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Se analizan las redes de tráfico de la Quebrada de Humahuaca en tiempos del “fenómeno Isla”, evaluando críticamente el protagonismo atribuido a Tiwanaku en su organización. Con este fin se presentan las investigaciones realizadas en Muyuna —uno de los principales sitios de la época en la Quebrada— ofreciendo información novedosa sobre contextos domésticos y funerarios, economía y modo de vida. Un análisis bayesiano de todas las dataciones disponibles para el componente Isla lo ubican entre fines del siglo once y comienzos del siglo catorce dC. Estos resultados, junto con el probable origen de los bienes presentes en estos contextos, llevan a concluir que las interacciones con otras regiones de los Andes circumpuneños fueron más importantes para los procesos de diferenciación social en las comunidades Isla que las relaciones con el estado Tiwanaku. En este marco, cobran especial relevancia la relación con el Río Grande de San Juan y la gravitación de ciertos colectivos supra-regionales (pastores, consumidores de alucinógenos) que podrían introducir una dimensión heterárquica en la organización de las redes sur andinas.
Negative symptoms of schizophrenia remain a major therapeutic challenge. The progress in the conceptualization and assessment is not yet fully reflected by treatment research. Nevertheless, there is a growing evidence base regarding the effects of biological and psychosocial interventions on negative symptoms. The importance of the distinction between primary and secondary negative symptoms for treatment selection might seem evident, but the currently available evidence remains limited. Good clinical practice is recommended for the treatment of secondary negative symptoms. Antipsychotic treatment should be optimized to avoid secondary negative symptoms due to side effects and due to positive symptoms. For most available interventions, further evidence is needed to formulate sound recommendations for primary, persistent, or predominant negative symptoms.
However, based on currently available evidence recommendations for the treatment of undifferentiated negative symptoms (including both primary and secondary negative symptoms) are provided. Although it has proven difficult to formulate an evidence-based recommendation for the choice of an antipsychotic, a switch to a second-generation antipsychotic should be considered for patients who are treated with a first-generation antipsychotic. Antidepressant add-on to antipsychotic treatment is an option. Social skills training is recommended as well as cognitive remediation for patients who also show cognitive impairment. Exercise interventions also have shown promise. Finally, access to treatment and to psychosocial rehabilitation should be ensured for patients with negative symptoms. Overall, there is definitive progress in the field, but further research is clearly needed to develop specific treatments for negative symptoms.
Improved survival has led to a growing population of adults with congenital heart disease (CHD), followed by numerous reports of late complications. Liver disease is a known complication in some patients, with most studies focusing on Fontan associated liver disease. Whether liver disease also exists in other patients with CHD is not fully investigated. Elevated central venous pressure is considered pivotal in the development of liver disease in Fontan associated liver disease, and other patients with alterations in central venous pressure may also be at risk for developing liver fibrosis. We wanted to see if liver fibrosis is present in patients with tetralogy of Fallot. Many patients with tetralogy of Fallot have severe pulmonary regurgitation, which can lead to elevated central venous pressure. Patients with tetralogy of Fallot may be at risk of developing liver fibrosis.
Materials and methods:
Ten patients (24–56 years) with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary regurgitation were investigated for liver fibrosis. All patients were examined with magnetic resonance elastography of liver, hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid scan, indocyanine green elimination by pulse spectrophotometry, elastography via FibroScan, abdominal ultrasound including liver elastography, and blood samples including liver markers.
Three out of ten patients had findings indicating possible liver fibrosis. Two of these had a liver biopsy performed, which revealed fibrosis stage 1 and 2, respectively. The same three patients had an estimated elevated central venous pressure in previous echocardiograms.
Mild liver fibrosis was present in selected patients with tetralogy of Fallot and may be related to elevated central venous pressure.
During the last decades, a renewed interest for negative symptoms (NS) was brought about by the increased awareness that they interfere severely with real-life functioning, particularly when they are primary and persistent.
In this guidance paper, we provide a systematic review of the evidence and elaborate several recommendations for the conceptualization and assessment of NS in clinical trials and practice.
Expert consensus and systematic reviews have provided guidance for the optimal assessment of primary and persistent negative symptoms; second-generation rating scales, which provide a better assessment of the experiential domains, are available; however, NS are still poorly assessed both in research and clinical settings.
