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Building on the success of the first edition and featuring contributions from leading experts in the field, this expanded and thoroughly revised second edition provides an indispensable guide to the freshwater and terrestrial algae of the British Isles. It is an up-to-date account of and identification tool for more than 2400 algal species (excluding diatoms), highlighting their wider distribution around the world. Detailed descriptions are fully illustrated with clear line drawings and photographs including 190 full-page plates, eight of which are full colour. In addition, user-friendly keys enable the accurate identification of specimens to the level of genus and species. This edition includes expanded information on ecology and the implications of recent molecular research, along with coverage of 200 extra species. The accompanying online material provides a colour photo catalogue, highly illustrated articles and video clips, making this the comprehensive reference tool for both researchers and professionals in the field.
Word list-learning tasks are commonly used to evaluate auditory-verbal learning and memory. However, different frequencies of word usage, subtle meaning nuances, unique word phonology, and different preexisting associations among words make translation across languages difficult. We administered lists of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) nonword trigrams to independent American and Italian young adult samples. We evaluated whether an auditory list-learning task using CVC nonword trigrams instead of words could be applied cross-culturally to evaluate similar learning and associative memory processes.
Participants and Methods:
Seventy-five native English-speaking (USA) and 104 native Italian-speaking (Italy) university students were administered 15-item lists of CVC trigrams using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test paradigm with five study-test trials, an interference trial, and short- and long-term delayed recall. Bayesian t tests and mixed-design ANOVAs contrasted the primary learning indexes across the two samples and biological sex.
Performance was comparable between nationalities on all primary memory indices except the interference trial (List B), where the Italian group recalled approximately one item more than the American sample. For both nationalities, recall increased across the five learning trials and declined significantly on the postinterference trial, demonstrating susceptibility to retroactive interference. No effects of sex, age, vocabulary, or depressive symptoms were observed.
Using lists of unfamiliar nonword CVC trigrams, Italian and American younger adults showed a similar performance pattern across immediate and delayed recall trials. Whereas word list-learning performance is typically affected by cultural, demographic, mood, and cognitive factors, this trigram list-learning task does not show such effects, demonstrating its utility for cross-cultural memory assessment.
Identifying youths most at risk to COVID-19-related mental illness is essential for the development of effective targeted interventions.
To compare trajectories of mental health throughout the pandemic in youth with and without prior mental illness and identify those most at risk of COVID-19-related mental illness.
Data were collected from individuals aged 18–26 years (N = 669) from two existing cohorts: IMAGEN, a population-based cohort; and ESTRA/STRATIFY, clinical cohorts of individuals with pre-existing diagnoses of mental disorders. Repeated COVID-19 surveys and standardised mental health assessments were used to compare trajectories of mental health symptoms from before the pandemic through to the second lockdown.
Mental health trajectories differed significantly between cohorts. In the population cohort, depression and eating disorder symptoms increased by 33.9% (95% CI 31.78–36.57) and 15.6% (95% CI 15.39–15.68) during the pandemic, respectively. By contrast, these remained high over time in the clinical cohort. Conversely, trajectories of alcohol misuse were similar in both cohorts, decreasing continuously (a 15.2% decrease) during the pandemic. Pre-pandemic symptom severity predicted the observed mental health trajectories in the population cohort. Surprisingly, being relatively healthy predicted increases in depression and eating disorder symptoms and in body mass index. By contrast, those initially at higher risk for depression or eating disorders reported a lasting decrease.
Healthier young people may be at greater risk of developing depressive or eating disorder symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. Targeted mental health interventions considering prior diagnostic risk may be warranted to help young people cope with the challenges of psychosocial stress and reduce the associated healthcare burden.
