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Previous research has found that candidates for bariatric surgery usually present anxiety, depression, personality disorders and/or a tendency to binge eating. The situation related with the pandemic and the lockdowns during the 2020 are possible aggravating factors for these characteristics.
To study the more important psychological characteristics presented by candidates for bariatric surgery.
40 people between 29 and 65 years old (M=46.4, SD=9.1; 37.5% male, 62.5% female) were evaluated between July and December of 2020. The assessment consisted in an interview carried out by a clinical psychologist, and a pool of questionnaires to evaluate depression and anxiety symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI; and the Goldberg Anxiety and Depression Scale, GADS) the existence of a binge eating pattern (the Binge Eating Scale; BES) and personality traits (the Salamanca Screening Test).
The 25% of the sample had previous mental health antecedents. Eight people disclosed to feel stress in relation with the COVID-19, and 18 presented an emotional regulation strategy using food during the lockdown. 62.5% scored above the cut-off point on the BDI (mild=27.5%, moderate=20%, severe=15%) and a 40% and a 47.5% did it for the anxiety and the depression (respectively) GADS subscales. 20% presented a binge eating pattern according with the BES. Most common personality traits were histrionic (50%), emotionally unstable impulsive type (45%), and anxious (42.5%).
These findings support the previous scientific literature. Psychological intervention programs may be considered to guarantee the surgery’s success, especially when adverse contextual circumstances are presented.
Current definitions for delusional disorder (DD) state that no cognitive or functional impairment is present. However, this assumption lacks empirical validation and has been questioned by numerous authors over the years. Through systematic search we collected articles that compare patients with DD with either healthy controls or patients with schizophrenia on the basis of their cognitive symptoms and their functional outcomes.
Our aim is to draw conclusions from the available evidence on neurocognitive and functional affectation of DD.
Systematic electronic search was performed using Pubmed and Embase databases. Inclusion criteria included that selected articles must be original studies, must be published in peer-reviewed journals, must contain a sample of DD patients that is compared with a sample of healthy controls and/or patients with schizophrenia and that samples must be compared on the basis of cognitive and/or functionality parameters. A qualitative synthesis was performed due to heterogeneity in data.
According to the information collected through our systematic review, DD patients tend to perform worse than healthy control in tests assessing cognitive functions. Results are not as conclusive regarding comparison between DD and schizophrenia, with mixed outcomes. When it comes to functionality, results are not conclusive either, with some degree of evidence pointing towards a better functioning in patients with DD in comparison to patients with schizophrenia.
Results agree with many authors who consider both conditions as part of a psychosis spectrum. Cognitive interventions, such as cognitive remediation, must be studied for their potential role in the treatment of patients with DD.
The prevalence of mental disorders (MD) is greater in children; however, they are the population with less help-seeking and access to mental health-care services (MHS).
To explore the characteristics of help-seeking and access to specialized MHS in children with MD.
A cross-sectional study was carried out from 2018 to 2019, in the Children’s Psychiatric Hospital and National Institute of Psychiatry in Mexico City. Sample 397 children and 397 caregivers. The project was approved by the Ethics Committee of both institutions. The patient’s family member was questioned on sociodemographic data and help-seeking to MHS. Sample’s descriptive statistics applying measures of central tendency, Inferential statistics with t-test for differences in means between groups (diagnosis), and one-way ANOVA to variables associated with the help-seeking to MHS.
Children´s sample: 37% female, average age 12 years (SD± 3.6), 51% had diagnosis of hyperkinetic disorder (HD), 34% depressive disorder (DD). The children´s age at the time of seeking healthcare was different according to the diagnosis: DD 10.1 (SD ± 4.5) and HD 6.95 (SD ± 3.4), (T = -3.18, p = 0.000); and by sex: girls 10.9 (SD ± 4.5), boys 7.85 (SD ± 4.0); (T = -3.07, p = 0.000). The mother was the first person to notice the symptoms.
The search for MHS differs by sex, diagnosis and family history; it is necessary to design mental health interventions considering gender-based differences, namely, to integrate a gender perspective.
Eating Disorders are a frequent pathology, particularly among teenagers, a group characterized by its vulnerability and body dissatisfaction. Social networks (SN) can be a gateway to ED, mainly with Pro-Ana and Pro-Mia resources. Despite the aforementioned, SN can also be helpful for professionals, either as a tool of approach to vulnerable groups or as a way of interaction in patients already diagnosed.
To study the relationship between ED and SN, using the open access evidence available in Pubmed over the last 5 years.