This European Psychiatric Association (EPA) guidance recommends the use of persistent negative symptoms (PNS) construct in the context of clinical trials and highlights the need for further efforts to make the definition of PNS consistent across studies in order to exclude as much as possible secondary negative symptoms. We also encourage clinicians to use second-generation scales, at least to complement first-generation ones.
The EPA guidance further recommends the evidence-based exclusion of several items included in first-generation scales from any NS summary or factor score to improve NS measurement in research and clinical settings. Self-rated instruments are suggested to further complement observer-rated scales in NS assessment.
Several recommendations are provided for the identification of secondary negative symptoms in clinical settings.
The dissemination of this guidance paper may promote the development of national guidelines on negative symptom assessment and ultimately improve the care of people with schizophrenia.
Use of antimicrobials for food-producing animals is a major public concern due to the risk of antimicrobial resistance. Although dairy production has a relatively low usage of antimicrobials, the potential for further reduction should be explored. The objective of the study was to estimate the current differences in antimicrobial use in Danish organic and conventional dairy herds and to describe the differences between them. Based on data from three different sources, 2604 herds (306 organic and 2298 conventional) were identified for the study. These herds had been either organic or conventional for the entire period from 2015 to 2018. Antimicrobial use was calculated as the treatment incidence in Animal Daily Doses (ADDs)/100 animals/day for three age groups: adult cattle, young stock and calves. For adult cattle, the ratio of median treatment incidence between conventional and organic production ranged from 2.8 : 1 to 3.4 : 1, depending on the specific year. For cows, 25% of the organic herds had a higher treatment incidence than the 25% of conventional herds with the lowest treatment incidence. Antimicrobial use for young stock was low and at a similar level in both the organic and conventional production systems. For calves, the median treatment incidence was 1.2 times higher in conventional herds and 1.6 times higher for the 75th percentile. Analyses of treatment incidence in adult cattle showed an overall decrease from 2015 to 2018 in both organic and conventional herds. The decrease was greater for the conventional herds (0.12 ADD/100 animals/day) compared to the organic herds (0.04 ADD/100 animals/day) over the 4-year period. In addition, herd size was an important risk factor for treatment incidence in conventional herds, increasing by 0.07 ADD/100 animals/day per 100 cows, whereas herd size had a minor influence on the treatment incidence in organic herds. The results of this study demonstrate the large variation in antimicrobial use within both organic and conventional herds, suggesting that further reduction is possible. Furthermore, herd size appears to be a risk factor in conventional herds but not in organic herds – an aspect that should be studied in more detail.
Current sea-level rise partly stems from increased surface melting and meltwater runoff from the Greenland ice sheet. Multi-year snow, also known as firn, covers about 80% of the ice sheet and retains part of the surface meltwater. Since the firn cold content integrates its physical and thermal characteristics, it is a valuable tool for determining the meltwater-retention potential of firn. We use gap-filled climatological data from nine automatic weather stations in the ice-sheet accumulation area to drive a surface-energy-budget and firn model, validated against firn density and temperature observations, over the 1998–2017 period. Our results show a stable top 20 m firn cold content (CC20) at most sites. Only at the lower-elevation Dye-2 site did CC20 decrease, by 24% in 2012, before recovering to its original value by 2017. Heat conduction towards the surface is the main process feeding CC20 at all nine sites, while CC20 reduction occurs through low-cold-content fresh-snow addition at the surface during snowfall and latent-heat release when meltwater refreezes. Our simulations suggest that firn densification, while reducing pore space for meltwater retention, increases the firn cold content, enhances near-surface meltwater refreezing and potentially sets favourable conditions for ice-slab formation.
This paper presents a novel solution for precision draping of prepreg composite fabrics onto double curved molds. Our contributions relate to system design, including hardware and software components, and to system integration. On the hardware side, design and implementation of a drape tool with up to 120 suction cups positioned individually by linear actuators are described. On the software side, design and implementation of the software architecture are presented, along with necessary algorithms within sensor technologies and mathematical modeling. The essential system’s components were verified individually, and the entire integrated system was successfully validated in the Proof-of-Concept experiments, performed on an experimental physical model of the system.