The COVID-19 pandemic accelerated the development of decentralized clinical trials (DCT). DCT’s are an important and pragmatic method for assessing health outcomes yet comprise only a minority of clinical trials, and few published methodologies exist. In this report, we detail the operational components of COVID-OUT, a decentralized, multicenter, quadruple-blinded, randomized trial that rapidly delivered study drugs nation-wide. The trial examined three medications (metformin, ivermectin, and fluvoxamine) as outpatient treatment of SARS-CoV-2 for their effectiveness in preventing severe or long COVID-19. Decentralized strategies included HIPAA-compliant electronic screening and consenting, prepacking investigational product to accelerate delivery after randomization, and remotely confirming participant-reported outcomes. Of the 1417 individuals with the intention-to-treat sample, the remote nature of the study caused an additional 94 participants to not take any doses of study drug. Therefore, 1323 participants were in the modified intention-to-treat sample, which was the a priori primary study sample. Only 1.4% of participants were lost to follow-up. Decentralized strategies facilitated the successful completion of the COVID-OUT trial without any in-person contact by expediting intervention delivery, expanding trial access geographically, limiting contagion exposure, and making it easy for participants to complete follow-up visits. Remotely completed consent and follow-up facilitated enrollment.
When a blunt body impacts an air–water interface, large hydrodynamic forces often arise, a phenomenon many of us have unfortunately experienced in a failed dive or ‘belly flop’. Beyond assessing risk to biological divers, an understanding and methods for remediation of such slamming forces are critical to the design of numerous engineered naval and aerospace structures. Herein we systematically investigate the role of impactor elasticity on the resultant structural loads in perhaps the simplest possible scenario: the water entry of a simple harmonic oscillator. Contrary to conventional intuition, we find that ‘softening’ the impactor does not always reduce the peak impact force, but may also increase the force as compared with a fully rigid counterpart. Through our combined experimental and theoretical investigation, we demonstrate that the transition from force reduction to force amplification is delineated by a critical ‘hydroelastic’ factor that relates the hydrodynamic and elastic time scales of the problem.
Identification of paediatric coronary artery abnormalities is challenging. We studied whether coronary artery CT angiography can be performed safely and reliably in children.
Retrospective analysis of consecutive coronary CT angiography scans was performed for image quality and estimated radiation dose. Both factors were assessed for correlation with electrocardiographic-gating technique that was protocoled on a case-by-case basis, radiation exposure parameters, image noise artefact parameters, heart rate, and heart rate variability.
Sixty scans were evaluated, of which 96.5% were diagnostic for main left and right coronaries and 91.3% were considered diagnostic for complete coronary arteries. Subjective image quality correlated significantly with lower heart rate, increasing patient age, and higher signal-to-noise ratio. Estimated radiation dose only correlated significantly with choice of electrocardiographic-gating technique with median doses as follows: 2.42 mSv for electrocardiographic-gating triggered high-pitch spiral technique, 5.37 mSv for prospectively triggered axial sequential technique, 3.92 mSv for retrospectively gated technique, and 5.64 mSv for studies which required multiple runs. Two scans were excluded for injection failure and one for protocol outside the study scope. Five non-diagnostic cases were attributed to breathing motion, scanning prior to peak contrast enhancement, or scan acquisition during the incorrect portion of the R-R interval.
Diagnostic-quality coronary CT angiography can be performed reliably with a low estimated radiation exposure by tailoring each scan protocol to the patient’s body habitus and heart rate. We propose coronary CT angiography is a safe and effective diagnostic modality for coronary artery abnormalities in children.
The irreversible behaviour of a highly confined non-Brownian suspension of spherical particles at low Reynolds number in a Newtonian fluid is studied experimentally and numerically. In the experiment, the suspension is confined in a thin rectangular channel that prevents complete particle overlap in the narrow dimension and is subjected to an oscillatory pressure-driven flow. In the small cross-sectional dimension, particles rapidly separate to the walls, whereas in the large dimension, features reminiscent of shear-induced migration in bulk suspensions are recovered. Furthermore, as a consequence of the channel geometry and the development and application of a single-camera particle tracking method, three-dimensional particle trajectories are obtained that allow us to directly associate relative particle proximity with the observed migration. Companion simulations of a steadily flowing suspension highly confined between parallel plates are conducted using the force coupling method, which also show rapid migration to the walls as well as other salient features observed in the experiment. While we consider relatively low volume fractions compared to most prior work in the area, we nevertheless observe significant and rapid migration, which we attribute to the high degree of confinement.
