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To determine whether a previously reported association between the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) food package change and reduced child obesity risk among WIC-participating children in Los Angeles County holds across levels of family income and neighbourhood poverty.
Analysis of prospectively collected WIC administrative data. The outcome was obesity at age 4 years (BMI-for-age ≥ 95th percentile). Poisson regression was applied to a matched sample (n 79 502) to determine if the association between the WIC food package change and child obesity was modified by family income (<50 % federal poverty level (FPL), 50–100 % FPL, >100 % but <185 % FPL) and neighbourhood poverty.
Los Angeles County, California.
Children who participated in WIC in Los Angeles County between 2003 and 2016; children were grouped as receiving the old WIC food package (2003–2009) or the new WIC food package (2010–2016).
Receiving the new WIC food package (i.e., post-2009) was associated with 7–18 % lower obesity risk across all family income categories. Neither family income nor neighbourhood poverty significantly modified the association between the WIC food package and child obesity. However, certain sub-groups seemed to benefit more from the food package change than others. In particular, boys from families with income above poverty but residing in the poorest neighbourhoods experienced the greatest reductions in obesity risk (relative risk = 0·77; 95 % CI 0·66, 0·88).
The WIC food package revisions were associated with reduced childhood obesity risk among all WIC-participating families in Los Angeles County, across levels of income eligibility and neighbourhood poverty.
To investigate if the association between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring’s body composition in late adolescence and young adulthood varies by offspring birth order and sex.
Family cohort study, with data from registers, questionnaires and physical examinations. The main outcome under study was offspring body composition (percentage fat mass (%FM), percentage lean mass (%LM)) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.
Two hundred and twenty-six siblings (first-born v. second-born; average age 19 and 21 years) and their mothers.
In multivariable linear regression models, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was positively associated with daughter’s %FM, with stronger estimates for first-born (β=0·97, 95 % CI 0·14, 1·80) v. second-born daughters (β=0·64, 95 % CI 0·08, 1·20). Mother’s BMI before her first pregnancy was associated with her second-born daughter’s body composition (β=1·05, 95 % CI 0·31, 1·79 (%FM)) Similar results albeit in the opposite direction were observed for %LM. No significant associations were found between pre-pregnancy BMI and %FM (β=0·59, 95 % CI−0·27, 1·44 first-born; β=−0·13, 95 % CI−0·77, 0·52 second-born) or %LM (β=−0·54, 95 % CI−1·37, 0·28 first-born; β=0·11, 95 % CI−0·52, 0·74 second-born) for sons.
A higher pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with higher offspring %FM and lower offspring %LM in late adolescence and young adulthood, with stronger associations for first-born daughters. Preventing obesity at the start of women’s reproductive life might reduce the risk of obesity in her offspring, particularly for daughters.
To assess the prevalence and identify possible predictors of food insecurity among college students at the University of Hawai’i at Mānoa.
Cross-sectional survey, including the US Department of Agriculture’s Household Food Security Survey Module, demographic and spending variables.
University of Hawai’i at Mānoa, Honolulu, Hawai’i (USA).
Four hundred and forty-one non-freshmen students from thirty-one randomly selected classes.
Twenty-one per cent of students surveyed were food-insecure, while 24 % were at risk of food insecurity. Students at higher risk of food insecurity included those who reported living on campus and those living off-campus with room mates. Those identifying themselves as Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders, Filipinos and mixed were also at increased risk of food insecurity.
Food insecurity is a significant problem among college students at the University of Hawai’i at Mānoa. Food availability and accessibility should be increased for these students through the establishment of on-campus food banks and student gardens. Future studies should assess the prevalence of food insecurity in other college campuses nationwide.
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