The Danish onshore subsurface contains very large geothermal resources that have the potential to make a significant contribution to transforming Danish energy consumption toward a more sustainable energy mix. Presently, only a minor fraction of this green energy is exploited in three small plants. The main factors that have hampered and delayed larger-scale deployment are related to uncertainties in the geological models, which inevitably lead to high economic risks that are difficult for smaller district heating companies to mitigate without support from a compensation scheme. To facilitate and stimulate much wider use of the Danish geothermal resources, the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) and other research institutes have conducted several regional research projects focusing on the geological and geochemical obstacles with the principal objective of reducing the exploration risks by selecting the best geological reservoirs.
One of the most important geological factors causing uncertainty is the quality of the reservoirs and their ability to produce the expected volume of warm geothermal brine. Thus, great emphasis has been placed on investigating and understanding the relationships between reservoir sandstone, porosity, permeability, petrography, diagenetic processes and alterations related to variable sediment sources, basin entry points, depositional systems and climate, burial and thermal history. Mesozoic sandstones comprise the most important geothermal reservoirs in Denmark. Details concerning the reservoir quality are compiled and compared for the Lower Triassic Bunter Sandstone, Triassic Skagerrak, Upper Triassic – Lower Jurassic Gassum and Middle Jurassic Haldager Sand formations. The Bunter Sandstone Formation contains extensive aeolian and more confined fluvial sandstones with high porosity and permeability. However, highly saline formation water could be unfavourable. The Skagerrak Formation comprises well-sorted braided stream sandstones in the centre of the basin, and is otherwise characterised by muddy sandstones and alluvial fan conglomerates. An immature mineralogical composition has caused intensive diagenetic changes in the deepest buried parts of the basin. The Gassum Formation consists of shoreface, fluvial and estuarine sandstones interbedded with marine and lacustrine mudstones. In the upper part of the formation, the sandstone beds pinch out into mudstones towards the basin centre. Pervasive siderite- and calcite cement occurs locally in shallowly buried sandstones, and with burial depth the maximum abundances of quartz and ankerite cement increase. Sandstones of shallow burial represent excellent reservoirs. The relatively coarse grain size of the Haldager Sand Formation results in high porosity and permeability even at deep burial, so the formation comprises a high-quality geothermal reservoir.
Substantial progress has been made, and a well-established regional geological model combined with reservoir quality is now available for areas with cored wells. This has enabled an improved estimation of reservoir quality between wells for exploration of geothermal reservoirs.
Information about the relationship between personality disorder and ethnicity or migration is sparse. The few studies regarding the prevalence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in immigrants compared to an indigenous population are inconsistent.
The aim of the present study was to compare the frequency of a BPD diagnosis in psychiatric inpatients with and without an immigrant background.
2494 consecutive patients over a 3-year period at a psychiatric university hospital were reviewed. Data included socio-demographic and clinical variables and also information about an immigrant background. The psychiatric diagnosis was limited to information available from the digital documentation system of the psychiatric clinic and additionally from discharge letters. The diagnosis of borderline personality disorder was based on ICD-10 criteria.
374 individuals (15%) of the study population had an immigrant background. The rates of BPD were 6.5% in the indigenous group (n = 2120) vs. 3.5% in the immigrant group (n = 374). The difference between the indigenous and the immigrant group regarding the rates of BPD-diagnoses was statistically significant (chi2 = 5.02, df = 1, p = 0.025).
The findings suggest that in a clinical sample BPD was diagnosed less frequently in the immigrant group than in the indigenous group. Therefore, our results do not support the concept of immigration as a risk factor for BPD. However, future investigations with a prospective study design and at epidemiological levels need to be conducted in order to get more precise information about the prevalence of BPD in different immigrant groups.
Vortioxetine (Lu AA21004) is an investigational antidepressant, a multimodal 5-HT3, 5-HT7 and 5-HT1D receptor antagonist, 5-HT1B receptor partial agonist, 5-HT1A receptor agonist and inhibitor of the 5-HT transporter.
To compare efficacy and tolerability of flexible-dose treatment with vortioxetine versus agomelatine in MDD patients who presented with an inadequate response to SSRI/SNRI monotherapy.