This study aimed to analyze stress, anxiety, depression, and self-efficacy levels among Spanish out-of-hospital emergency medical professionals from February 1, 2021, to April 30, 2021.
A nationwide survey was completed by 1666 Emergency Medical Services (EMS) workers. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) were used. Data analysis used chi-squared, análisis of variance (ANOVA), and logistic regressions.
The sample comprised 833 (50%) men, with an average age of 44.3 ± 9.9 y (range: 19-67 y). Occupational distribution included 453 (27.2%) physicians, 474 (28.4%) nurses, and 739 (44.4%) emergency medical technicians (EMTs). EMTs exhibited higher odds of severe or extremely severe depression compared with physicians (odds ratio [OR]: 1.569; 95% confidenceinterval [95% CI]: 1.213-2.030) and nurses (OR: 1.561; 95% CI: 1.211-2.012). EMTs also displayed higher probabilities of severe or extremely severe anxiety compared with nurses (OR: 1.944; 95% CI: 1.529-2.701). Furthermore, EMTs demonstrated elevated probabilities of severe or extremely severe stress compared with physicians (OR: 1.387; 95% CI: 1.088-1.770). However, no significant differences were found in self-efficacy, with a median value of 73 .
Out-of-hospital EMS workers experienced mental health challenges, showing varying levels of depression, stress, and anxiety across different occupational groups. EMTs were particularly affected.
Herbicide resistance coupled with a dearth of selective herbicide options has increased the complexity of annual bluegrass control in hybrid bermudagrass putting greens. Cumyluron, endothall, and methiozolin are herbicides that control annual bluegrass by inhibiting novel sites of action compared with the herbicides currently used for turfgrass management in the United States. However, peer-reviewed literature contains no information on hybrid bermudagrass putting green tolerance to these herbicides. Sixteen field studies were established on eight golf greens in Midlothian, VA, in 2021 and 2022 to evaluate effects of cumyluron, endothall, methiozolin, pronamide, and trifloxysulfuron on bermudagrass spring transition. The 16 studies were split equally between initiation during full dormancy versus mid-spring transition. Methiozolin applied at 500 and 1,000 g ai ha−1 typically increased the heat units (growing degree days with a base temperature of 15 C) required for hybrid bermudagrass to visibly achieve 90% green coverage (T90) when applied to fully dormant hybrid bermudagrass. This delay in green coverage was more pronounced at sites where hybrid bermudagrass vigor was seemingly reduced via abiotic stressors. Endothall was generally more injurious than all other treatments when applied to hybrid bermudagrass during mid-transition. Endothall applied at 840 g ai ha−1 injured hybrid bermudagrass for 0 to 9 d over a threshold of 30% (DOT30), depending on location. In two site-years characterized by increased abiotic stress, methiozolin applied at 1,000 g ai ha−1 caused 44 DOT30. Cumyluron never injured hybrid bermudagrass by more than 30% or delayed T90 regardless of application timing. These results indicate that methiozolin should be applied only within labeled rates to actively growing hybrid bermudagrass putting greens, cumyluron can be safely applied at 6,450 g ai ha−1 to dormant or actively growing bermudagrass greens, and endothall applications should be limited to dormant bermudagrass greens unless transient phytotoxicity is acceptable.
The social cost of greenhouse gases is important in many regulatory impact analyses. However, calculations of the social cost of greenhouse gases are highly complex and periodically revisited. We offer seven recommendations to improve current estimates. These include recommendations to use both country-level and global measures of the social cost of greenhouse gases, to use country-specific values for monetizing climate damages, to represent uncertainties by reporting distributions instead of using only central values, and to conduct a temporal distributional analysis that shows the magnitudes of climate damages across generations. We also provide recommendations for the discount rates that should be used when estimating the social cost of greenhouse gases, and the appropriate discount rates for regulatory impact analyses that include the social cost of greenhouse gases.
