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It is unclear whether the enhancing contact model (ECM) intervention is effective in reducing family caregiving burden and improving hope and quality of life (QOL) among family caregivers of persons with schizophrenia (FCPWS).
We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial in FCPWS in eight rural townships in Xinjin, Chengdu, China. In total, 253 FCPWS were randomly allocated to the ECM, psychoeducational family intervention (PFI), or treatment as usual (TAU) group. FCPWS in three groups were assessed caregiving burden, QOL and state of hope at baseline (T0), post-intervention (T1), 3-month (T2), and 9-month (T3) follow-up, respectively.
Compared with participants in the TAU group, participants in the ECM group had statistically significantly lower caregiving burden scores both at T1 and T2 (p = 0.0059 and 0.0257, respectively). Compared with participants in the TAU group, participants in the PFI group had statistically significantly higher QOL scores in T1 (p = 0.0406), while participants in the ECM group had statistically significantly higher QOL scores in T3 (p = 0.0240). Participants in both ECM and PFI groups had statistically significantly higher hope scores than those in the TAU group at T1 (p = 0.0160 and 0.0486, respectively).
This is the first study to explore the effectiveness of ECM on reducing family caregiving burden and improving hope and QOL in rural China. The results indicate the ECM intervention, a comprehensive and multifaceted intervention, is more effective than the PFI in various aspects of mental wellbeing among FCPWS. Future research needs to confirm ECM's effectiveness in various population.
In the present study, turbulent particle-laden boundary layer combustion over a flat plate is investigated using direct numerical simulation (DNS). A two-way coupled Eulerian–Lagrangian point particle method is used for the solid phase. The effects of particle Stokes numbers, mass loadings and chemical reactions on the interactions between particles and boundary layer turbulence in the near-wall region are explored. It was found that particle heat transfer is dominant over wall heat transfer in the reacting case with heavy particles and large mass loadings, resulting in a lower fluid temperature. Particle accumulation due to the turbophoresis effect in the near-wall region is observed, which is more prominent in the cases with a large Stokes number. The turbophoresis effect is examined via the magnitude of streamwise vorticity $\varOmega _x$. It is shown that $\varOmega _x$ is attenuated by heavy particles, and the attenuation increases with increasing mass loadings. Therefore, particle wall–accumulation is less prominent in the cases with large mass loadings. Compared with the non-reacting cases, the distribution of particles is more inhomogeneous for the reacting cases, where the particles move faster due to intense reactions with increasing wall-normal distance. Finally, the flow topologies and the Reynolds stress anisotropy are examined to understand turbulence modulation by combustion and particles. It was suggested that light particles augment the vortex-dominant topologies, whereas heavy particles have an opposite effect. The anisotropy mapping of the Reynolds stress shows that the flows become more one-dimensional in the near-wall region for the cases with combustion and/or large mass loadings.
Apart from the psychiatric symptoms, cognitive deficits are also the core symptoms of schizophrenia. Brain network control theory provided information on the role of a specific brain region in the cognitive control process, helping understand the neural mechanism of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.
To characterize the control properties of functional brain network in first-episode untreated patients with schizophrenia and the relationships between controllability and psychiatric symptoms, as well as exploring the predictive value of controllability in differentiating patients from healthy controls (HCs).
Average and modal controllability of brain networks were calculated and compared between 133 first-episode untreated patients with schizophrenia and 135 HCs. The associations between controllability and clinical symptoms were evaluated using sparse canonical correlation analysis. Support vector machine (SVM) and SVM-recursive feature elimination combined with the controllability were performed to establish the individual prediction model.
Compared to HCs, the patients with schizophrenia showed increased average controllability and decreased modal controllability in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). Brain controllability predominantly in somatomotor, default mode, and visual networks was associated with the positive symptomatology of schizophrenia. The established model could identify patients with an accuracy of 0.68. Furthermore, the most discriminative features were located in dACC, medial prefrontal lobe, precuneus and superior temporal gyrus.
