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Motivational processes underlie behaviors that enrich the human experience, and impairments in motivation are commonly observed in psychiatric illness. While motivated behavior is often examined with respect to extrinsic reinforcers, not all actions are driven by reactions to external stimuli; some are driven by ‘intrinsic’ motivation. Intrinsically motivated behaviors are computationally similar to extrinsically motivated behaviors, in that they strive to maximize reward value and minimize punishment. However, our understanding of the neurocognitive mechanisms that underlie intrinsically motivated behavior remains limited. Dysfunction in intrinsic motivation represents an important trans-diagnostic facet of psychiatric symptomology, but due to a lack of clear consensus, the contribution of intrinsic motivation to psychopathology remains poorly understood. This review aims to provide an overview of the conceptualization, measurement, and neurobiology of intrinsic motivation, providing a framework for understanding its potential contributions to psychopathology and its treatment. Distinctions between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation are discussed, including divergence in the types of associated rewards or outcomes that drive behavioral action and choice. A useful framework for understanding intrinsic motivation, and thus separating it from extrinsic motivation, is developed and suggestions for optimization of paradigms to measure intrinsic motivation are proposed.
Maternal experiences of childhood adversity can increase the risk of emotional and behavioural problems in their children. This systematic review and meta-analysis provide the first narrative and quantitative synthesis of the mediators and moderators involved in the link between maternal childhood adversity and children's emotional and behavioural development. We searched EMBASE, PsycINFO, Medline, Cochrane Library, grey literature and reference lists. Studies published up to February 2021 were included if they explored mediators or moderators between maternal childhood adversity and their children's emotional and behavioural development. Data were synthesised narratively and quantitatively by meta-analytic approaches. The search yielded 781 articles, with 74 full-text articles reviewed, and 41 studies meeting inclusion criteria. Maternal mental health was a significant individual-level mediator, while child traumatic experiences and insecure maternal–child attachment were consistent family-level mediators. However, the evidence for community-level mediators was limited. A meta-analysis of nine single-mediating analyses from five studies indicated three mediating pathways: maternal depression, negative parenting practices and maternal insecure attachment, with pooled indirect standardised effects of 0.10 [95% CI (0.03–0.17)), 0.01 (95% CI (−0.02 to 0.04)] and 0.07 [95% CI (0.01–0.12)], respectively. Research studies on moderators were few and identified some individual-level factors, such as child sex (e.g. the mediating role of parenting practices being only significant in girls), biological factors (e.g. maternal cortisol level) and genetic factors (e.g. child's serotonin-transporter genotype). In conclusion, maternal depression and maternal insecure attachment are two established mediating pathways that can explain the link between maternal childhood adversity and their children's emotional and behavioural development and offer opportunities for intervention.
To assess preventability of hospital-onset bacteremia and fungemia (HOB), we developed and evaluated a structured rating guide accounting for intrinsic patient and extrinsic healthcare-related risks.
HOB preventability rating guide was compared against a reference standard expert panel.
A 10-member panel of clinical experts was assembled as the standard of preventability assessment, and 2 physician reviewers applied the rating guide for comparison.
The expert panel independently rated 82 hypothetical HOB scenarios using a 6-point Likert scale collapsed into 3 categories: preventable, uncertain, or not preventable. Consensus was defined as concurrence on the same category among ≥70% experts. Scenarios without consensus were deliberated and followed by a second round of rating.
Two reviewers independently applied the rating guide to adjudicate the same 82 scenarios in 2 rounds, with interim revisions. Interrater reliability was evaluated using the κ (kappa) statistic.
Expert panel consensus criteria were met for 52 scenarios (63%) after 2 rounds.
After 2 rounds, guide-based rating matched expert panel consensus in 40 of 52 (77%) and 39 of 52 (75%) cases for reviewers 1 and 2, respectively. Agreement rates between the 2 reviewers were 84% overall (κ, 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64–0.88]) and 87% (κ, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.65–0.94) for the 52 scenarios with expert consensus.
Preventability ratings of HOB scenarios by 2 reviewers using a rating guide matched expert consensus in most cases with moderately high interreviewer reliability. Although diversity of expert opinions and uncertainty of preventability merit further exploration, this is a step toward standardized assessment of HOB preventability.