Patients with complete atrioventricular canal have a variable clinical course prior to repair. Many patients balance their circulations well prior to elective repair. Others manifest clinically significant pulmonary over circulation early in life and require either palliative pulmonary artery banding or complete repair. The objective of this study was to assess anatomic features that impact the clinical course of patients.
In total, 222 patients underwent complete atrioventricular canal repair between 2012 and 2022 at a single institution. Twenty-seven (12%) patients underwent either pulmonary artery banding (n = 15) or complete repair (n = 12) at less than 3 months of age (Group 1). The remaining 195 (88%) underwent repair after 3 months of age (Group 2). Patient records and imaging were reviewed.
The median post-operative length of stay following complete repair was 25 [7,46] days for those patients in Group 1 and 7 [5,12] days for those in Group 2 (p < 0.0001). There was relative hypoplasia of left-sided structures in Group 1 versus Group 2. Mean z-score for the ascending aorta was −1.2 (±0.8) versus −0.3 (±0.9) (p < 0.0001), the aortic isthmus was −2.1 (±0.8) versus −1.4 (±0.8) (p = 0.005). The pulmonary valve to aortic valve diameter ratio was median 1.47 [1.38,1.71] versus 1.38 [1.17,1.53] (p 0.008).
Echocardiographic evaluation of the systemic and pulmonary outflow of patients with complete atrioventricular canal may assist in predicting the clinical course and need for early repair vs pulmonary artery banding.
Alcohol use is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. We examined the interactive effects between genome-wide polygenic risk scores for alcohol use (alc-PRS) and social support in relation to alcohol use among European American (EA) and African American (AA) adults across sex and developmental stages (emerging adulthood, young adulthood, and middle adulthood). Data were drawn from 4,011 EA and 1,274 AA adults from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism who were between ages 18–65 and had ever used alcohol. Participants completed the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism and provided saliva or blood samples for genotyping. Results indicated that social support from friends, but not family, moderated the association between alc-PRS and alcohol use among EAs and AAs (only in middle adulthood for AAs); alc-PRS was associated with higher levels of alcohol use when friend support was low, but not when friend support was high. Associations were similar across sex but differed across developmental stages. Findings support the important role of social support from friends in buffering genetic risk for alcohol use among EA and AA adults and highlight the need to consider developmental changes in the role of social support in relation to alcohol use.
Few herbicides are registered for goosegrass control in creeping bentgrass turfgrass. Topramezone controls goosegrass and is labeled for use on creeping bentgrass, but potential injury risks lead many turf managers to frequently apply it at a low-dose. This application practice increases the likelihood that topramezone treatments will be mixed with fungicide treatments. Previous research found that fungicides can reduce the activity of some herbicides, but their effects on topramezone efficacy are unknown. Four studies were established between Blacksburg, VA, and North Brunswick, NJ, in 2021 to determine whether chlorothalonil reduces goosegrass control from topramezone. In controlled environment dose-response studies the amount of topramezone needed to reduce goosegrass biomass by 50% increased from 3.04 g ha−1 to 5.27 g ha−1 when chlorothalonil (7,400 g ha−1) was added to the mixture. In field experiments, topramezone at 3.7 and 6.1 g ha−1 controlled goosegrass by 50% and 63%, respectively, at 42 d after treatment when averaged across herbicide admixtures. The addition of chlorothalonil alone and chlorothalonil plus acibenzolar-S-methyl to topramezone reduced goosegrass control from 73% to 52% and 45%, respectively, when averaged across topramezone rate. From these studies we can conclude that chlorothalonil has the potential to reduce goosegrass control when topramezone is applied at the maximum allowable rate (6 g ae ha−1) or less. This is the first report of fungicides acting to reduce herbicidal weed control efficacy in turfgrass systems.