The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline to Week 8 in MADRS total score analysed by MMRM using a non-inferiority test. Secondary endpoints included assessment of anxiety symptoms (HAM-A), global clinical judgment (CGI), and overall functioning (SDS).
Randomized, double-blind comparator study (NCT01488071).
Eligible patients were randomized (1:1) to vortioxetine (10-20mg/day) or agomelatine (25-50mg/day) for 12 weeks of double-blind treatment. On the primary efficacy endpoint, vortioxetine (n=252) was statistically significantly superior to agomelatine (n=241) (p< 0.05) by 2.2 MADRS points. Significant differences in favour of vortioxetine were found for the MADRS, HAM-A, CGI-S, CGI-I, and SDS from Week 4 onwards (FAS, MMRM; p< 0.05) and robustness was confirmed by significant differences by ANCOVA (FAS, LOCF). Fewer patients withdrew due to adverse events with vortioxetine (5.9%) than agomelatine (9.5%). Adverse events with the highest incidence were nausea, headache, dizziness and somnolence.
The primary efficacy endpoint of this comparator study was met, with vortioxetine also showing a significant benefit compared to agomelatine in MDD patients who changed antidepressant after an inadequate response to SSRI/SNRI treatment. Statistically significant differences were seen from Week 4 onwards. This study confirms that vortioxetine is efficacious and well-tolerated.
Many new approaches have been developed to treat borderline personality disorder (BPD) by means of psychotherapy. Though there is a clear research trend towards short-interventions, the evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCT) on longer-term programmes still accumulates. On the one hand, well-established treatments like Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) or Mentalisation-Based Treatment (MBT) are now subject to real-world effectiveness studies; on the other hand, new dynamic approaches have been studied, lasting longer than 6 months.
We are currently updating the cochrane Collaboration review on psychological interventions for BPD. First findings on the effects of longer-term psychotherapies will be presented.
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) according to cochrane collaboration standards. Any randomized comparisons of psychological interventions versus unspecific control interventions, waitlist or specific psychotherapeutic interventions in adult BPD patients were eligible. Primary outcomes were BPD core pathology as depicted by DSM criteria. Secondary outcomes included associated pathology, i.e., depression and anxiety, general psychopathology severity and functioning as well as tolerability and safety. Two researchers selected trials, assessed quality and extracted data independently.
The current evidence of longer-term psychological interventions in general, and the types of interventions for which RCT evidence is available will be evaluated and critically discussed.
Disclosure of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interest.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common disease causing dementia, is linked to increased mortality. However, the effect of antipsychotic use on specific causes of mortality has not yet been investigated thoroughly.
Utilizing the Danish nationwide registers, we defined a cohort of patients diagnosed with AD. Utilizing separate Cox regressions for specific causes of mortality, we investigated the effects of cumulative antipsychotic dosage after diagnosis and current antipsychotic exposure in the time period 2000–2011.
In total, 45,894 patients were followed for 3,803,996 person-years. A total of 6129 cardiovascular related deaths, 2088 cancer related deaths, 1620 infection related deaths, and 28 intentional self-harm related deaths are presented. Current antipsychotic exposure increased mortality rate with HR between 1.92 and 2.31 for cardiovascular, cancer, and infection related death. Cumulative antipsychotic dosages were most commonly associated with increased rates of mortality for cardiovascular and infection as cause of death, whereas the associations were less clear with cancer and intentional self-harm as cause of death.
We showed that cumulative antipsychotic drug dosages increased mortality rates for cardiovascular and infection as cause of death. These findings highlight the need for further investigations of long-term effects of treatment and of possible sub-groups who could benefit from treatment.
Antipsychotics are associated with the polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, Torsade's de pointes, which in worst case can lead to sudden cardiac death. The QTc interval is used as a clinical proxy for Torsade's de pointes. QTc interval is prolonged by monotherapy with antipsychotic, but it is unknown if the QTc interval is prolonged further with antipsychotic polypharmacy.
To investigate the associations between QTc interval and antipsychotic mono- and polypharmaceutical treatment, respectively, in schizophrenic patients.
To learn more about the impact of antipsychotics on the QTc interval.
An observational cohort study of unselected patients with schizophrenia visiting outpatient facilities in the Region of Central Jutland, Denmark. Patients were enrolled from January 2013 through March 2015 with follow-up until June 2015. Data was collected from clinical interviews and clinical case records.