Altered controllability in dACC may play a critical role in the neuropathological mechanisms of cognitive deficit in schizophrenia, which could drive the brain function to different states to cope with varied cognitive tasks. As symptom-related biomarkers, controllability could be also beneficial to individual prediction in schizophrenia.
There is a growing consensus on brain networks that it is not immutable but rather a dynamic complex system for adapting environment. The neuroimaging research studying how brain regions work collaboratively with dynamic methods had demonstrated its effectiveness in revealing the neural mechanisms of schizophrenia.
To investigate altered dynamic brain functional topology in first-episode untreated schizophrenia patients (SZs) and establish classification models to find objective brain imaging biomarkers.
Resting-state-functional magnetic resonance data for SZs and matched healthy controls were obtained(Table1).
Power-264-template was used to extract nodes and sliding-window approach was carried out to establish functional connectivity matrices. Functional topology was assessed by eigenvector centrality(EC) and node efficiency and its time-fluctuating was evaluated with coefficient of variation(CV). Group differences of dynamic topology and correlation analysis between Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale(PANSS) scores and topology indices showing group differences, which also were used in establishing classification models, was examed.
The CV of node efficiency in angular and paracingulate gyrus was larger in SZs. There are 13 nodes assigned into several brain networks displaying altered CV of EC between groups(Figure1.A). Fluctuation of EC of the node in DMN, which was lower in SZs, showed negative correlation with PANSS total scores(Figure1.B). Dynamic functional topology of above nodes was used to train classification models and demonstrated 80% and 71% accuracy for support vector classification(SVC) and random forest(RF), respectively(Figure2).
Dynamic functional topology illustrated a capability in identifying SZs. Aberrated dynamics of DMN relevant to severity of patient’s symptoms could reveal the reason why it contributed to classification.
The two-dimensional (2-D) unsteady shock reflection over a single wedge is studied theoretically and numerically, and the emphasis is placed on the trajectory of the triple point (TP). Skews’ relation and the three-shock theory are, respectively, used for determining the trajectory angles of the corner-generated disturbance and the TP, and, subsequently, a model capable of predicting the TP trajectory is established for 2-D unsteady shock reflections over a single wedge. Then, a systematically numerical study is carried out on the 2-D unsteady shock reflection over a single wedge, including five types of shock reflection with the wedge angle increased and five types of shock reflection with the wedge angle decreased. It is found that the Mach stem is always slightly concavely (convexly) curved for reflections with the wedge angle increased (decreased), which should be caused by corner-generated compression (rarefaction) waves propagating along the Mach stem. The new model reasonably predicts the TP trajectory in all the 2-D unsteady shock reflections, and its performance is related not only to the variation trend of the wedge angle (increase or decrease), but also to the type of shock and the initial wedge angle. Specifically, for the shock reflection with the wedge angle increased (decreased), the model generally provides a slightly better (worse) prediction if the TP trajectory angle calculated by the three-shock theory is compulsively modified. The shock-shock/expansion polar analysis presented can partially explain the model performance for predicting the TP trajectory.
The COVID-19 caused a world pandemic, posing a huge threat to global health. Widespread vaccination is the most effective way to control the pandemic. Vaccination with the third dose of the COVID-19 vaccine is currently underway. We aimed to determine the attitude of adolescents toward the third dose of COVID-19 vaccine.
A structured questionnaire was administered between 16 August and 28 October 2021 among adolescents aged 12–17 years in three provinces of eastern region of China based on convenience sampling. The questionnaire was specifically developed to assess the adolescents’ attitude toward and willingness to accept a third dose of the COVID-19 vaccine.
In total, 94.3% (1742/1847) of the adolescents intended to accept the third dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. Age between 15–17 years, no worry about vaccine safety, confidence for vaccine effectiveness, and supporting opinion from parents were independently associated with acceptance of the third dose (p < 0.05).
