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To identify central-line (CL)–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) incidence and risk factors in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).
From July 1, 1998, to February 12, 2022, we conducted a multinational multicenter prospective cohort study using online standardized surveillance system and unified forms.
The study included 728 ICUs of 286 hospitals in 147 cities in 41 African, Asian, Eastern European, Latin American, and Middle Eastern countries.
In total, 278,241 patients followed during 1,815,043 patient days acquired 3,537 CLABSIs.
For the CLABSI rate, we used CL days as the denominator and the number of CLABSIs as the numerator. Using multiple logistic regression, outcomes are shown as adjusted odds ratios (aORs).
The pooled CLABSI rate was 4.82 CLABSIs per 1,000 CL days, which is significantly higher than that reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC NHSN). We analyzed 11 variables, and the following variables were independently and significantly associated with CLABSI: length of stay (LOS), risk increasing 3% daily (aOR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.03–1.04; P < .0001), number of CL days, risk increasing 4% per CL day (aOR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.03–1.04; P < .0001), surgical hospitalization (aOR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.03–1.21; P < .0001), tracheostomy use (aOR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.23–1.88; P < .0001), hospitalization at a publicly owned facility (aOR, 3.04; 95% CI, 2.31–4.01; P <.0001) or at a teaching hospital (aOR, 2.91; 95% CI, 2.22–3.83; P < .0001), hospitalization in a middle-income country (aOR, 2.41; 95% CI, 2.09–2.77; P < .0001). The ICU type with highest risk was adult oncology (aOR, 4.35; 95% CI, 3.11–6.09; P < .0001), followed by pediatric oncology (aOR, 2.51;95% CI, 1.57–3.99; P < .0001), and pediatric (aOR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.81–3.01; P < .0001). The CL type with the highest risk was internal-jugular (aOR, 3.01; 95% CI, 2.71–3.33; P < .0001), followed by femoral (aOR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.96–2.68; P < .0001). Peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) was the CL with the lowest CLABSI risk (aOR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.02–2.18; P = .04).
The following CLABSI risk factors are unlikely to change: country income level, facility ownership, hospitalization type, and ICU type. These findings suggest a focus on reducing LOS, CL days, and tracheostomy; using PICC instead of internal-jugular or femoral CL; and implementing evidence-based CLABSI prevention recommendations.
Rates of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) are several times above those of high-income countries. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors (RFs) for VAP cases in ICUs of LMICs.
Prospective cohort study.
This study was conducted across 743 ICUs of 282 hospitals in 144 cities in 42 Asian, African, European, Latin American, and Middle Eastern countries.
The study included patients admitted to ICUs across 24 years.
In total, 289,643 patients were followed during 1,951,405 patient days and acquired 8,236 VAPs. We analyzed 10 independent variables. Multiple logistic regression identified the following independent VAP RFs: male sex (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16–1.28; P < .0001); longer length of stay (LOS), which increased the risk 7% per day (aOR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.07–1.08; P < .0001); mechanical ventilation (MV) utilization ratio (aOR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.23–1.31; P < .0001); continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), which was associated with the highest risk (aOR, 13.38; 95% CI, 11.57–15.48; P < .0001); tracheostomy connected to a MV, which was associated with the next-highest risk (aOR, 8.31; 95% CI, 7.21–9.58; P < .0001); endotracheal tube connected to a MV (aOR, 6.76; 95% CI, 6.34–7.21; P < .0001); surgical hospitalization (aOR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.17–1.29; P < .0001); admission to a public hospital (aOR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.35-1.86; P < .0001); middle-income country (aOR, 1.22; 95% CI, 15–1.29; P < .0001); admission to an adult-oncology ICU, which was associated with the highest risk (aOR, 4.05; 95% CI, 3.22–5.09; P < .0001), admission to a neurologic ICU, which was associated with the next-highest risk (aOR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.78–3.45; P < .0001); and admission to a respiratory ICU (aOR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.79–3.07; P < .0001). Admission to a coronary ICU showed the lowest risk (aOR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.51–0.77; P < .0001).
Some identified VAP RFs are unlikely to change: sex, hospitalization type, ICU type, facility ownership, and country income level. Based on our results, we recommend focusing on strategies to reduce LOS, to reduce the MV utilization ratio, to limit CPAP use and implementing a set of evidence-based VAP prevention recommendations.
Short-term peripheral venous catheter–related bloodstream infection (PVCR-BSI) rates have not been systematically studied in resource-limited countries, and data on their incidence by number of device days are not available.
Prospective, surveillance study on PVCR-BSI conducted from September 1, 2013, to May 31, 2019, in 727 intensive care units (ICUs), by members of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC), from 268 hospitals in 141 cities of 42 countries of Africa, the Americas, Eastern Mediterranean, Europe, South East Asia, and Western Pacific regions. For this research, we applied definition and criteria of the CDC NHSN, methodology of the INICC, and software named INICC Surveillance Online System.
We followed 149,609 ICU patients for 731,135 bed days and 743,508 short-term peripheral venous catheter (PVC) days. We identified 1,789 PVCR-BSIs for an overall rate of 2.41 per 1,000 PVC days. Mortality in patients with PVC but without PVCR-BSI was 6.67%, and mortality was 18% in patients with PVC and PVCR-BSI. The length of stay of patients with PVC but without PVCR-BSI was 4.83 days, and the length of stay was 9.85 days in patients with PVC and PVCR-BSI. Among these infections, the microorganism profile showed 58% gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli (16%), Klebsiella spp (11%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6%), Enterobacter spp (4%), and others (20%) including Serratia marcescens. Staphylococcus aureus were the predominant gram-positive bacteria (12%).
PVCR-BSI rates in INICC ICUs were much higher than rates published from industrialized countries. Infection prevention programs must be implemented to reduce the incidence of PVCR-BSIs in resource-limited countries.
Eighty-two hospitals of 66 cities in 30 countries (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Greece, India, Kosovo, Lebanon, Lithuania, Macedonia, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Salvador, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, Slovakia, Sudan, Thailand, Turkey, Uruguay, and Vietnam) from 4 continents (America, Asia, Africa, and Europe).
Patients undergoing surgical procedures (SPs) from January 2005 to December 2010.
Data were gathered and recorded from patients hospitalized in INICC member hospitals by using the methods and definitions of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC-NHSN) for SSI. SPs were classified into 31 types according to International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, criteria.
We gathered data from 7,523 SSIs associated with 260,973 SPs. SSI rates were significantly higher for most SPs in INICC hospitals compared with CDC-NHSN data, including the rates of SSI after hip prosthesis (2.6% vs 1.3%; relative risk [RR], 2.06 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.8–2.4]; P<.001), coronary bypass with chest and donor incision (4.5% vs 2.9%; RR, 1.52 [95% CI, 1.4–1.6]; P<.001); abdominal hysterectomy (2.7% vs 1.6%; RR, 1.66 [95% CI, 1.4–2.0]; P<.001); exploratory abdominal surgery (4.1 % vs 2.0%; RR, 2.05 [95% CI, 1.6–2.6]; P<.001); ventricular shunt, 12.9% vs 5.6% (RR, 2.3 [95% CI, 1.9–2.6]; P<.001), and others.
SSI rates were higher for most SPs in INICC hospitals compared with CDC-NHSN data.