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Serological antibody detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)- and immunoblot-based methods constitutes the best indicator of human Toxocara infection. Nevertheless, the availability of serological tests, particularly western blots (WB), evaluated for sensitivity and specificity is limited. Therefore, an Anti-Toxocara-ELISA immunoglobulin g (IgG) prototype (Proto-ELISA) and an Anti-Toxocara-Westernblot (IgG) prototype (Proto-WB) were evaluated by testing 541 human sera pre-determined for Toxocara infection by an established in-house Anti-Toxocara-ELISA (IH-ELISA). To evaluate sensitivity and specificity of the newly developed ELISA and WB prototypes, results were compared to IH-ELISA and a commercial WB (Com-WB). Compared to the IH-ELISA, a sensitivity of 93.1% (229/246) and a specificity of 94.6% (279/295) of the Proto-ELISA with a Cohen's κ of 0.88 were obtained. The sensitivity of the Proto-WB was 76.7% (240/313) and specificity was 99.6% (227/228) with a Cohen's κ of 0.73 compared to those of Com-WB. A comparison to the IH-ELISA revealed 91.5% (225/246) sensitivity and 94.6% (279/295) specificity of the Proto-WB with a Cohen's κ of 0.86. Cross-reactivity was observed for some samples positive for Ascaris and Trichinella spp. in the Proto-ELISA, Proto-WB and Com-WB. Overall, the evaluated ELISA and WB prototypes showed high sensitivity and specificity, indicating high reliability of these newly developed tests.
Recent studies have highlighted the threat that climate change poses to species, as areas of climatic suitability contract or shift across the landscape. North American Neotropical long-distant migrant bird species present a unique problem compared to sedentary species because climate change may differ significantly across their breeding and wintering grounds. Studying the potential future distributions of these birds is challenging on many levels, including the fact that our understanding of the wintering grounds of these species is quite poor. To address this issue, we analyse available eBird data during the winter season in the Western Hemisphere in an effort to further promote and direct citizen science efforts to focus on areas that are climatically undersampled. We used Mobility-Oriented Parity (MOP) to understand the areas where climates are most dissimilar from climates sampled by existing eBird checklists, creating a map that ranks the western hemisphere at a 10 km resolution for climatic sampling during the winter season. We found that parts of Mexico and Central America, areas of Colombia, almost the entire Amazon Basin, coastal Peru and Chile, and northern Argentina are climatically undersampled. As a test case, we then used the map of survey priorities to simulate additional sampling in Colombia and recalculated the rankings. Guiding additional sampling with the priorities reduced climate dissimilarities between sampled and unsampled grid cells more than when additional sampling expanded in proportion to current sampling efforts or based on geographic undersampling. Analyses of sampling coverage in environmental space, such as this, will be a useful tool for targeting monitoring effort for bird species.
Diagnostic considerations for juvenile onset Parkinsonism (onset at <21 years of age) include juvenile Huntington disease, Wilson disease, dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA), storage diseases, and mitochondrial cytopathies. Neuronal Intranuclear Inclusion Disease (NIID) must also be considered.
We present a case of juvenile onset NIID with a predominantly Parkinsonian presentation, followed later by corticospinal, cerebellar, and lower motor neuron symptoms.
Diagnosis of NIID can be made antemortem through rectal biopsy, however it was missed in this case. Rectal biopsy should be performed in all suspected cases, reviewed by an experienced neuropathologist and repeated if the suspicion for NIID is high. Pathologically, SUMO-1 immunohistochemistry appears to reliably label the neuronal inclusions and abnormal SUMOylation may play a part in the pathogenesis.
A complete genetic map has been established for the P22 clear plaque forming mutations cir4-l, cir5-l and cir6-l. These are located within or closely linked to the immI region of P22 and represent a new class of clear plaque forming mutants located outside and rather distant from the immC region. They were mapped with respect to the markers mnt, vy and ant of the immI region and to genes 16 and 9 which span it. The three cir mutations complement each other and – with one possible exception – the cl, c2 and c3 mutations of the immC region. P22 cir6-l – like P22 cir5-l (Harvey et al. 1981) – is suppressed by the ant−am19 allele, whereas P22 cir4-l is not. The results are discussed in terms of the regulation of early ant expression.
We demonstrate a novel technique for fabricating monolithically series connected solar modules from surface structured thin monocrystalline Si films that we prepare by layer transfer using porous Si (PSI process). The novel series connection technique bases on reactive ion etching of the silicon film in a microwave plasma prior and after layer transfer. The module has an area of 25 cm2 and consists of 5 unit cells that have a film thickness of 16 µm. We measure an open-circuit voltage of 3028 mV and a confirmed efficiency of 9.9%. The Si film has a randomly textured surface for light trapping.
Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD; Finkel et al., 1998) are receiving increased attention in the medical and scientific literature. These symptoms are a principal cause of distress and disability among patients with dementia and their caregivers. Numerous therapeutic studies examining the treatment of these symptoms are being conducted.
Background: General relationships between dotage and infancy and childhood have been acknowledged for more than two millennia. Recent findings indicate precise relationships between functional, praxic, and feeding changes in the course of the degenerative dementia of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and inverse corresponding developmental sequences. Similar inverse relationships between AD and human development can be described for cognition and language skills; for physiologic measures of electroencephalographic activity, brain glucose metabolism, and developmental neurologic reflex changes; and for the neuropathologic and neuroanatomic progression of these processes. In AD, these processes may be termed “retrogenesis.” The relevance of the retrogenesis model for AD management is explored. Method: The functional stages of AD can be translated into developmental age equivalents that can be utilized to explicate observed changes in the disease. Results: The retrogenesis-based developmental age model can usefully inform an understanding of the general care needs, emotional and behavioral changes, and activity needs of the AD patient. This model must be amended by necessary caveats regarding physical differences, variations in age-associated pathology, differences in social and societal reactions, and differences in background between AD patients and their developmental age “peers.” Conclusions: Knowledge of retrogenesis and the developmental age of the AD patients can form a nidus for the development of a nascent science of disease management. Such a science must ultimately incorporate not only appropriate caveats but also relevant universal human needs, such as those for dignity, love, and movement.
Before the development of the Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease (BEHAVE-AD) rating scale in 1987 by Reisberg and colleagues and its predecessor scale, the Symptoms of Psychosis in Alzheimer's Disease (SPAD) rating scale, in 1985 by Reisberg and Ferris, other scales were available for measuring behavioral disturbances and psychiatric disorders in patients with Alzheimer's disease. However, these scales generally mixed together cognitive disturbances with behavioral symptoms and sometimes included functional impairments as well. These predecessor scales also were not specifically designed to assess the types of behavioral problems seen in Alzheimer's disease. If a scale did address behavioral disturbances of dementia, it tended to be seriously underspecified in terms of the nature of behavioral disturbances.
Behavioral symptoms of dementia are stressful not only for patients but also for their caregivers. These symptoms include delusions, hallucinations, activity disturbances, aggressiveness, sleep disturbances, affective disturbances, and anxieties and phobias. Despite the burden of coping with behavioral problems, little information is available about effective treatments for behavioral symptoms in Alzheimer's disease and related dementing disorders.
A clinician should not rely entirely upon a caregiver's report regarding behavioral pathology when planning a treatment strategy. Direct observational evaluation instruments as well as caregiver-based assessments are necessary. A new scale for the empirical (observational) evaluation of behavioral symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementias, the Empirical Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease Rating Scale (E-BEHAVEAD) was developed. Interrater reliability of this new assessment instrument was examined. Additionally, the relationship between the observed occurrence of behavioral symptomatology on this new rating instrument was compared with the occurrence using a similarly designed, caregiver-based instrument. The interrater reliability study consisted of two raters who simultaneously evaluated 20 dementia patients. The comparative study employed a cross-sectional design (N = 49). Individuals were evaluated in an outpatient clinic setting. The study population consisted of cognitively normal individuals and dementia patients. Evaluations included the new, observationally based behavioral assessment (the E-BEHAVE-AD), a caregiver-based behavioral assessment (the Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease Rating Scale; BEHAVE-AD), a clinical global measure (the Global Deterioration Scale), and a mental status assessment (the Mini-Mental State Examination). The interrater reliability study revealed an intraclass correlation coefficient of .97 (p < .01) for total scores on the new E-BEHAVE-AD rating scale. The correlation coefficient for the amount of agreement on the presence of symptoms in six symptomatic categories between caregiver-based information about the patient's behavioral pathology assessed on the BEHAVE-AD and the clinician's observations assessed with the new E-BEHAVE-AD rating instrument was .51 (p < .01). The New E-BEHAVE-AD rating instrument showed excellent interrater reliability. Furthermore, there was a statistically significant relationship between clinician observation of the occurrence of behavioral pathology assessed using the E-BEHAVE-AD and caregive-reported pathology assessed with the BEHAVE-AD. However the magnitude of the correlation between these measures indicated that the majority of variance was independent and nonoverlapping. Consequently, these data support theoretical models suggesting that the assessment of behavioral pathology in dementia might ideally encompass both direct observational and caregiver-report approaches, using measures such as the E-BEHAVE-AD as well as measures such as the BEHAVE-AD.