ECGs were available in 58 patients receiving antipsychotic treatment. We observed no difference in average QTc interval for the whole sample of patients receiving monotherapy or polypharmacy (P = 0.29). However, women presented longer QTc-interval on polypharmacy than on monotherapy (P = 0.01).
We recommend an increased focus on monitoring the QTc interval in woman with schizophrenia receiving antipsychotics as polypharmacy.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Exercise addiction is characterized by compulsive and excessive exercise patterns that eventually can lead to musculoskeletal injury. While exercise leads to increased self-esteem and is a useful tool for emotional regulation, the level of psychosocial distress may be negatively affected by such injuries.
The prevalence proportions of post-injury depression and emotional stress in athletes with exercise addiction have not previously been explored and compared to non-addicted athletes.
We wanted to test the hypothesis that athletes with addiction profiles react to injury with higher levels of emotional and social distress compared to athletes without addiction.
A cross-sectional survey was employed and a total of 1167 athletes (673 with diagnosed musculoskeletal injuries and 494 without present injury) responded to the following questionnaires: The Exercise Addiction Inventory, The Major Depression Inventory, The Perceived Stress Scale and EQ-5D to assess quality of life.
We found that 26% of the injured athletes with exercise addiction had symptoms of major depression and 53% reported emotional distress. These proportions were significantly greater compared with the injured non-addicted athletes where 11% had symptoms of major depression and 28% reported stress. Quality of life was also significantly reduced in the addiction group.
Injured athletes with exercise addiction report more post-injury psychosocial distress compared with injured non-addicted exercisers. Future trials need to investigate the effect of emotional assessment and support as a complement intervention to somatic injury treatment. Injured athletes should be examined for exercise addiction as they are at risk of depression.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The western societies have a rapidly aging population and an increasing number of elderly with alcohol use disorders.
The purpose of the elderly study is to develop and test an outpatient behavior therapy program for people with an alcohol use disorders.
Aim of this abstract
To investigate the association between ages, gender, drinking pattern and psychology distress.
The study is a randomized study expected to enroll and treat 1000 participants aged 60+ years before April 2017; 200 in USA; 400 in Germany and 400 in Denmark. To be included in the study the participants have to fulfil the DSM-5 criteria for alcohol use disorder. All participants are examined at baseline, and at four follow up interviews. After the baseline interview all participants are randomized to Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET); or MET followed by 8 weeks of counseling based on the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) with a module added to address problems relevants to elderly people.
The presentation will include baseline characteristics of the Danish participants including demographics, expectations to treatment, history of drinking in the last 90 days before baseline and their psychological distress. We have now enrolled 259 participants in the Danish database. We expect to present results from 320 patients.
The data will present information about the profile of 60+ years’ individuals seeking treatment for alcohol use disorder, and thereby provide knowledge about which characteristics that may be important when planning treatment for this age group.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The use of medicinal zinc oxide (ZnO) must be phased out by 2022, thus prompting an urgent need for alternative strategies to prevent diarrhoea in weaner piglets. The objectives of this study were to assess the impact on weaner piglet performance, diarrhoea incidence and gut development, when (1) dietary ZnO supplementation was substituted by alternative commercial products based on macroalgae, specific probiotics or synbiotics, or (2) dietary ZnO inclusion was reduced from 2500 to 1500 ppm. A total of 4680 DLY piglets (DanBred, Herlev, Denmark), weaned around 35 days of age, were randomly assigned according to sex and BW to six different dietary treatment groups. A basal diet was supplemented with no ZnO (NC = negative control), 2500 ppm ZnO (PC = positive control), 1500 ppm ZnO (RDZ = reduced dose of ZnO) or commercial macroalgae (OceanFeed™ Swine = OFS), probiotic Miya-Gold or synbiotic GærPlus products. The piglets entered and exited the weaner unit at ~7.0 and 30 kg BW, respectively. In-feed ZnO was provided the first 10 days post-weaning, while the alternative supplements were fed throughout the weaner period. As expected, the average daily feed intake, average daily weight gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and diarrhoea incidence were improved in the PC compared to NC group (P < 0.05) during phase 1 consistent with improved indices of villi development observed in subgroups of piglets sacrificed 11 days post-weaning. Reduction of ZnO to 1500 ppm lowered ADG (P < 0.05) and slightly increased incidence of diarrhoea during the first 10 days after weaning (but not later) without affecting FCR. None of the three alternative dietary additives, including a 10-fold increased dose of GærPlus than recommended, improved piglet performance, gut health and gut development above that of NC piglets. The OFS piglets sacrificed 11 days after weaning had significantly lower weights of hindgut tissue and contents compared to the PC group, consistent with antimicrobial activity of the product, which was detected from anaerobic in vitro fermentation. In conclusion, dietary ZnO supplementation during the first 10 days post-weaning may be reduced from 2500 to 1500 ppm without major negative implications for weaner piglet performance and health in herds under a high management level. However, none of the alternative dietary supplements were able to improve piglet performance or gut health, when ZnO was omitted from the diet.