Lower parental education has been linked to adverse youth mental health outcomes. However, the relationship between parental education and youth suicidal behaviours remains unclear. We explored the association between parental education and youth suicidal ideation and attempts, and examined whether sociocultural contexts moderate such associations.
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis with a systematic literature search in PubMed, PsycINFO, Medline and Embase from 1900 to December 2020 for studies with participants aged 0–18, and provided quantitative data on the association between parental education and youth suicidal ideation and attempts (death included). Only articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals were considered. Two authors independently assessed eligibility of the articles. One author extracted data [e.g. number of cases and non-cases in each parental education level, effect sizes in forms of odds ratios (ORs) or beta coefficients]. We then calculated pooled ORs using a random-effects model and used moderator analysis to investigate heterogeneity.
We included a total of 59 articles (63 study samples, totalling 2 738 374 subjects) in the meta-analysis. Lower parental education was associated with youth suicidal attempts [OR = 1.12, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.04–1.21] but not with suicidal ideation (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.98–1.12). Geographical region and country income level moderated the associations. Lower parental education was associated with an increased risk of youth suicidal attempts in Northern America (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.10–1.45), but with a decreased risk in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia (OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.54–0.96). An association of lower parental education and increased risk of youth suicidal ideation was present in high- income countries (HICs) (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.05–1.25), and absent in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) (OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.77–1.08).
The association between youth suicidal behaviours and parental education seems to differ across geographical and economical contexts, suggesting that cultural, psychosocial or biological factors may play a role in explaining this association. Although there was high heterogeneity in the studies reviewed, this evidence suggests that the role of familial sociodemographic characteristics in youth suicidality may not be universal. This highlights the need to consider cultural, as well as familial factors in the clinical assessment and management of youth's suicidal behaviours in our increasingly multicultural societies, as well as in developing prevention and intervention strategies for youth suicide.
Superior semi-circular canal dehiscence syndrome is a disorder characterised by auditory and vestibular symptoms that can significantly impact quality of life, and yet it has no disease-specific quality of life instrument.
Thirty-six patients who underwent transmastoid superior semicircular canal resurfacing and plugging were included from an initial cohort of 60 surgically managed patients. A sub-cohort of 19 consecutive patients completed validated symptom and quality of life questionnaires before and after surgery. Of the 36 patients, 31 participated in a telephone semi-structured interview post-operatively.
Following surgery, there was a statistically significant improvement in autophony index score (p = 0.02), symptom severity score (p < 0.001) and sound hypersensitivity (p = 0.01). Thematic analysis of telephone interviews suggested three main symptom themes: auditory hypersensitivity, dysequilibrium, headache and concentration difficulties. Dysequilibrium was found to persist post-operatively.
Surgery improves overall symptoms and quality of life. However, important symptom themes may be overlooked using the outcome measures that are currently available. A unified disease-specific outcome measure is urgently required to better understand the impact of symptoms and measure treatment effects.
Background: A significant proportion of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients are considered for repeat resection, but evidence regarding best management remains elusive. Methods: An electronic portfolio of MR images of 37 cases of pathologically confirmed recurrent GBM with an accompanying clinical vignette was constructed. Surgical responders from various countries, training backgrounds, and years’ experience were asked for each case to select: their chosen management (repeat surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, or conservative), confidence in recommended management, and whether they would include the patient in a randomized trial that gave a 50% chance of re-operation. Responses were evaluated with kappa statistics and values interpreted according to Landis and Koch (0–0.2, slight; 0.21–0.4, fair; 0.41–0.6, moderate; 0.61–0.8, substantial; 0.81-1.0 perfect agreement). Results: 26 surgeons responded to the survey. Agreement regarding best management of recurrent GBM was slight, even when management options were dichotomized (repeat surgery vs. all others) (k=0.198 (95%CI 0.133-0.276). Country of practice, years’ experience, and training background did not improve agreement. Responders were willing to include more than 70% of patients in a randomized trial. Conclusions: Only slight agreement exists regarding the question of re-operation for patients with recurrent GBM. This supports the need for a randomized controlled trial.
