underwent severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) screening. Risk of exposure, adherence to personal protective equipment (PPE), and symptoms were assessed. In total, 2,000 HCWs were screened: 5.5% were positive for SARS-CoV-2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). There were no differences in PPE use between SARS-CoV-2–positive and –negative HCWs (adherence, >90%). Nursing and kitchen staff were independently associated with positive SARS-CoV-2 results.
We extend the classical notion of standardly stratified k-algebra (stated for finite dimensional k-algebras) to the more general class of rings, possibly without 1, with enough idempotents. We show that many of the fundamental results, which are known for classical standardly stratified algebras, can be generalized to this context. Furthermore, new classes of rings appear as: ideally standardly stratified and ideally quasi-hereditary. In the classical theory, it is known that quasi-hereditary and ideally quasi-hereditary algebras are equivalent notions, but in our general setting, this is no longer true. To develop the theory, we use the well-known connection between rings with enough idempotents and skeletally small categories (ringoids or rings with several objects).
Saxicolous, lecideoid lichenized fungi have a cosmopolitan distribution but, being mostly cold adapted, are especially abundant in polar and high-mountain regions. To date, little is known of their origin or the extent of their trans-equatorial dispersal. Several mycobiont genera and species are thought to be restricted to either the Northern or the Southern Hemisphere, whereas others are thought to be widely distributed and occur in both hemispheres. However, these assumptions often rely on morphological analyses and lack supporting molecular genetic data. Also unknown is the extent of regional differentiation in the southern polar regions. An extensive set of lecideoid lichens (185 samples) was collected along a latitudinal gradient at the southern end of South America. Subantarctic climate conditions were maintained by increasing the elevation of the collecting sites with decreasing latitude. The investigated specimens were placed in a global context by including Antarctic and cosmopolitan sequences from other studies. For each symbiont three markers were used to identify intraspecific variation (mycobiont: ITS, mtSSU, RPB1; photobiont: ITS, psbJ-L, COX2). For the mycobiont, the saxicolous genera Lecidea, Porpidia, Poeltidea and Lecidella were phylogenetically re-evaluated, along with their photobionts Asterochloris and Trebouxia. For several globally distributed species groups, the results show geographically highly differentiated subclades, classified as operational taxonomical units (OTUs), which were assigned to the different regions of southern South America (sSA). Furthermore, several small endemic and well-supported clades apparently restricted to sSA were detected at the species level for both symbionts.
Suicide attempts/thoughts are common among psychiatric inpatients and they are burden for the individual, the family and the health system. According to published reports, suicidality in Greece has increased significantly, because of the current economic crisis.
Examine the profile of psychiatric inpatients of the Psychiatric Department of the University Hospital of Crete(PD/UHC), presenting with suicide attempts/ thoughts.
Identify risk factors associated with attempted suicide or suicidal thoughts.
One hundred forty four out of 444 (33%) inpatients admitted in the PD/UHC between Nov 2011- Aug 2012 presented suicidal attempts/thoughts. Data were analyzed using the Pearson's chi-square test and multivariable regression models.
Major Depression, substance abuse, female gender and having a spouse were associated with suicidality in the entire group. Because there was an interaction between gender and having children, the analysis was stratified by gender. Risk factors for suicidality in men were having children (OR=2.26) and shorter time since onset of illness (OR= 0.96), and in women having a spouse (OR=2.47). Low income and unemployment were not significant predictors of suicidality.
Major Depression, substance abuse, female gender, family status and recent onset of illness appear to be risk factors associated with suicidality in psychiatric inpatients. Unemployment/low income, did not correlate with suicidality. Our findings do not support the popular belief of increased suicidality due to the current economic crisis. Finally, there is a need for further understanding of how family, its dynamics and potential stressors associated with it, may influence suicidality.
The development and use of large and dynamic health data repositories designed to support research pose challenges to traditional informed consent models. We used semi-structured interviewing (n=44) to elicit diverse research stakeholders' views of a model of consent appropriate to participation in initiatives that entail collection, long-term storage, and undetermined future research use of multiple types of health data. We demonstrate that, when considering health data repositories, research stakeholders replace a concept of consent as informed with one in which consent is engaged. In engaged consent, a participant's ongoing relationship with a repository serves as a substitute or adjunct to information exchange at enrollment. We detail research stakeholders' views of the risks of engaged consent and suggest questions for further study about engagement and consent procedures in initiatives that aim to store data for future unspecified research purposes.
The start of Child and Adolescent attention to gender dysphoria is very recent. In our Unit, it has objectified a growing increase in such demand over recent years.
As a typical example would be a patient of 13 years following gender dysphoria begins to present school failure and behavior problems at home with emotional instability.