It is necessary for governments and school administrators to raise adolescents’ and parents’ awareness of the benefits and safety of the third dose of vaccination, which should be effective to increase the vaccination coverage among adolescents.
Accurate ice flow velocity data are essential for studying the mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet. However, there is a lack of ice velocity maps of 1960s–80s in basin-wide regions or the entire ice sheet. In this study, an enhanced hierarchical network densification approach is developed for basin-wide Antarctic velocity mapping using historical ARGON and Landsat images. The produced multiple historical velocity maps from 1963 to 1989 in the region of the Fimbul and Jelbart ice shelves, East Antarctica, achieved an accuracy better than 29 m a−1. They revealed that the ice flow velocity had no significant changes over the period. Combining the surface mass balance estimate with the ice discharge estimated from our historical velocity maps and recently published velocity maps, we estimated a positive mass balance of 8.6 ± 3.9 Gt a−1 in the study area from 1963 and 2015. Our results indicate that the region's positive mass balance, as estimated in recently published studies, has been maintained since the 1960s. It is also in concordance with the low level of mass balance from 1992 to 2017 in East Antarctica. This suggests that the study area has been stable since the 1960s.
The safety and reliability of robots are very important for the inspection in a long-distance pipeline used for the oil and gas transportation. In this paper, the long-distance pipeline pig and robots (LDPPRs) are classified into two categories, which are velocity-uncontrollable type and velocity-controllable type. Among them, the velocity control of velocity-controllable LDPPR has three ways, which are friction resistance, driving force, and self-running. Meanwhile, the mechanical models of the motion of the LDPPRs are classified into the dynamic model of the velocity-uncontrollable LDPPRs, velocity-controllable LDPPRs, and vibration, and the contact mechanics model between the rubber barrel and the pipe wall. In addition, the anti-stuck technologies, the inspection technologies, and the location technologies are investigated and analyzed. Thus, the purpose of this review is to provide a concise reference for the development and research directions, as well as the design of the LDPPRs.
The epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) has become a major concern in global TB control. This study aimed to investigate the patterns and trend of DR-TB epidemic between different time periods in Chongqing.
A total of 985 and 835 culture positive TB patients with drug susceptibility testing (DST) results admitted to the hospital in 2016 and 2019, respectively, were included. Chi-square testing was used to compare the prevalence and trends of DR-TB in 2016 and 2019.
The proportion of previously treated TB cases with culture positivity was 45.7% in 2019, significantly higher than that in 2016 (39.1%, P = 0.004). The overall rate of drug resistance in 2019 was 43.1%, higher than that in 2016 (40.2%). The rates of multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) and pre-extensively drug resistant TB (pre-XDR-TB) increased significantly from 2016 to 2019 among all TB cases (MDR: 25% vs 33.4%, P < 0.001 and pre-XDR: 7.1% vs 12.8%, P < 0.001, respectively) and previously treated TB cases (MDR: 46.5% vs 56%, P = 0.008 and pre-XDR: 13.2% vs 21.5%, P = 0.003, respectively).