Peri-diagnostic vaccination contemporaneous with SARS-CoV-2 infection might boost antiviral immunity and improve patient outcomes. We investigated, among previously unvaccinated patients, whether vaccination (with the Pfizer, Moderna, or J&J vaccines) during the week before or after a positive COVID-19 test was associated with altered 30-day patient outcomes.
Using a deidentified longitudinal EHR repository, we selected all previously unvaccinated adults who initially tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 between December 11, 2020 (the date of vaccine emergency use approval) and December 19, 2021. We assessed whether vaccination between days –7 and +7 of a positive test affected outcomes. The primary measure was progression to a more severe disease outcome within 30 days of diagnosis using the following hierarchy: hospitalization, intensive care, or death.
Among 60,031 hospitalized patients, 543 (0.91%) were initially vaccinated at the time of diagnosis and 59,488 (99.09%) remained unvaccinated during the period of interest. Among 316,337 nonhospitalized patients, 2,844 (0.90%) were initially vaccinated and 313,493 (99.1%) remained unvaccinated. In both analyses, individuals receiving vaccines were older, more often located in the northeast, more commonly insured by Medicare, and more burdened by comorbidities. Among previously unvaccinated patients, there was no association between receiving an initial vaccine dose between days −7 and +7 of diagnosis and progression to more severe disease within 30 days compared to patients who did not receive vaccines.
Immunization during acute SARS-CoV-2 infection does not appear associated with clinical progression during the acute infectious period.
Delaying cover crop termination until cash crop planting (i.e., planting green) is an emerging no-till practice. Improved management recommendations are needed for optimizing weed suppression benefits while minimizing other pest, fertility, and crop management risks when planting green in corn production systems. In a 2-yr field experiment, we evaluated the interaction between cereal rye residue management tactics (standing residue, roll-crimping, roll-crimping with row cleaners) and herbicide programs (1-pass preemergence [PRE], 2-pass postemergence [POST]) when planting green on weed recruitment spatial patterns and corn performance compared to standard termination (14 d preplant [DPP]) and ryelage harvest (14 DPP) practices. In a 2-yr on-farm experiment, we evaluated corn performance in response to the same residue management tactics. Cereal rye biomass production varied significantly across years in on-station experiments, with average (4.9 Mg ha−1) and anomalous (9.9 Mg ha−1) levels observed in 2020 and 2021, respectively. In 2020, planting green with an integrated roll-crimper/row cleaner system resulted in greater intrarow weed density compared with planting green into standing cereal rye. Interrow weed density was lower when roll-crimping was employed compared to early termination (14 DPP). Planting green into standing cereal rye resulted in greater mean corn height (V5 stage) compared to other treatments, but corn population and yield did not differ. In 2021, few differences in weed recruitment patterns were observed, but corn population and yield were significantly lower in planting green treatments compared to early termination. In both years, late-season weed biomass was lower in two-pass POST programs compared to one-pass PRE programs. On-farm trials showed that planting green into standing residue increases corn height and can reduce corn populations, which may lead to reduce yields. Our results suggest that management recommendations for optimizing herbicide application timing should consider intrarow and interrow weed recruitment dynamics associated with residue management tactics needed to optimize corn performance.
Impact factor (IF) is a concept dating back over half a century, created to evaluate the impact of a journal within a particular scientific field. In spite of limitations, IF remains a widely used metric for journals to establish the average number of citations for articles published in a journal. The Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine (IJPM) recently received an IF of 5.1, the first IF for the journal. We believe that this is a reflection of the hard work and dedication of our authors, reviewers, publishers and editorial board. The IJPM is the official research journal of the College of Psychiatrists of Ireland, and while psychiatry is the primary discipline of the journal, the current multidisciplinary approach will continue into the future. The journal has a strong Irish and international readership; while the journal will continue to publish research with an Irish focus, the editorial team are aware of the importance of ongoing global contributions to ensure the journal maintains high-quality publications of an international standard. This is an exciting time to be involved in mental health research, and the journal will continue to publish cutting edge themes with the goal of improving mental healthcare in Ireland and beyond.