According to the recommendations of the Group Identity and Sexual Differentiation (GIDSEEN) after early detection is to guide parents towards a comprehensive treatment at a specialized interdisciplinary teams and a psychosocial approach to improve the quality of life, decrease mental comorbidity and gender dysphoria own. Having no such care in our community has been necessary to make a referral to another community to attend this demand.
Currently it is giving adequate attention to these cases, but except for referral to another community. However, as we are seeing progression care in our area in the future could be feasible. Therefore, we consider as a first step dysphoria quantify each case in our area.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Poor adherence to treatment is one of the main problems in health care to psychiatric patients. The second-generation antipsychotics, and the subsequent emergence of the depot forms (long acting formulations) have facilitated this aspect, increasing the time to clinical relapse in patients with schizophrenia.
Determine the time to relapse in a clinical sample of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia treated with paliperidone palmitate over 3 years. Other objectives include the possible reduction in hospital admissions, as well as the possible reduction of psychiatric emergency visits, concomitant medication (benzodiazepines and Biperiden) and the possible increase in drug monotherapy.
This is a study with a sample of 101 patients with schizophrenia who had started treatment with PP (consecutive sampling). Quantified variables in the 12 months prior to the change of PP treatment with variables at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months after initiation of treatment with PP were compared.
Results and conclusions
At the end of the tracking, 72.22% (73 patients) remained clinically stable, with adequate adherence to treatment and there have been no clinical relapses. It has obtained a statistically significant reduction in the use of concomitant medication, emergency room visits and the average duration of revenues, with no clinical relapse should occur in patients of the sample in the second and third year.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Maintaining antipsychotic therapy in mental disorder is important in preventing relapse, rehospitalization, and suicide. Lack of awareness of illness may be a leading cause for non-adherence. Long-acting depot can prevent non- adherence and thus potentially contribute to better patient outcomes.
The aim of this prospective, observational, non interventional 2-year-long study is to assess severity and post-intervention changes and attitudes toward medication of a group of patients treated paliperidone palmitate (PP).
Thirty-three outpatients stabilised with PP during the last 24 months. Inclusion criteria were: patients’ age (> 18 years), a diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, schizoaffective disorder stabilised during the last 12 months with PP, without a diagnostics from axis I or II (except for nicotine of caffeine) and able to sign the inform consent. Data collected: general sociodemographic and clinical data (age, sex, level of education, socioeconomic situation, family support, psychiatric diagnosis, years of evolution, use/abuse of substances, treatment, previous and later number of hospitalisations. Evaluations included disease severity (Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) and Drug Attitude Inventory, (DAI)).
Thirty-threeoutpatients were followed during 24 months [mean dose 132,58 (44,4) mg], 75,8% were men, age 45,05 years old, 87,8% with a diagnoses of paranoid schizophrenia. Antipsychotic monotherapy increased over the time with PP. Significant improvements were observed on both Clinical Global Impression and Drug Attitude Inventory. The number of rehospitalizations and mean stays decreased from the beginning until the end of these 24 months.
Our results suggest an improvement in the patient's clinical vision and attitude towards medication with long-acting depot.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Species of the allocreadiid genus Creptotrema are parasites of freshwater fishes in the Americas. Species in the genus possess one pair of muscular oral lobes on the oral sucker. Currently, the genus contains eight species, six distributed in South America, one in Middle America and one in North America. Genetic data are only available for the North American species, Creptotrema funduli, a parasite of fundulids originally described from Oneida Lake, New York State. In this study, we obtained 28S ribosomal DNA sequences of trematodes morphologically similar to Creptotrema agonostomi from the mountain mullet, Dajaus monticola, across a wide geographical range in Middle America. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses showed that (1) the genus Creptotrema, as currently conceived, is not monophyletic; (2) the allocreadiids in mountain mullets should be re-allocated in the genus Pseudoparacreptotrema; and (3) the allocreadiid trematodes from D. monticola across Middle America represent four morphologically similar species, three of which can be distinguished genetically. These three new species are described herein using an integrative taxonomy approach. We contend that accurate estimates of species diversity and phylogenetic relationships among allocreadiids, and most likely other species of trematodes, necessarily require an integrative taxonomy approach that should consider at least DNA sequences and scanning electron microscopy.