Our findings indicated that the prevalence of DR-TB remains high in Chongqing. The trend of resistance to anti-TB drugs beccame worse between 2016 and 2019. Moreover, acquired MDR may play a major role in MDR-TB epidemic in Chongqing. Therefore, rapid diagnosis and effective treatment of TB patients will be important to reduce the burden of DR-TB in Chongqing.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Biliary atresia (BA) is a progressive congenital disease that is characterized by periductular inflammation and fibrosis that leads to bile duct destruction and cholestasis in neonates. Galectin-3 (Gal3) plays a key role in inflammation and fibrosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma Gal3 levels in early and late BA. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Samples from our institutional Pediatric Liver Biobank were used for this study. Patients were categorized as early BA (at diagnosis), late BA (at liver transplant), early other cholestatic liver disease (CLD), late other CLD, or controls without cholestasis or structural liver disease. Plasma Gal3 levels were measured by standard ELISA. Inflammatory cytokines were measured in a subset of samples using MSD Proinflammatory Panel 1 multiplex ELISA. Liver fibrosis was categorized as none (Ishak or METAVIR 0), mild (Ishak 1-2 or METAVIR 1), moderate (Ishak 3-4 or METAVIR 2-3), and severe (Ishak 5-6 or METAVIR 4) based on histology. Data are presented as median (IQR) and compared using Kruskal-Wallis test. Spearmans correlation was used to assess the relationship between Gal3 and clinical and inflammatory markers. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Samples from 10 controls, 26 early BA, 24 late BA, 13 early other CLD, and 8 late other CLD patients were used for this study. Gal3 levels in late BA (20.8 [12.4-30.5] ng/mL) and late other CLD (21.8 [16.9 – 27.2] ng/mL) were significantly higher than in controls (10.2 [7.6 – 14.5] ng/mL, p < 0.02) and early BA (11.3 [8.7 – 16.8] ng/mL, p < 0.01), but not significantly different from early other CLD (15.7 [11.9 – 21.4] ng/mL, p > 0.05). Gal3 positively correlated with fibrosis score (rho 0.3, p = 0.01), total bilirubin (rho 0.3, p = 0.002), ALT (rho 0.3, p = 0.01), AST (rho 0.3, p = 0.005), and APRI score (rho 0.3, p = 0.009), and negatively correlated with albumin (rho -0.3, p = 0.01). Out of the 10 cytokine proinflammatory panel, Gal3 was significantly correlated with IL-6 (rho 0.3, p = 0.006). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Gal3 is elevated in late BA and other CLD at time of transplant and correlated with degree of fibrosis, suggesting it may play a role in disease progression to cirrhosis. If targeted in the early disease stage, blocking Gal3 in pediatric cholestatic liver diseases may help delay the progression to cirrhosis and need for transplant.
A new enantiornithine, Musivavis amabilis n. gen. n. sp., is reported from the Lower Cretaceous Jehol Biota in western Liaoning, China. The new taxon is similar to the bohaiornithids in the robust subconical teeth, bluntly expanded omal ends of the furcula, caudolaterally oriented lateral trabeculae with triangular distal ends of the sternum, and a robust second pedal digit. Yet it differs from members of Bohaiornithidae in several features recalling other enantiornithine lineages, such as the acuminate rostral ramus of maxilla, the shape of the coracoid lateral margin, the presence of craniolateral processes on the sternum, the proportions of the manual phalanges, and the unspecialized third pedal ungual phalanx. A comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of Mesozoic birds shows that homoplasy significantly affects the reconstruction of enantiornithine relationships. When all phylogenetic characters are considered of equal weight, Musivavis is reconstructed in a lineage related to a radiation of large-bodied enantiornithines including Bohaiornithidae and Pengornithidae. Alternative scenarios based on progressive downweighting of the homoplastic characters support more basal placements of the pengornithids among Enantiornithes, but do not alter the affinity of Musivavis as a member of the “bohaiornithid-grade” group.
Mounting evidence showed that insula contributed to the neurobiological mechanism of suicidal behaviors in bipolar disorder (BD). However, no studies have analyzed the dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) of insular Mubregions and its association with personality traits in BD with suicidal behaviors. Therefore, we investigated the alterations of dFC variability in insular subregions and personality characteristics in BD patients with a recent suicide attempt (SA).
Thirty unmedicated BD patients with SA, 38 patients without SA (NSA) and 35 demographically matched healthy controls (HCs) were included. The sliding-window analysis was used to evaluate whole-brain dFC for each insular subregion seed. We assessed between-group differences of psychological characteristics on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2. Finally, a multivariate regression model was adopted to predict the severity of suicidality.