Background: Eptinezumab is approved for migraine prevention, with demonstrated rapid onset of preventive benefit. RELIEF evaluated the efficacy and safety of eptinezumab initiated during a migraine attack. Methods: RELIEF (NCT04152083; parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled) randomized adults with migraine (4-15d/mo in 3mo prior to screening) to eptinezumab 100mg or placebo, administered IV within 1-6h of qualifying migraine onset. Co-primary efficacy endpoints were time to headache pain freedom and time to absence of most bothersome symptom (MBS). Results: Eptinezumab (n=238) compared with placebo (n=242) achieved significantly faster headache pain freedom (median 4h vs 9h; hazard ratio=1.54, P=0.0006) and absence of MBS (2h vs 3h; 1.75, P<0.0001). At 2h, 23.5% and 12.0% (P=0.0009) of eptinezumab-treated and placebo patients, respectively, reported headache pain freedom, and 55.5% and 35.8% (P<0.0001) reported absence of MBS. Significantly fewer eptinezumab-treated patients used rescue medication within 24h (31.5% vs 59.9%; P<0.0001). Treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 10.9% eptinezumab-treated and 10.3% placebo patients; no serious adverse events occurred. Conclusions: Infusion of the preventive migraine treatment, eptinezumab, during a migraine resulted in rapid and sustained freedom from headache pain and MBS vs placebo, starting 2h post-infusion, decreasing need for acute medication within 24h post-infusion. No notable safety findings were identified.
In 2006, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime in South Asia, in partnership with the Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, initiated Project IND/S16. In the beginning, five states were selected to train police officials under the “Strengthening the Law Enforcement Response to Human Trafficking” project. The training program resulted from a study done by two researchers, Dr. P. M. Nair and Shanker Seen. Their study recommended training programs to strengthen the law enforcement response to human trafficking and establish anti-human trafficking units (AHTUs) in India. However, no evaluation of the work of functionaries of AHTUs was done until the authors of this article took the initiative with the support of the Additional Director General of Police of Gujarat to identify the major problems in AHTUs at the grassroots level. Their exploratory research covered the 40 AHTUs from all 33 districts of Gujarat, focusing on the experiences and opinions of 214 police authorities (i.e. police inspectors, police sub-inspectors, assistant sub-inspectors, constables, and Lok Rakshak (public guards)) officially assigned to the AHTUs of Gujarat. This article summarizes the research and is based on experiences documented while collecting information in the field.
Background: Occult spinal dysraphism (OSD) may be associated with visible cutaneous manifestations. A common non-pathological mimic of a dermal sinus tract is an incidental sacrococcygeal dimple. Choosing Wisely Canada Guidelines recommend these dimples not be imaged. Methods: This study assessed the appropriateness of spinal ultrasounds performed for the investigation of an OSD. We interrogated our local imaging system to analyze spinal ultrasounds being performed in babies less than 6 months of age, from 2017-2018. Results: 429 children had spinal ultrasounds ordered by pediatricians (55%), family doctors (21%), and neonatologists (20%). 183 children (43%) had imaging indications that was deemed “inappropriate”. Some of this cohort had further MRI imaging (5/183) or neurosurgical referral (8/183). None of these children underwent neurosurgery. 231 (54%) children had appropriate indications for imaging. Within this cohort MRI imaging (23/231), neurosurgical referral (24/231) and neurosurgical intervention occurred (4/231). All four “surgical children” harboured either a dorsal appendage or a subcutaneous lipoma. We estimated, declining inappropriate scans would save $22, 500 annually. Conclusions: A significant portion of local spinal ultrasound requests for OSD are inappropriate. Collaboration with other sites is ongoing to investigate if the Choosing Wisely guidelines for imaging this patient population are being practiced more efficiently.
Despite significant advancements in healthcare technology, digital health solutions – especially those for serious mental illnesses – continue to fall short of their potential across both clinical practice and efficacy. The utility and impact of medicine, including digital medicine, hinges on relationships, trust, and engagement, particularly in the field of mental health. This paper details results from Phase 1 of a two-part study that seeks to engage people with schizophrenia, their family members, and clinicians in co-designing a digital mental health platform for use across different cultures and contexts in the United States and India.