Haemonchus contortus is a haematophagous gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) that causes severe anaemia and even death in small ruminants, negatively impacting the economic viability of farms. Traditionally, this parasite has been controlled with chemical compounds; however, inadequate use of these types of products has favoured the emergence of anthelmintic resistance. Therefore, it is necessary to search for alternatives for GIN control. Previous studies have reported the anthelmintic activity of edible mushroom extracts against H. contortus. A recent study reported that a fraction constituted of different fatty acids and β-sitosterol isolated from the basidiomata of the edible mushroom Pleurotus djamor ECS-123 has ovicidal and larvicidal activity against H. contortus. Thus, this study aimed to assess the anthelmintic activity of the pure molecules: pentadecanoic acid, palmitic acid, β-sitosterol, stearic acid and linoleic acid. For this purpose, an egg-hatching inhibition test was carried out in which the compounds were evaluated individually and in combination at a final concentration of 20 mg mL−1. Furthermore, larval mortality was assessed using a combination of the five commercial compounds previously mentioned at different concentrations (1.25–20 mg mL−1). Palmitic acid and stearic acid, in some combinations, inhibited H. contortus egg hatching by 100%. On the other hand, in the larval mortality test, the combination of the five compounds showed dose-dependent behaviour, and 100% mortality was obtained 24 h post-incubation. Pure molecules and their combinations have anthelmintic-like activity against the eggs and larvae of H. contortus.
Natural zeolites in the Aksitero sedimentary formation of the western Luzon area of the Philippines were evaluated. The natural washed zeolite (NW-Z) was preconditioned with acid to purify it and increase its surface area. Acid treatment with 3 M HCl for 12 h yielded optimum acid treatment of the NW-Z, causing increases in the Si/Al ratio, the specific surface area by 32.5% and the porosity of the acid-treated zeolite (HC-Z). The HC-Z was washed with 4 M NaCl for 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 48 and 72 h to improve its cation-exchange capacity for copper. The sodium-treated zeolite (Na-Z) was immersed in 100 ppm CuSO4 solution to test the copper-uptake capacity. Pretreatment of HC-Z with 4 M NaCl for 24 h is optimal for sodium treatment of the preconditioned HC-Z. The preconditioning techniques did not significantly alter the structure and morphology of the zeolite samples. It is suggested that the preconditioned Philippine natural zeolite samples are readily available for further functionalization that will enhance their antibacterial, catalytic and adsorption properties, with various useful applications in the field of catalysis, biomedicine, environmental mitigation and wastewater treatment.
In this work, the effect of γ-radiation on the decomposition of adenine dissolved in distilled water, saline solutions and artificial seawater was studied. As the composition of the major cations and anions of artificial seawater probably better resembles the composition of seawater on the Earth 4.0 billion years ago, this seawater was named artificial seawater 4.0 Ga. The main finding in this work is that artificial seawater 4.0 Ga demonstrated a better protective effect of adenine against γ-radiation. In addition, artificial seawater 4.0 Ga showed that adenine had no changes in pH after radiation exposure and the minor radiation-chemical yield G. The radiolysis of adenine promoted modifications in Fourier-transform infrared spectra. The deconvolution of some bands demonstrated the formation of a new frequency at 1713 cm−1. High performance liquid chromatography-mass detected a product of decomposition with 151 atomic units. Using the geometry optimization and simulated vibrational spectra it was possible to show that the main species formed are hydroxyl and oxide modified adenine. The data point to the formation of hydroxyl-adenine and adenine Nx-oxide. These products have biological relevance and could be available for chemical evolution.
This study assessed the in vitro anthelmintic (AH) activity of methanol and acetone:water leaf extracts from Annona squamosa, A. muricata and A. reticulata against Haemonchus contortus eggs. The egg hatch test was used to determine the effective concentrations required to inhibit 50% of eggs hatching (EC50). The role of polyphenols on AH activity was measured through bioassays with and without polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP). Methanolic extracts mainly caused the death of eggs at the morula stage (ovicidal activity). Meanwhile, acetone:water extracts caused egg-hatching failure of developed larvae (larvae failing eclosion (LFE) activity). The lowest EC50 values against H. contortus eggs were observed for the methanolic extracts from A. reticulata and A. muricata (274.2 and 382.9 µg/ml, respectively). From the six extracts evaluated, the methanolic extracts of A. muricata, A. reticulata and A. squamosa showed the highest ovicidal activity, resulting in 98.9%, 92.8% and 95.1% egg mortality, respectively. When the methanolic extract of A. squamosa was incubated with PVPP, its AH activity increased. Similarly, when acetone:water extracts of A. muriata and A. reticulata were incubated with PVPP, their LFE activity increased. Alkaloids were only evident in methanolic extracts, irrespective of PVPP incubation. The presence of acetogenins was not observed. In conclusion, methanolic extracts obtained from leaves of A. muricata, A. reticulata and A. squamosa showed ovicidal activity affecting the morula of H. contortus eggs, with minor LFE activity. Meanwhile, acetone:water extracts showed mostly LFE activity, with a lower proportion of ovicidal activity.