Compared to NSA and HCs, the SA group exhibited decreased dFC variability values between the left dorsal anterior insula and the left anterior cerebellum. These dFC variability values could also be utilized to predict the severity of suicidality (r = 0.456, p = 0.031), while static functional connectivity values were not appropriate for this prediction. Besides, the SA group scored significantly higher on the schizophrenia clinical scales (p < 0.001) compared with the NSA group.
Our findings indicated that the dysfunction of insula–cerebellum connectivity may underlie the neural basis of SA in BD patients, and highlighted the dFC variability values could be considered a neuromarker for predictive models of the severity of suicidality. Moreover, the psychiatric features may increase the vulnerability of suicidal behavior.
While the detrimental effect of interparental conflict on adolescent depression is well-established, the underlying mechanisms linking the two continue to be inadequately understood. This study investigated the mediating role of family functioning and the moderating role of cultural beliefs about adversity in the association between interparental conflict and adolescent depression. The samples included 651 Chinese adolescents (mean age at Time 1 = 13.27 years; 56.5% girls) from a two-wave longitudinal study with data spanning 1 year. The findings from path modeling analyses provided evidence for the mediating role of family functioning; these findings indicated that interparental conflict can damage family functioning, which in turn exacerbates the risk of adolescent depression. The moderating role of cultural beliefs about adversity was also demonstrated by interactions between interparental conflict and cultural beliefs about adversity, as well as, family functioning and cultural beliefs about adversity. The results indicated a buffering role of cultural beliefs about adversity on the deleterious effect of interparental conflict on adolescent depression. They also suggested that lower levels of family functioning was associated with increased depression among adolescents were lower in cultural beliefs about adversity.
Although, biological evidence suggests that tea consumption may protect against non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), epidemiologic evidence has been unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the association between tea-drinking habits and the risk of NHL in a large nationwide prospective cohort of postmenopausal US women. 68,854 women who were enrolled from 1993 through 1998 in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS) and responded to year 3 annual follow-up questionnaire comprised the analytic cohort. Newly diagnosed NHL cases after the year 3 visit were confirmed by medical and pathology reports. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were performed to assess the associations of tea-drinking habits (specifically, the amounts of caffeinated/herbal/decaffeinated tea intake) with the overall risk of NHL and 3 major subtypes (Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, DLBCL, (n=195, 0.3%), follicular lymphoma, FL, (n=128, 0.2%), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma, CLL/SLL, (n=51, 0.1%)). Among 62,622 participants, a total of 663 (1.1%) women developed NHL during a median follow-up of 16.51(SD±6.20) years. Overall, different amounts of type-specific tea intake were not associated with the risk of NHL regardless of its histologic subtypes after adjustment for confounders. Our findings suggest that tea intake at the current consumption level does not influence the risk of NHL, regardless of its histologic types.
We investigated the drug resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients with tuberculosis (TB) and HIV, and those diagnosed with only TB in Sichuan, China. TB isolates were obtained from January 2018 to December 2020 and subjected to drug susceptibility testing (DST) to 11 anti-TB drugs and to GeneXpert MTB/RIF testing. The overall proportion of drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) isolates was 32.1% (n = 10 946). HIV testing was not universally available for outpatient TB cases, only 29.5% (3227/10 946) cases had HIV testing results. The observed proportion of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) isolates was almost double than that of the national level, with approximately 1.5% and 0.1% of the isolates being extensively drug resistant and universally drug resistant, respectively. The proportions of resistant isolates were generally higher in 2018 and 2019 than in 2020. Furthermore, the sensitivities of GeneXpert during 2018–2020 demonstrated a downward trend (80.9, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 76.8–85.0; 80.2, 95% CI 76.4–84.1 and 75.4, 95% CI 70.7–80.2, respectively). Approximately 69.0% (7557/10 946) of the TB cases with DST results were subjected to GeneXpert detection. Overall, the DR-TB status and the use of GeneXpert in Sichuan have improved, but DR-TB challenges remain. HIV testing for all TB cases is recommended.