Each site interviewed a mix of clinicians, patients, and their family members in focus groups (n = 20) of two to six participants. Open-ended questions and discussions inquired about their own smartphone use and, after a demonstration of the mindLAMP platform, specific feedback on the app's utility, design, and functionality.
Our results based on thematic analysis indicate three common themes: increased use and interest in technology during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), concerns over how data are used and shared, and a desire for concurrent human interaction to support app engagement.
People with schizophrenia, their family members, and clinicians are open to integrating technology into treatment to better understand their condition and help inform treatment. However, app engagement is dependent on technology that is complementary – not substitutive – of therapeutic care from a clinician.
This study aimed to describe the microscopic over-under cartilage tympanoplasty technique, provide hearing results and detail clinically significant complications.
This was a retrospective case series chart review study of over-under cartilage tympanoplasty procedures performed by the senior author between January 2015 and January 2019 at three tertiary care centres. Cases were excluded for previous or intra-operative cholesteatoma, if a mastoidectomy was performed during the procedure or if ossiculoplasty was performed. Hearing results and complications were obtained.
Sixty-eight tympanoplasty procedures met the inclusion criteria. The median age was 13 years (range, 3–71 years). The mean improvement in pure tone average was 6 dB (95 per cent confidence interval 4–9 dB; p < 0.0001). The overall perforation closure rate was 97 per cent (n = 66). Revision surgery was recommended for a total of 6 cases (9 per cent) including 2 post-operative perforations, 1 case of middle-ear cholesteatoma and 3 cases of external auditory canal scarring.
Over-under cartilage tympanoplasty is effective at improving clinically meaningful hearing with a low rate of post-operative complications.
Patients with severe mental illness, including schizophrenia, may be legally mandated to undergo psychiatric treatment. Patients’ experiences in these situations are not well characterized. This systematic review of qualitative studies aims to describe the experiences of patients with schizophrenia and related disorders who have undergone legally mandated treatment.
Four bibliographic databases were searched: CINAHL Plus (1981–2019), EMBASE (1947–2019), MEDLINE (1946–2019), and PsycINFO (1806–2019). These databases were searched for keywords, text words, and medical subject headings related to schizophrenia, legally mandated treatment and patient experience. The reference lists of included studies and systematic reviews were also investigated. The identified titles and abstracts were reviewed for study inclusion. A thematic analysis was completed for the synthesis of positive and negative aspects of legally mandated treatment.
A total of 4,008 citations were identified. Eighteen studies were included in the final synthesis. For the thematic analysis, results were collated under two broad themes; positive patient experiences and negative patient experiences. Patients were satisfied when their autonomy was respected, and dissatisfied when it was not. Patients often retrospectively recognized that their treatment was beneficial. Furthermore, negative aspects of the treatment included deficits in communication and a lack of information.
Intervention research has historically focused on clinical outcomes and the quantitative aspects of treatment. Thus, this study provides insight into the qualitative aspects of patients’ experiences with legally mandated treatment. Recognizing these opinions and experiences can lead to better attitudes toward treatment for patients with schizophrenia and related psychiatric illnesses.
Psychological stress is associated with accelerated cellular aging and increased risk for aging-related diseases, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear.
We examined the effect of stress on a DNA methylation age predictor that was shown to correlate strongly with chronological age across human tissues (Horvath 2013). Genome-wide DNA methylation was measured in peripheral blood using the 450K Illumina array in three independent cohorts: the Grady Trauma Project/GTP (N=366); a panic disorder case/control sample recruited at the Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry/MPI-P (N=318); and the Conte Center for the Psychobiology of Early-Life Trauma/Conte (N=42). Age acceleration was calculated by subtracting chronological age from age predicted by DNA methylation. Psychiatric symptomatology and stressors were assessed using standard questionnaires.