Ascarid parasites infect a variety of hosts and regular anthelmintic treatment is recommended for all species. Parascaris spp. is the only ascarid species with widespread anthelmintic resistance, which allows for the study of resistance mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to establish an in vitro drug exposure protocol for adult anthelmintic-naïve Parascaris spp. and report a preliminary transcriptomic analysis in response to drug exposure. Live worms were harvested from foal necropsies and maintained in RPMI-1640 at 37 °C. Serial dilutions of oxibendazole (OBZ) and ivermectin (IVM) were prepared for in vitro drug exposure, and worm viability was monitored over time. In a second drug trial, worms were used for transcriptomic analysis. The final drug concentrations employed were OBZ at 40.1 μm (10 μg mL−1) and IVM at 1.1 μm (1 μg mL−1) for 24 and 3 h, respectively. The RNA-seq analysis revealed numerous differentially expressed genes, with some being potentially related to drug detoxification and regulatory mechanisms. This report provides a method for in vitro drug exposure and the phenotypic responses for Parascaris spp., which could be extrapolated to other ascarid parasites. Finally, it also provides preliminary transcriptomic data following drug exposure as a reference point for future studies of Parascaris spp.
Tail biting is a welfare and economical concern in modern pig production. One common preventive measure used throughout the world is tail docking, which is generally considered one of the most effective methods for limiting tail biting. However, tail docking is a painful mutilation and systematic tail docking is not allowed in the EU. Therefore, the aim was to compare pig behaviour and the prevalence of tail biting in finishing pigs with intact tails housed in two different pen designs under Danish commercial conditions. PEN1 was a traditional Danish pen and PEN2 was inspired by Swedish finisher pen design and had a larger proportion of solid floor area (PEN1: 1/3 and PEN2: 2/3), reduced group size (PEN1: 15 and PEN2: 12), increased space allowance per head (PEN1: 0.7 m2 and PEN2: 0.89 m2) and straw allocated on the floor (PEN2) whereas straw was provided in a straw rack in PEN1. Tail damage observations were carried out daily by the stockperson and every 2 weeks one trained research technician assessed tail damages according to a tail scoring system. Tail lesions were observed in 51% of PEN1 and in 11% of PEN2 (P < 0.001). PEN1 had higher prevalence of tail damages than PEN2 (23% v. 5%, P < 0.001). Behavioural observations were carried out by the use of video recordings. Pigs in PEN2 tended to spend more time on tail-directed behaviour than pigs in PEN1 (P = 0.07), whereas pigs in PEN1 tended to spend more time on ear-directed behaviour (P = 0.08). Pigs in PEN2 spent more time on straw-directed behaviour compared to pigs in PEN1 (P < 0.001). Pen design did not affect time spent on other penmate-directed behaviour. In addition, the level of welfare between the two pen designs was compared using the Welfare Quality® protocol. PEN2 received an overall score of ‘excellent’ while PEN1 scored ‘enhanced’. PEN2 scored higher on all principles besides ‘good health’, where PEN1 scored better on lameness and wounds. The main measurements accounting for the differences were water supply, huddling, tail biting, social behaviour and fear of humans. In conclusion, the combination of increased space allowance, increased area of solid flooring, straw allocated onto the floor and reduced group size (PEN2) resulted in fewer tail damaged pigs and a better overall welfare assessment, despite a tendency for more tail-directed behaviour.