A single-phase computerised search was carried out in Pubmed. The search terms were: (“Anorexia Nervosa”[Mesh] OR “Bulimia Nervosa”[Mesh] OR “Feeding and Eating Disorders”[Mesh] OR “Eating Disorders”[Tiab] OR “Eating Disorder”[Tiab] OR “Disorder, Eating”[Tiab] OR “Disorders, Eating”[Tiab] OR “Anorexia”[Tiab] OR “Bulimia”[Tiab]) AND (“blogging”[Mesh] OR “social media”[Mesh]). The filters applied were: “free Full Text” and publications for the last 5 years.
36.84% studied SN as a positive tool for ED. 47.37% revealed negative influence, only 44.44% focused on Pro-Ana and Pro-Mia. 15.79% provided both positive and negative arguments. The most studied SN were Twitter and Facebook.
Despite the known negative effect that SN can have on ED, they can also be used as a supportive recovery framework. They can be used to identify dangerous behaviours and intervene or as a prevention tool.
INTRODUCTION TikTok is a social network (SN) that allows users to share short videos about different issues. Since the COVID-19 lockdown, there has been an increase in Pro-Ana and Pro-Mia videos in this specific SN.
OBJECTIVES To know the main characteristics about Pro-Ana and Pro-Mia contents among TikTok users.
METHODS A search was carried out using uncontrolled language with the term “TCA” (ED in English). The study included only Pro-Ana and Pro-Mia resources in Spanish. Resources under the category “recovery” were excluded. A random sample of 16 TikTok was used, since it is enough to estimate, with a confidence of 95% and an accuracy of +/- 20 percentage units, a population percentage that is expected to be around 20%. The studied variables were images, type of resources, “challenges” and misspelled words.
RESULTS In the sample, 68.75% of the profiles were created upon confinement, 56.25% had more than 500 followers and 68.75% had more than 3000 “likes”. 43.75% included more than 30% of ED advocacy content, 18.75% promoted challenges and 37.5% used misspelled words to avoid SN censorship.
CONCLUSIONS There has been a remarkable increase in ED-related content as a result of lockdown. In turn, the increasing number of users who are part of TikTok reveals that this is a SN that can be associated with ED advocacy.
Cognition heavily relies on social determinants and genetic background. Latin America comprises approximately 8% of the global population and faces unique challenges, many derived from specific demographic and socioeconomic variables, such as violence and inequality. While such factors have been described to influence mental health outcomes, no large-scale studies with Latin American population have been carried out. Therefore, we aim to describe the cognitive performance of a representative sample of Latin American individuals with schizophrenia and its relationship to clinical factors. Additionally, we aim to investigate how socioeconomic status (SES) relates to cognitive performance in patients and controls.
We included 1175 participants from five Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Mexico): 864 individuals with schizophrenia and 311 unaffected subjects. All participants were part of projects that included cognitive evaluation with MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery and clinical assessments.
Patients showed worse cognitive performance than controls across all domains. Age and diagnosis were independent predictors, indicating similar trajectories of cognitive aging for both patients and controls. The SES factors of education, parental education, and income were more related to cognition in patients than in controls. Cognition was also influenced by symptomatology.
Patients did not show evidence of accelerated cognitive aging; however, they were most impacted by a lower SES suggestive of deprived environment than controls. These findings highlight the vulnerability of cognitive capacity in individuals with psychosis in face of demographic and socioeconomic factors in low- and middle-income countries.
After decades of study, much remains unknown about the foraging practices of the earliest inhabitants of Puerto Rico. Here, we present an analysis of the malacological assemblages of two neighboring and (partially) contemporary early sites from the island's southwest, finding intriguing intersite differences in shellfish collection practices. We attribute this diversity to differences in site type, chronology, or changes in local coastal configuration. This work not only provides insights into prehistoric Puerto Rican foraging dynamics but also demonstrates the importance of considering factors including intra-age chronology, site type, and changes in paleoenvironmental conditions when considering ancient foraging practices.
Mating and receiving ejaculate can alter female insect physiology and postcopulatory behaviour. During mating, females receive both internal and external stimuli and different components in the ejaculate. In insects, these components consist mostly of sperm and male accessory gland secretions. Some of the most important changes associated with receiving male accessory gland secretions are a reduction in female sexual receptivity and an increase in oviposition. However, a clear function for these molecules has not been found in the Mexican fruit fly Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Here, we tested how the stimulus of mating, receiving a full ejaculate, or only receiving accessory gland secretions can influence ovarian development and oviposition. Our results indicate that the stimulus of mating per se is enough to induce oviposition and increase egg laying in females even if ejaculate is not received, whereas receiving only accessory gland secretions does not increase ovarian development and is not enough to induce oviposition or increase egg production. Further research on the internal and external copulatory courtship of A. ludens will increase our understanding of the role of these secretions in stimulating oviposition independent of ejaculate effects. A biological function for male accessory gland secretions on female behaviour for A. ludens still needs to be found.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is putting health-care systems under unprecedented stress to accommodate unexpected numbers of patients forcing a quick re-organization. This article describes the staff management experience of a third level referral hospital in the city of Madrid, Spain, one of the cities and hospitals with the largest number of COVID-19 cases.