DNA methylation age strongly correlated with chronological age in all samples (r=0.9, p=2.5x10<sup>-133</sup>). Cumulative lifetime stress but not childhood or current stress predicted age acceleration in GTP (p=0.012) and MPI-P (p=0.021). Moreover, epigenetic age acceleration predicted depression (GTP: p=0.002; Conte: p=0.014) and panic disorder (p=0.007). In secondary analyses, we examined the effect of lifetime stress on individual CpGs of the DNA methylation age predictor. After correcting for multiple comparisons, we identified in both GTP and MPI-P a stress-regulated CpG near MCAM, a gene implicated in aging-related diseases, including cardiovascular disease and cancers.
Cumulative lifetime stress, but not childhood or current stress, and psychiatric phenotypes are associated with accelerated epigenetic aging. Our findings may explain the accelerated cellular aging and increased disease risk associated with chronic stress and psychiatric disorders.
The prevalence of substance use is among adolescents is on rise. In India, inhalant is one of the common drugs of use and acts as a gateway for illicit substance use. The mainstay of treatment for inhalant use among this population is psychosocial interventions. In India, we largely rely on western models to guide intervention programs, however, there is a need to develop and test the psychosocial interventions which are culturally relevant and effective.
The present study aims to highlight the culture specific psychopathological factors associated with inhalant use among adolescents. The paper aims at studying the effectiveness of a psychosocial intervention in reducing the frequency and quantity of inhalant use among adolescent clinic population.
Four adolescents reporting to the Adolescent Clinic at the National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi were recruited for the study. A single-case design was adopted. The pre-, and post- intervention assessment were carried out.
Results and Discussion
There was a significant reduction in frequency and quantity of inhalant use in the cases. The findings of the study are discussed in the light of available research work, implications, limitations of the study and suggestions for future research. The psychpathological factors and challenges to intervention are discussed.
Headache is a common complaint among adolescents and is associated with several comorbid conditions particularly anxiety and depression. Transdiagnostic cognitive behavior therapy (TCBT) is an alternative approach to third wave CBT. It attempts to address multiple diagnoses at the same time while focusing on shared pathology and common processes (McEvoy et al., 2009).
To develop a group transdiagnostic cognitive behavior therapy intervention module for adolescents with comorbid headache and anxiety disorder and to evaluate the module in terms of feasibility, acceptance and efficacy.
A TCBT intervention module for headache and anxiety disorder for use with adolescents was developed. Fifteen adolescents diagnosed with comorbid headache and anxiety disorder were recruited from the outpatient psychiatric clinic at AIIMS, New Delhi. Baseline, mid-and post- intervention assessments was done on Youth Self Report, M.I.N.I KID, Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule, STAI – Y, CDI – 2, Headache Diary, Headache Impact Test (HIT) and Global Assessment Scale for Children (CGAS). TCBT was carried out over a period of 12 weeks with one group session per week for each of the three groups.
85% participants showed clinically significant improvement as rated on scores on STAI-Y, HIT and CGAS. Qualitative interpretation of headache diary showed significant decrease in the frequency, intensity and duration of headache for all participants.
TCBT module was found to be feasible, acceptable and efficacious leading to significant symptom reduction.
Possible benefits of TCBT as pertaining to the Indian context along with barriers are further discussed.
Despite the strong evidence for its effectiveness for depression in adolescence, cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) remains difficult to access in India. Computerized CBT offers a substantive contribution to the delivery of effective care improving accessibility of treatment. The present study is an endeavor to assess the felt needs of adolescents vis-à -vis the difficulties and stressors experienced by them. Another objective of the study has been to develop and test a culturally relevant computer assisted CBT program called 'smartteen'. The presentation will discuss the results of the pilot test of the effectiveness of the intervention on a sample of 20 participants in reducing depressive symptoms.
In this pre and post research design, 20 depressed adolescents seeking treatment from the Department of Psychiatry at a premier institute in India, are being randomly assigned to intervention (n=10) and treatment as usual (n=10). Three assessments will be carried out at pre, mid (6 weeks of intervention) and post intervention (3 months of intervention) by a blind assessor. The primary outcome is recovery from depression and analysis will be done by intent to treat.
Results and Discussion
The study is ongoing and results will be presented at the time of presentation.
Cortical inhibition (CI) is a neurophysiological outcome of the interaction between GABA inhibitory interneurons and other excitatory neurons. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) measures of CI deficits have been documented in both symptomatic and remitted bipolar disorder (BD) suggesting it could be a trait marker. The effects of medications and duration of illness may contribute to these findings.