This research aims to investigate the salience of mothers’ emotional expressivity and its links with adolescents’ emotional wellbeing and expressivity in an urban society endorsing more individualism and a rural society ascribing to more collectivism. By comparing Chinese urban (N = 283, Mage = 14.13) and rural (N = 247, Mage = 14.09) adolescents, this research found that urban mothers’ expression of positive-dominant and positive-submissive emotions (PD and PS) were more common while expression of negative-dominant (ND) emotions was less common than rural mothers’. PD and PS had significant links with urban and rural adolescents’ increased emotional expressivity and self-esteem, however, only significantly related to urban adolescents’ decreased depression but not with rural adolescents’. ND had significant links with both urban and rural adolescents’ expression of negative emotions, however, only significantly correlated with urban adolescents’ less level of self-esteem and rural adolescents’ more expression of positive emotions. No significant difference was found in the salience of urban and rural mothers’ expression of negative-submissive (NS) emotions, which positively related to both urban and rural adolescents’ depression and emotional expressivity. Moreover, we found that adolescents’ emotional wellbeing (i.e., self-esteem and depression) mediated the relationship between mothers’ emotional expressivity and adolescents’ expressivity in both societies. Overall, the study findings document that the salience of mothers’ emotional expressivity and its relations with adolescents’ emotional adjustment differ between urban and rural societies.
Scattering kernel models for gas–solid interaction are crucial for rarefied gas flows and microscale flows. However, most existing models depend on certain accommodation coefficients (ACs). We propose here to construct a data-based model using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and machine learning. The gas–solid interaction is first modelled by 100 000 MD simulations of a single gas molecule reflecting on the wall surface, which is fulfilled by GPU parallel technology. The results showed a correlation of the reflection velocity with the incidence velocity in the same direction, and also revealed correlations that may exist in different directions, which are neglected by the traditional gas–solid interaction model. Inspired by the sophisticated Cercignani–Lampis–Lord (CLL) model, two improved scattering kernels were constructed to better reproduce the probability density of velocity determined from MD simulation. The first one adopts variable ACs which depend on the incidence velocity and the second one combines three CLL-like kernels. All the parameters in the improved kernels are automatically chosen by the machine learning method. Compared with the numerical experiments of a molecular beam, the reconstructed scattering kernels are basically consistent with the MD results.
Understanding factors associated with post-discharge sleep quality among COVID-19 survivors is important for intervention development.
This study investigated sleep quality and its correlates among COVID-19 patients 6 months after their most recent hospital discharge.
Healthcare providers at hospitals located in five different Chinese cities contacted adult COVID-19 patients discharged between 1 February and 30 March 2020. A total of 199 eligible patients provided verbal informed consent and completed the interview. Using score on the single-item Sleep Quality Scale as the dependent variable, multiple linear regression models were fitted.
Among all participants, 10.1% reported terrible or poor sleep quality, and 26.6% reported fair sleep quality, 26.1% reported worse sleep quality when comparing their current status with the time before COVID-19, and 33.7% were bothered by a sleeping disorder in the past 2 weeks. After adjusting for significant background characteristics, factors associated with sleep quality included witnessing the suffering (adjusted B = −1.15, 95% CI = −1.70, −0.33) or death (adjusted B = −1.55, 95% CI = −2.62, −0.49) of other COVID-19 patients during hospital stay, depressive symptoms (adjusted B = −0.26, 95% CI = −0.31, −0.20), anxiety symptoms (adjusted B = −0.25, 95% CI = −0.33, −0.17), post-traumatic stress disorders (adjusted B = −0.16, 95% CI = −0.22, −0.10) and social support (adjusted B = 0.07, 95% CI = 0.04, 0.10).
COVID-19 survivors reported poor sleep quality. Interventions and support services to improve sleep quality should be provided to COVID-19 survivors during their hospital stay and after hospital discharge.