A newly created COVID-19-specific clinical management unit (CMU) coordinated all clinical departments and conducted real-time assessments of the availability and needs of medical staff, alongside the hospital’s general management board. The CMU was able to (i) redeploy up to 285 physicians every week to bolster medical care in COVID-19 wards and forecast medical staff requirements for the upcoming week so all departments could organize their work while coping with COVID-19 needs, (ii) overview all clinical activities conducted in a medicalized hotel, and (iii) recruit a team of roughly 90 volunteer medical students to accelerate data collection and evidence generation.
The main advantage of a CMU composed by a member of every job category—its ability to generate rapid, locally adapted responses to unexpected challenges—made it perfect for the unprecedented increase in health-care need generated by the COVID-19 pandemic.
Hypleurochilus fissicornis is a resident species of the intertidal and subtidal zones of Mar del Plata, Argentina. The specific reproductive biology was studied by means of both microscopic and macroscopic analyses. A total of 212 males and 223 females were analysed. Specimens were dissected and their gonads and livers were removed. The gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indexes and the condition factor were calculated on a monthly basis. Hypleurochilus fissicornis breeds in rocky intertidal areas, and exhibits low fecundity with benthic eggs and parental care. Size at first maturity (L50) was estimated at 53.66 and 55.83 mm total length for females and males, respectively. The spawning season takes place between December and April.
Vaccination remains the best strategy to reduce invasive meningococcal disease. This study evaluated an investigational tetanus toxoid-conjugate quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine (MenACYW-TT) vs. a licensed tetanus toxoid-conjugate quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine (MCV4-TT) (NCT02955797). Healthy toddlers aged 12–23 months were included if they were either meningococcal vaccine-naïve or MenC conjugate (MCC) vaccine-primed (≥1 dose of MCC prior to 12 months of age). Vaccine-naïve participants were randomised 1:1 to either MenACYW-TT (n = 306) or MCV4-TT (n = 306). MCC-primed participants were randomised 2:1 to MenACYW-TT (n = 203) or MCV4-TT (n = 103). Antibody titres against each of the four meningococcal serogroups were measured by serum bactericidal antibody assay using the human complement. The co-primary objectives of this study were to demonstrate the non-inferiority of MenACYW-TT to MCV4-TT in terms of seroprotection (titres ≥1:8) at Day 30 in both vaccine-naïve and all participants (vaccine-naïve and MCC-primed groups pooled). The immune response for all four serogroups to MenACYW-TT was non-inferior to MCV4-TT in vaccine-naïve participants (seroprotection: range 83.6–99.3% and 81.4–91.6%, respectively) and all participants (seroprotection: range 83.6–99.3% and 81.4–98.0%, respectively). The safety profiles of both vaccines were comparable. MenACYW-TT was well-tolerated and demonstrated non-inferior immunogenicity when administered to MCC vaccine-primed and vaccine-naïve toddlers.
The aim of this study is to test the psychometric properties of the Spanish validation of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) in a Paraguayan population.
Participants were recruited through an Internet-based survey. All participants whose scores in the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and The Fear Questionnaire (FQ) were greater than zero were included. 1245 subjects responded voluntarily: 1077 subjects, scoring >0, were considered.
To establish construct validity of the FCV-19S, an exploratory factor analysis was performed using the KMO test, which was adequate, and the Bartlett sphericity test, which was significant (p <.0001). The CFI, NFI, GFI, TLI and RMSEA indices were used to evaluate the model and showed good adjustment. Cronbach’s α showed valid internal consistency (α = 0.86). This validation was supported by significant correlation (p <.001) with the HADS scale for anxiety and depression and with the FQ scale for specific phobia.
The Spanish version of the FCV-19S is a 7-item scale with two dimensions, psychological symptoms and physiological symptoms, which demonstrated robust psychometric properties in a Paraguayan population.