To study CI in BD.
To compare CI across early-course medication-naive BD-mania, remitted first episode mania (FEM) and healthy subjects (HS).
Symptomatic BD subjects having < 3 episodes, currently in mania and medication-naive (n = 27), remitted FEM (n = 27; YMRS < 12 and HDRS < 8) and 45 HS, matched for age and gender, were investigated. Resting motor threshold (RMT) and 1-millivolt motor threshold (MT1) were estimated from the right first dorsal interosseous muscle. Paired-pulse TMS measures of short (SICI; 3ms) and long interval intracortical inhibition (LICI; 100ms) were acquired. Group differences in measures of CI were examined using ANOVA.
Symptomatic mania patients had the highest motor thresholds and the maximum LICI indicating a state of an excessive GABA-B neurotransmitter tone. Remitted mania patients had deficits in SICI indicating reduced GABA-A neurotransmitter tone. Putative changes in GABA-A neurotransmitter system activity with treatment may be investigated in future studies. CI has received less attention in BD as compared to schizophrenia and is a potential avenue for future research in this area.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Short-term peripheral venous catheter–related bloodstream infection (PVCR-BSI) rates have not been systematically studied in resource-limited countries, and data on their incidence by number of device days are not available.
Prospective, surveillance study on PVCR-BSI conducted from September 1, 2013, to May 31, 2019, in 727 intensive care units (ICUs), by members of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC), from 268 hospitals in 141 cities of 42 countries of Africa, the Americas, Eastern Mediterranean, Europe, South East Asia, and Western Pacific regions. For this research, we applied definition and criteria of the CDC NHSN, methodology of the INICC, and software named INICC Surveillance Online System.
We followed 149,609 ICU patients for 731,135 bed days and 743,508 short-term peripheral venous catheter (PVC) days. We identified 1,789 PVCR-BSIs for an overall rate of 2.41 per 1,000 PVC days. Mortality in patients with PVC but without PVCR-BSI was 6.67%, and mortality was 18% in patients with PVC and PVCR-BSI. The length of stay of patients with PVC but without PVCR-BSI was 4.83 days, and the length of stay was 9.85 days in patients with PVC and PVCR-BSI. Among these infections, the microorganism profile showed 58% gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli (16%), Klebsiella spp (11%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6%), Enterobacter spp (4%), and others (20%) including Serratia marcescens. Staphylococcus aureus were the predominant gram-positive bacteria (12%).
PVCR-BSI rates in INICC ICUs were much higher than rates published from industrialized countries. Infection prevention programs must be implemented to reduce the incidence of PVCR-BSIs in resource-limited countries.
Postpartum psychosis (PP) is a severe postpartum disorder. While working memory and emotional processing-related brain function are consistently impaired in psychoses unrelated to the puerperium, no studies have investigated them in PP.
Twenty-four women at risk of developing PP (11 developed an episode – PE; 13 remained well – NPE) and 20 healthy postpartum women completed two functional magnetic resonance imaging tasks within a year of delivery: working memory (n-back) and emotional face recognition (fearful faces). We compared women at-risk of PP to controls, as well as NPE, PE, and controls to test for potential effects of a PP episode occurrence.
Women at-risk of PP and PE showed hyperactivation of lateral visual areas, precuneus, and posterior cingulate during the n-back task. The at-risk group as a whole, as well as the PE and NPE groups, showed hyperconnectivity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) with various parieto-occipito-temporo-cerebellar regions compared to controls during several n-back conditions. Increases in connectivity between the right DLPFC and ipsilateral middle temporal gyrus were observed in the PE group compared to NPE during 2-back. During the fearful faces task, at-risk women as a group showed hyperactivation of fronto-cingulo-subcortical regions, and hypoconnectivity between the left amygdala and ipsilateral occipito-parietal regions compared to controls. No significant performance differences were observed.
These results present preliminary evidence of a differential nature of functional brain abnormalities in PP compared to the typically observed reduced connectivity with the DLPFC in psychoses unrelated to puerperium, such as bipolar disorder.