The Radiocarbon Laboratory of the Fluminense Federal University was installed in 2009, and its NEC Single Stage Accelerator Mass Spectrometry system has been operational since 2012. As the first 14C-AMS facility in Latin America, the LAC-UFF became a reference center for radiocarbon (14C) dating in Brazil. Over the years we have implemented pretreatment protocols for several kinds of materials, such as cellulose, soil, bone, and biofuels. In the present paper we describe our current protocols for the preparation of these types of samples. Moreover, after 10 years of operation, with the aim of expanding the range of materials we are able to analyze, we report the results of several tests to improve accuracy, precision and background levels. For example, here we discuss how isotopic fractionation during the graphitization and measurement steps has been controlled. Concerning results interpretation, our research group has been using OxCal chronological models to analyze different contexts such as stromatolite growth, tree rings, soil deposition and marine reservoir effect (MRE) determination.
The COVID-19 pandemic is a global challenge for humanity, in which a large number of resources are invested to develop effective vaccines and treatments. At the same time, governments try to manage the spread of the disease while alleviating the strong impact derived from the slowdown in economic activity. Governments were forced to impose strict lockdown measures to tackle the pandemic. This significantly changed people’s mobility and habits, subsequently impacting the economy. In this context, the availability of tools to effectively monitor and quantify mobility was key for public institutions to decide which policies to implement and for how long. Telefonica has promoted different initiatives to offer governments mobility insights throughout many of the countries where it operates in Europe and Latin America. Mobility indicators with high spatial granularity and frequency of updates were successfully deployed in different formats. However, Telefonica faced many challenges (not only technical) to put these tools into service in a short timing: from reducing latency in insights to ensuring the security and privacy of information. In this article, we provide details on how Telefonica engaged with governments and other stakeholders in different countries as a response to the pandemic. We also cover the challenges faced and the shared learnings from Telefonica’s experience in those countries.
An annotated checklist of the cestode parasites of Argentinean wild birds is presented, as the result of a compilation of parasitological papers published between 1900 and April 2021. This review provides data on hosts, geographical distribution, sites of infection, location of material deposited in helminthological collections, references and taxonomic comments. A host/parasite list is also provided. During this period, 38 papers were published that gather information about 34 cestode nominal species and 11 taxa identified at generic level, belonging to three orders, ten families and 35 genera. The highest number of cestode taxa was recorded in the family Hymenolepididae, with 12 nominal species and two taxa identified at generic level, followed by Dilepididae, with eight nominal species and three taxa identified at generic level. Of the 1042 species of birds reported in Argentina, only 29 (2.8%) were reported as hosts of adult cestodes. The families of birds with the highest number of reported taxa were Laridae and Anatidae, with 20 and 14 taxa, respectively.
Dengue virus can affect the heart, with complications as bradycardia, arrhythmias, and death. We present a case of a 15-year-old patient, diagnosed 4 years before with severe idiopathic pulmonary hypertension, confirmed by catheterism, with continuous follow up. At that time, she was living in Bogotá (2640 m above sea level). Sildenafil and Macitentan were started. She was recommended to live at low altitude and she moved. The patient was transferred back to Bogota, from that place, due to flu-like symptoms and fever. Immunoglobulin M for dengue was confirmed and second-degree atrioventricular block Mobitz I with bradycardia (40 beats/minute) was documented throughout the clinical course. She recovered.
The aim was to analyse invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) serotypes in children aged ⩽17 years according to clinical presentation and antimicrobial susceptibility. We conducted a prospective study (January 2012–June 2016). IPD cases were diagnosed by culture and/or real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Demographic, microbiological and clinical data were analysed. Associations were assessed using the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Of the 253 cases, 34.4% were aged <2 years, 38.7% 2–4 years and 26.9% 5–17 years. Over 64% were 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) serotypes. 48% of the cases were diagnosed only by real-time PCR. Serotypes 3 and 1 were associated with complicated pneumonia (P < 0.05) and non-PCV13 serotypes with meningitis (OR 7.32, 95% CI 2.33–22.99) and occult bacteraemia (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.56–8.76). Serotype 19A was more frequent in children aged <2 years and serotypes 3 and 1 in children aged 2–4 years and 5–17 years, respectively. 36.1% of cases were not susceptible to penicillin and 16.4% were also non-susceptible to cefotaxime. Serotypes 14, 24F and 23B were associated with non-susceptibility to penicillin (P < 0.05) and serotypes 11, 14 and 19A to cefotaxime (P < 0.05). Serotype 19A showed resistance to penicillin (P = 0.002). In conclusion, PCV13 serotypes were most frequent in children aged ⩽17 years, mainly serotypes 3, 1 and 19A. Non-PCV13 serotypes were associated with meningitis and occult bacteraemia and PCV13 serotypes with pneumonia. Non-susceptibility to antibiotics of non-PCV13 serotypes should be monitored.
The aging process is associated with a deterioration of the physiological systems, especially the homeostatic (nervous, immune and endocrine) systems with the consequent increase in morbidity and mortality. With the aging population, increasing number of studies focus on lifestyle interventions to slow down these aging derangements. Here, animal models can be useful to assess their long-term effects and potential value taking into advantage their shorter life span. In a previous work, old animals beneficed of 2 months of continuous cohabitation with adult, with improvements on behaviour, immune function and redox state as well as a higher longevity. However, their adult counterparts showed impairments in these parameters. In the present study, this social strategy was modified with the aim to improve the homeostatic systems in both the old and the adult animals.) Animals of the experimental group with “two old ICR-CD1 female mice cohabiting 15 minutes each day for 2 months with five adult mic” were studied and compared to adult and old controls. After this time, mice were submitted to a behavioural battery of tests to analyse their sensorimotor abilities, anxiety-like behaviours, and exploratory capacities. Peritoneal leukocytes were collected and several immune functions, oxidative and inflammatory stress parameters as well as catecholamine concentrations were assessed. When the adult mice reached old age the same parameters were again analysed. The life span of each animal was also recorded. Several mice of each group were sacrificed to obtain plasma and the hormone oxytocin was evaluated. The results show that old mice presented an improvement of behavioural capacities, immune functions and lower oxidative and inflammatory stress after the two months of social interaction with adult animals, and consequently they exhibited an extended life span. Adult mice, in general, did not show any changes after social interaction, but when they achieved old age an improvement of all the parameters studied and of longevity was observed in comparison with those mice that never had a social interaction with old animals. In conclusion, a short social interaction between old and adult individuals can be an excellent strategy for improving in both the health state and longevity.
Social and environmental factors such as poverty or violence modulate the risk and course of schizophrenia. However, how they affect the brain in patients with psychosis remains unclear.
We studied how environmental factors are related to brain structure in patients with schizophrenia and controls in Latin America, where these factors are large and unequally distributed.
This is a multicentre study of magnetic resonance imaging in patients with schizophrenia and controls from six Latin American cities. Total and voxel-level grey matter volumes, and their relationship with neighbourhood characteristics such as average income and homicide rates, were analysed with a general linear model.
A total of 334 patients with schizophrenia and 262 controls were included. Income was differentially related to total grey matter volume in both groups (P = 0.006). Controls showed a positive correlation between total grey matter volume and income (R = 0.14, P = 0.02). Surprisingly, this relationship was not present in patients with schizophrenia (R = −0.076, P = 0.17). Voxel-level analysis confirmed that this interaction was widespread across the cortex. After adjusting for global brain changes, income was positively related to prefrontal cortex volumes only in controls. Conversely, the hippocampus in patients with schizophrenia, but not in controls, was relatively larger in affluent environments. There was no significant correlation between environmental violence and brain structure.
Our results highlight the interplay between environment, particularly poverty, and individual characteristics in psychosis. This is particularly important for harsh environments such as low- and middle-income countries, where potentially less brain vulnerability (less grey matter loss) is sufficient to become unwell in adverse (poor) environments.
Agroforestry systems can play an important role in mitigating the effects of climate change given their capacity to increase tree diversity and to store more carbon than conventional farming. This study aims at assessing carbon stocks and the use of shade trees in different coffee growing systems in the Northeast Peruvian Amazon. Carbon stocks in trees were estimated by field-based measurements and allometric equations. Carbon stocks in dead wood, litter and soil (upper 60 cm) were determined using field sampling and laboratory analysis. The diversity analysis drew on the Shannon–Weiner diversity index, and focus groups were used to obtain information about the local use of shade trees. The total carbon stock in the polyculture-shaded coffee system was 189 t C/ha, while the Inga-shaded and unshaded systems totalled 146 and 113 t C/ha, respectively. The soil compartment contributed the largest carbon stock in the coffee growing systems and contained 67, 82 and 96% of the total carbon stock in the polyculture-shaded, Inga-shaded and unshaded coffee systems, respectively. The Shannon–Weiner index and tree species richness values were highest for the polyculture-shaded coffee system, with a total of 18 tree species identified as important sources of fodder, food, wood, firewood and medicine. Therefore, coffee agroforestry systems play a significant role in carbon storage, while promoting conservation of useful trees in agricultural landscapes in the Peruvian Amazon.